Most Important Questions Of Geography Class 12 pdf Download

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Important Questions Of Geography Class 12

ChapterImportant Model Question Paper
BoardCBSE and all Other boards
Medium Nope
Study MaterialsCBSE & All Other boards

Class 12 Geography Important Mcq

Most Important Questions Of Geography Class 12 pdf Download

Q. 1. Who wrote the book Anthropogeography?

(a) Miss Ellen Semple

(b) Ratzel

(c) Vidal de la Blache

(d) Darwin


Q. 2. The concept of human development is the contribution of which of the following scholars?

(a) Prof. Amartya Sen (Prof. Amartya Sen)

(b) Ellen C. Semple

(c) Dr. Mahabub-ul-Haq

(d) Ratzel


Q. 3. Which is the most populous continent in the world?

(a) South America

(b) North America

(c) Asia

(d) Africa


Q. 4. Which state is the largest producer of wheat in India?

(a) West Bengal

(b) Andhra Pradesh

(c) Uttar Pradesh

(d) Madhya Pradesh


Q. 5. Which of the following is the longest national highway in India?

(a) National Highway-1

(c) National Highway-7

(b) National Highway-3

(d) National Highway-8 


Q. 6. Manchester is famous for which industry?

(a) Cotton textile industry

(b) Woolen Textile Industry

(c) Iron and Steel

(d) Paper


Q. 7. Trade between two countries is called as-

(a) Internal Trade

(b) External Trade

(c) International Trade

(d) Local Trade 


8. Which of the following is a non-renewable source of energy?

(a) Hydel 

(b) Solar

(c) Thermal

(d) Wind


Q. 9. The ‘Big Inch’ pipeline transports

(a) Milk

(b) Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)

(c) Water

(d) Petroleum 


Q. 10. Which of the following is a tertiary activity?

(a) Farming

(b) Trading

(c) Weaving

(d) Hunting


Important Questions For Class 12 Geography

Q. 11. What is called ‘sex ratio’? (Define the term ‘Sex Ratio’.) 

Ans. The number of women per thousand men is called the sex ratio. The following formula was used to calculate the sex ratio in India.

Q. 12. What do you understand by the rural settlement? (What do you mean by Rural Settlement?)

Ans. Rural Settlement: A settlement whose residents are mostly engaged in primary activities is called a rural settlement. The main occupation of the residents here is more land-related activities like agriculture, animal husbandry, and fish farming.

Q. 13. What is meant by literacy rate? (What is meant by Literacy Rate?)

Ans. Literacy rate: Literacy rate refers to the percentage of people aged 15 years and above who are literate in their daily life.

Be able to write and read simple statements as per your understanding.

Q. 14 Explain the difference between growth and development. (Distinguish between growth and development.) 

Ans. Growth – Growth is quantitative and based on neutral or normal values. Its sign may be negative.

Development – Development means qualitative change whose value is always positive, that is, development occurs when no additional value is added to the current situation. Development occurs when there is positive growth. 

Yet positive growth does not always lead to development. Development occurs when there is a positive change in quality.

Q. 15. What are the benefits of road transport? (What are the advantages of Road Transport?)

Ans. Following are the advantages of road transport-

(i) Construction of road is easy.

(ii) It can be made even in rugged areas. 

(iii) Construction of roads is less expensive.

(iv) By road transport, goods can be transported from the producer’s doorstep to the consumer’s doorstep. 

(v) Road transport does not have to load and unload goods again and again.

(vi) Road transport is especially beneficial for short distances.

(vii) It is convenient to transport perishable items. 

(viii) Maintenance of roads is also easy. 

Q. 16. What is tourism?

Ans. Tourism is the stay of people at a place other than their original places of residence and workplace for a short time and engaged in various activities like entertainment etc. This includes journeys undertaken for all purposes. In the present time, tourism is necessary to increase income employment opportunities and standard of living.

Q. 17. What do you understand by literacy?

Ans. knowledge of alphabets in common spoken language

Acquiring and becoming literate from the point of view of education is called literacy. Literacy is the parameter of socio-economic development of a state. This shows the quality of the population. There are different definitions of literacy in different countries. According to the United Nations, a person above 15 years of age is called literate. Who can read and write normally. 

Q. 18. Define human geography according to Ratzel.

Ans. According to Ratzel, human geography is a synthetic study of human relationships. 

 Q. 19. What is migration?

Ans. A group of migrants having one origin and destination is called migration. When a person leaves his country it is called emigration and when a person enters another country it is called immigration. When this action takes place in a collective form, it is called migration flow.

Q. 20. What is called primary activity?

Ans. primary activity-primary activity These include those activities in which humans fulfil their needs by directly using natural resources. They are directly related to the natural environment. Food collection from forests, hunting, animal husbandry, fishing and agricultural work in fertile lands.

Class 12 Geography Important Question Paper With Answers

Q.21. Describe the major problems of agriculture in India. (Discuss the main problems of Agriculture in India.)

Ans. A lot of efforts are being made for the development of agriculture in India, but the productivity of our agriculture is still low compared to the developed countries of the world. Many factors are responsible for this-

(1) Environmental factors: The serious problem of Indian agriculture is the uncertain nature of monsoon. The temperature remains warm throughout the year. The amount and seasonal and regional distribution of rainfall is highly variable in most parts of the country. This situation has a great impact on the development of agriculture. Most parts of the country are dry and arid. Droughts often occur in these areas. The productivity of these regions can be increased through the development of irrigation facilities and rainwater harvesting.

(ii) Economic factors: Investment in agriculture like high-yielding seeds, fertilizers etc. and transportation facilities are economic factors. Due to a lack of marketing facilities or not getting a loan at reasonable interest, the farmer is not able to gather the necessary resources for the development of agriculture. 

(iii) Institutional factors: Due to population growth, land holdings are being subdivided and dispersed. In 1961-62, 52% of the total land holdings were marginal in size and small. Deregulation of land holdings is the main reason for modernization of agriculture. The land ownership system is not conducive to large-scale investment, as the tenure of tenure remains uncertain. 

(iv) Technological factors – The methods of agriculture are old and inefficient. Mechanization is very limited. The use of fertilizers and high-yielding seeds is also limited. Irrigation facilities can be provided only for one-third of the cropped area. Its distribution does not correspond to the scarcity and variability of rainfall. Due to these conditions agricultural productivity is at low level.

Q. 22. Describe the favorable conditions for cotton production. (Write favourable conditions for the production of cotton.) 

Ans. Do it yourself

Q. 23. Name any four geographical factors affecting the distribution of population. (Name any four geographical

factors that influence the distribution of population.) 

Ans. Do it yourself 

Q. 24. Describe the different patterns of rural settlements. (Describe the various patterns of rural settlements.) 

Ans. Do it yourself

Q.25. Mention any five characteristics of Rapan agriculture. (Mention any five characteristics of plantation agriculture.)

Ans. The main feature of plantation agriculture is that the size of the agricultural area is very wide. In this, more capital investment, higher management and technical base and scientific methods are used. Labor is available cheaply and transportation develops, through which gardens and markets remain smoothly connected.

This is a special type of commercial agriculture. In this, anyone cash crop is cultivated on a large scale. This agriculture is done on large-sized fields or gardens, hence it is also called plantation agriculture. The main crops of plantation agriculture are rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, sugarcane, coconut, banana etc.


(1) This agriculture is done on large-sized farms.

(ii) Most of it is exported. (iii) Scientific methods, machines, fertilizers and more capital are used in this agriculture.

(iv) A large number of skilled labourers work in these gardens. These workers are local. In some states, slave labor or Negro people also work. Tamil people of India work on tea plantations in Sri Lanka and rubber plantations in Malaysia.

(v) Plantation agriculture plantations are planted in sparsely populated areas due to the availability of more land.

Major crops: Commercial cultivation of a single crop in sparsely populated areas of the tropics is called plantation agriculture. The main crops of plantation agriculture are-

1. Rubber (in Malaysia and Indonesia),

2. Cocoa (in West Africa),

3. Cahava (in Brazil),

4. Tea (in India and Sri Lanka),

5. Sugarcane (in Ayuba and Jaya).

Or explain the difference between the cottage industry and small industry. (Distinguish between cotton industries and small scale industries.)

Ans. Cottage Industries-

(i) Cottage industries are run by family members based on efficiency. This skill is a family property.

(ii) The needs of the family are met by their products. Surplus products are sold in local markets.

(iii) Local raw material is used in these.

(iv) In these, production takes place on a small scale.

(v) In these, production is done with the help of ordinary tools and equipment, but now some improved and efficient equipment has started being used. 

(vi) These industries are sources of income for farmers. The farmer does these in his spare time from agricultural work. 

(vii) These industries are established at home only and are not affected by energy and transportation problems.

(viii) Cottage industries are considered the cornerstone of today’s industrialization. 

(ix) Rope making, basket making, wool spinning, mat making etc. Examples of cottage industries

Small Scale Industries- 

(small-scale industries are run with the help of workers.

(ii) Their products are sold in the markets through traders.

(iii) In these, if local raw material is not available, it is brought from far away.

(iv) Production in these is of medium level.

(v) In these, production is done with small powered machines.

(vi) These industries are run by small industrialists. 

(vii) These industries are established outside the home which is affected by energy constraints and transportation constraints.

(viii) Small-scale industry is an extended form of cottage industry.

(ix) Making clothes, paper goods, pottery, toys, electrical and electronic goods etc. are examples of small-scale industries.

Class 12 Geography Important Question Paper With Answers

Q. 26. Briefly describe the world’s iron, steel or cotton processing industry. (Write a brief account of the Iron and Steel industry and the r Cotton Textile industry in the world.) 

Ans. Do it yourself

Q27. Describe the nature of water pollution in India. (Describe the nature of water pollution in India.) 

Ans. Water pollution in India occurs through pollutants derived from natural sources, industries, modern agriculture and cultural activities. Industry is the most important support of these activities.

In the production process, industries generate many unwanted products which include industrial waste, polluted wastewater, poisonous gases, chemical residues, many heavy metals, pools, ponds etc. Most of the industrial waste is discharged into flowing water or lakes etc. 

As a result, toxic chemical elements reach the reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies which destroy the biological systems living in these waters. The most water-polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles and chemicals.

Various types of chemical substances are used in modern agriculture. Such as inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides etc. are pollution-producing components. These chemicals are discharged into rivers, lakes and ponds. 

All these chemicals seep into the ground through water and reach the groundwater. Fertilizers increase the amount of nitrate in metallurgical water. In India, cultural activities like pilgrimage, religious fair tourism etc. are also the cause of water pollution. Almost all sources of surface water in India have been contaminated and are not fit for human use.

Q. 28. How has the Panama Canal contributed to increasing international trade? Explain.

Ans. Location- This canal was constructed by the USA inside the Republic of Panama. carried out by. It was constructed before the First World War, but business through it started in 1914 AD. It was created by cutting the Strait of Panama. 

Its length is 82 km, width is 90 to 305 meters and depth is 12 to 24 meters. Its construction work was started in 1882 by Ferdinand-de-Laceps. About 7.7 crore pounds were spent on its construction. This was a great engineering adventure.

The canal was formed by an artificial and natural creek. It has three locks by which the water level is raised or lowered. A hill (Culbera Hill) which was creating an obstacle in the middle, has also been removed and the bottom of the canal has been made uniform.

The water level is not uniform in the middle of the canal. Therefore the floor is made uniform by the lock system. Three of these types are Gotum Pedro Miguelul and Mira Flore. The double gate system can be used for traffic from both sides of the canal.

Geographic and Trade Importance 

(i) Before the construction of this canal, the ships from the east and west coast of North America had to come through the far south Cape Horn of South America, but by adopting the route of the canal, about 400 km. The distance decreased. This increased trade between the eastern and western parts of North America. 

(ii) During its formation, Australia and New Zealand came closer to North America.

(iii) It also reduced the distance between Japan and the ports of the North Atlantic coast.

(iv) Hereby the U.S.A. And relations between China and Japan increased.

(v) The east coast ports and west coast ports of North and South America came close to each other.

Panama is situated on the Pacific coast of this canal and Collin City is situated on the Atlantic coast. International trade has greatly benefited from the Panama Canal. Although the canal is a boon for North and South America. Due to this, the trade of China, Japan Australia and New Zealand has also increased.

O, write about the environmental problems arising due to urbanization in India. (Write about the environmental problems arising out of urbanization in India.) 

Ans. Do it yourself

Q. 29. Show the following on the map of the world provided.

(a) Australia, (b) Greenland, (c) Japan, (d) Chile, (e) Arabian Sea


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