NCERT Solution for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 2 – Principles of Management

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NCERT Solution for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 2 – Principles of Management, class 12 bst ch 2, class 12 business studies chapter 2 pdf


NCERT Solution for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 2


Class12th 
Chapter No02
ProvidingNcert solutions
Chapter NamePRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectBusiness studies
Medium English
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available
Download PDFClass 12 Business Studies Chapter 2 Notes pdf

Main points of the lesson


The principle of management means that basic eternal truth which guides any thought or effort and reveals its cause-effect relationships. The basic rules that are used to successfully carry out managerial activities (i.e. planning, organization, direction and control) are called ‘Principles of Management’.

Business Environment

In fact, principles of management are indispensable tools for management on the basis of which it successfully conducts managerial activities and achieves the set goals.

Principles of management are very important for managers. For them, these principles act as guidance – or ‘lamp posts’. On the basis of these they try to perform their managerial tasks. They have immense importance in the life of managers. In fact, management principles are an indispensable tool for a manager.

Management expert Henry Fayol was born in 1841 AD at a place called Constantinople in France. Henry Fayol has propounded 14 principles of management in his book ‘General Principles of Management’. F. W. He was the first person like Taylor who proved the point of systematic study and application of management. That is why he is called the ‘Father of Scientific Management’.

Taylor developed scientific techniques in management. Scientific management is a method and organized system of collective efforts which is based on scientific investigation, analysis and experiments and which benefits all parties.


VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. What do you understand by the principle of management? 

Ans. Managerial activities i.e. functions of planning, organization, direction and controlThe basic rules that are used to accomplish this successfully are called principles of management. These are called basic truths. Managed through these principles.

Q. 2. Herbert G. Write the definition of the principle of management given by Hicks.Work efficiency and working capacity increases.

Ans. Herbert G. Hicks, while defining the principles of management, has said that principles of management are guiding rules or laws for managerial activities which are created mainly to provide a good understanding of business conditions and to improve organizational work efficiency. In

Q, 3. Define the theory of management given by Koontz and O’Donnell.

Ans. Krantz and O’Donnell have defined the theory of management as follows. The principles of management are the basic truths of general belief which have the utility of predicting the results of managerial actions.

Q.4. What is called step series? 

Ans. There is a hierarchical chain of rights and responsibilities from top officials to lower level officials which is called hierarchy. For sweet relationships and work, one should follow the prescribed path. The path to placing or receiving an order should be clear and short.

Q.5. What does ‘unity of command’ mean? 

Ans. Unity of Command: One of the principles of management propounded by Henry Fayol is ‘Unity of Command’. Unity of command means that employees should receive orders from a single superior officer and should be accountable to a single officer. On receiving orders from different higher officials, the employee will get confused and possibilities of doubt and dispute will arise.

Q.6. What is the meaning of scientific management?

Ans. W. F. According to Taylor, “The art of knowing what you want people to do and seeing that they work in the most appropriate and efficient manner is called scientific management.”

Q.7. What is the meaning of mental revolution in scientific management?

Ans. F. W. Taylor has emphasized on mental revolution to correct the relations between labor and capital. Scientific management is concerned with increasing the productivity of workers and reducing time monotony. This is possible only when employees believe that they should work overtime and do not waste time during work.

Q.8. Mention two benefits of scientific management to workers and producers. 

Ans. Benefits to workers-

1. Development of labor skills and

2. Development of working capacity.

Benefits to producers-

1. The possibility of improving the quality of goods increases and 2. CostThere is a decrease.

Q.9. What are the objectives of time and motion study?

Ans. Keeping records of the time taken to perform any production activity and itsIs called study.Motion study is the science by which unnecessary directed and inefficient motionTimeThe resulting damage can be prevented. In this, the damage caused by a machine or a worker while performing any action.Movements have to be studied.

Q, 10. Why is fatigue study necessary?

Ans. There is a close relationship between the efficiency of the mill and the worker. scientific managementTaylor, the father of IT, after studying each activity minutely, found out that continuous work makes the worker tired and his efficiency falls in the remaining time. In this, it is noted that when and how the worker experiences fatigue, how much rest he needs at what appropriate time, so that he can overcome his fatigue.

Q. 11. Tell two objectives of scientific management.

Ans. There are two objectives of scientific management –

(a) It helps in creating good relations between labor and capital.

(b) To produce maximum production at minimum cost.

Q. 12. What is the benefit of scientific management to the nation?

Ans. Scientific management has the following benefits for the nation:

1. Increase in national income,

2. Increase in social status,

3. Higher standard of living

4. Increase in industrial peace.

Q. 13. What is the meaning of work related estimation? 

Ans. Through scientific management, it is found out how much work a good and first class worker should do under ideal conditions, is called work related estimation. Experiments should be conducted with caution to determine the scale of work.

Q. 14. How many experiments did Taylor do to estimate work?

Ans. To estimate work, Taylor conducted the following three experiments-

1. Time Study,

2. Fatigue Study and

3. Motion Study.

Q. 15. Write the names of 14 principles of management propounded by Henry Fayol. 

Ans. The names of 14 principles of management propounded by Henry Fayol are as follows-

1. Principle of discipline,

2. Division of work,

3. Unity of command,

4. Officer contact chain or hierarchical chain, 5. Stability of tenure of employees,

6. Unity of instruction,

7. Principle of initiative,

8. Rights and Responsibilities,

9. Rewards to employees,

10. Centralization,

11. Neglect of common interests rather than individual interests,

12. Principle of arrangement,

13. Parityprinciple of and

14. Principle of spirit of cooperation.

Q. 16. How is the principle of management formulated?

Ans. Formation of Principles of Manage-ment) Principles can be formulated in two ways-

(i) By observation: By observation method, the principles of management are propounded on the basis of observation and analysis of those events which occur in the practical life of managers.

(ii) A theory is propounded by convention only when its truth or utility is established by experiment.

Q, 17. Explain the importance of principles of management.

Ans. Although the principles of management are not as firm as those of physics, yet they have a very important place in the field of management. According to George Terry, “The principles of management are as important for a manager as the Table of Strength is for a civil engineer.”

Q. 18. Name the five principles of management.

Years.

1. Principle of discipline.

2. Principle of unity of command.

3. Principle of unity in instructions.

4. Principle of stability of employees.

5. Principle of division of work.

Q. 19. Define scientific management.

Ans. Taylor says that “Scientific management is the art of knowing what you can do with people.”What do they want to do in India and want to see how they do it in the most beautiful way and at the right expense.”

P.F. According to Drucker, the core work of scientific management is organized study, analysis of work into parts and systematic improvement of each part of work done well by the worker.

Q. 20. What are the five principles of scientific management? 

Ans. Taylor propounded the following five principles of scientific management

1. Science, not thumb rule

2. Unity, not opposition

3. Cooperation not individualism

4. Maximum production instead of restricted production

5. Development of all employees to full efficiency and prosperity

Q.21. What are the reasons for the need of scientific management in the field of management?

Years.

1. Increase in competition in the field of business and industry.

2. Increase in the number of engineers due to large scale production.

3. Increase in the reasoning power of people.

4. Due to increase in labor problems.


short answer questions


Q. 1. According to Henry Fayol, what tasks should a business organization perform?fall? 

Ans. Henry Fayol has divided all business activities into 6 categories which are as follows:The types are-

1. Technical production related.

2. Commercial purchase, sale and exchange.

3. Financial – related to management and optimum use of capital.

4. Security: Security of property and human resources.

5. Taking stock, preparing balance sheet and statistical

6. Managerial— related to planning, organization, command, coordination and control

Q. 2. What is the ‘universal nature’ of Fayol’s management?

Ans. Fayol has propounded some principles of management which are universally accepted and acceptable even today. Any manager or administrator, whether related to any commercial, social,Disregard for Fayol’s principles at high and low levels, whether in religious or government organizations.can’t do it. These universally accepted principles are as follows:

1. Unity of command,

2. Unity of instruction,

3. Segmentation and specialization,

4. Spirit of cooperation,

5. Hierarchical series etc.

The above mentioned principles stand the test of time even today.

Q. 3. What is ‘division of work’ and ‘discipline’? 

Ans. Division of Work: Division of work gives rise to specialization. This increases the efficiency of workers. Through specialization, more and better work is done with equal efforts. Division of work should be used equally in all activities, whether managerial or technical.

Therefore, division of work means dividing each independent task into small parts. Discipline – Discipline is obedience to the orders of higher authorities, faith in the rules and respect for the concerned authorities. No organization can flourish in the absence of discipline.

Q.4. What is called unity of direction?

Ans. Fayol means unity of direction – one unit and one plan. It is related to the unity of the organization. According to this principle, all the activities done by a group to achieve a particular objective should be conducted by a single person. Thus, according to Fayol, the responsibility of implementing a plan should be on only one officer. Thus, through unity of direction, there is uniformity and unity in work as well as coordination of the efforts of the group.

Q.5. What do you understand by ‘unity of command’? 

Ans. This principle is an important principle of management which is related to those who receive orders. The adage ‘One person cannot serve two masters simultaneously’ has been applied to management and for efficiency, employees should receive orders from only one superior. For the successful operation of the organization and efficient execution of work, it is necessary that a particular employee receives orders from a particular officer. Thus a person who receives orders from more than one person is necessarily inefficient, undisciplined, delusional and is unresponsive.

.6. Differentiate between ‘unity of command’ and ‘unity of instruction’. 

unity of commandunity of direction
1. This is a major principle in Fayol’s administrative principles. According to him, every employee should receive orders from only one officer and he will be held accountable to him only for his actions.1. This is also an important principle of Fayol. According to this principle, only one officer should be responsible for implementing each plan. He should direct the entire work. 
2. The principle of unity of command is adopted at all levels of management, lower, middle and higher. 2.The principle of unity of command is adopted at the higher levels of management.

Q.7. Are rights and responsibilities co-extensive? Please clarify.

Ans. According to Fayol, rights and responsibilities are co-extensive. If a person is given any right then the responsibility related to it is also assigned to him.Go and if someone is being entrusted with the responsibility then he is also given the rights related to it. Go. An efficient manager makes proper use of his powers and does not shy away from his responsibilities. In the absence of this principle of the manager himself, no management can work or get the work done.

Q.8. What is the hierarchical principle of command? 

Ans. There should be direct and clear communication between higher level officials and lower level officials. No officer should violate his authority, this helps in getting the work done quickly.

Q.9. Explain the characteristics of the principles of management.

Or, explain the nature of management theory.

Ans. The nature of the principles of management was clarified on the basis of their characteristics.Could. The main features of these principles are as follows:

1. Universality – The principles of management are universal. These principles apply equally in all types of organizations, be it a business organization, an educational institution, a religious institution or a playground.

2. Cause and effect relationship – The principles of management mainly establish the relationship between cause and effect. These principles explain what impact a decision will have on the organization’s activities.

3. Flexibility: The principles of management are not as rigid and fixed as the laws of science. These principles can be easily changed according to the specific institution and time.

4. Equal Importance: All the principles of management have equal importance in some number and all the principles play an equally important role in the development of the organization.

5. Based on Human Relations: Employees play the most important role in every organization. Efforts are made to motivate, coordinate and control human behavior through the principles of management.

Q. 10. What is Taylor’s scientific management? Or, give the definition of scientific management.

Ans. W. F. According to Taylor, “The art of knowing what you want people to do and seeing that they do it in the most appropriate and economical way is called management.”

‘Scientific management’ means that work should be assigned to people according to their aptitude, mental and physical capacity to do any work with specific knowledge and in a systematic manner and before starting the workIf industrial training arrangement is given then this system will be called scientific.

Q. 11. What are the main elements of scientific management?

Ans. The main elements of scientific management are-

1. Work study- Under this

(i) working assumptions,

(ii) Time study,

(iii) speedStudy

(iv) Fatigue study.

2. Scientific selection and training of workers,

3. Scientific work planning,

5. Motivational wage system,

7. Mental revolution,

4. Scientific distribution of work,

6. Standardization and simplification,

8. Labor organization.

Q. 12. What is time study?

Ans. Time study: According to Alford and Beatty, “Scientific analysis of the methods and equipment used in doing any work, developing practical facts of the best way to do that work and determining the time required, Time is called study.” required to carry out any production activity

Checking and recording time is called time study.

Q. 13. What do you understand by fatigue study?

Ans. Fatigue Study: There is a close relationship between fatigue and the work efficiency of the worker. Therefore, after studying each activity minutely, Taylor came to know that the worker gets tired by working continuously and his efficiency decreases in the remaining time. Taylor found out from fatigue study that when and how does a worker get tired and how to remove it? To remove fatigue, there should be proper arrangement for rest from time to time and the work habits should be changed. Like, those who do physical work should be given mental work and those who do mental work should be given physical work.

Q.14. What is motion study? 

Ans. Motion Study – According to Gilbreath, “Motion study is the science by which damage caused by unnecessary directed and inefficient motion can be prevented.” Under motion study, the ability of a machine or a worker to do any work can be prevented. The movements taking place are studied. While performing each task, workers are required to use their hands and legs.Are falling. The more body parts move, the longer it will take. The fatigue will be equally high. Therefore, through scientific study, such a method of work should be adopted which minimizes the movements in the body.

Q. 15. What is Taylor’s work study? 

Ans. Work Study – Work study means an unbiased, systematic and critical study of the elements affecting the performance of each job so that the work efficiency can be increased by removing or improving the shortcomings. According to Taylor, work study is divided into four parts.

(a) Method study, (b) Time study, (c) Speed ​​study, (d) Fatigue study.

Q. 16. What is methodology study?

Ans. A detailed and analytical study of the processes involved in completing a task is called procedure study. For this, a process chart is made in which it is shown through which stages the raw material has to pass until it is converted into the final product. After this, a detailed study is done to see where and to what extent there is a possibility of improvement in the activities to get the maximum possible work done with minimum possible effort, time and wastage. Here the possibilities of eliminating some activities altogether and combining two or more activities are also studied.

Q. 17. What is scientific work planning? 

Ans. Planning is the main basis of scientific management under which the needs of the employees who are engaged in production are met. In industrial units where there is scientific management, there is a planning department, which prepares the outline of work for the next day in advance. For this, there is a cupboard (Pigeonhole Almirah) in the industrial unit, in which one compartment is prescribed for each worker. When a worker comes to work in the morning, he finds two papers kept in his desk, one of which mentions what work he has to do, what tools he will need for it and where to get them. In the second paper, the complete distribution of work done by him on the previous day and the wages earned.It is written in. Which employee will work where, is clearly shown through maps and maps.

Q. 18. What is standardization and simplification?

Ans. Standardization—-It is an important element of scientific management which affects the efficiency of work.Facilities and directions affect the efficiency and productivity of workers. It is necessary to standardize the instruments, tools, methods and materials etc. used in production activities.Is. Standardization is the cornerstone of scientific management and the secret of industrial success. Simplification: The special process of simplifying the work was named simplification.

Is.

Q. 19. What do you understand by mental revolution?

Ans. “Mental revolution is a basic principle of scientific management.” Its meaning is to bring revolutionary changes in the beliefs and thoughts of both the workers and the owners. According to Dr. Taylor, “Scientific management in the true sense means the workers engaged in a particular industry. Complete mental revolution is a complete mental revolution in the sense of responsibility for its work. Along with this, the managers, foremen, superintendents, board of directors and owners

To bring complete mental revolution towards the workers. Scientific management cannot be implemented in the absence of complete mental peace on both sides.”

Q. 20. What are scientific appointments? 

Ans. This main principle of scientific management is related to scientific selection, training of workers, delivery of proper work and motivation. Taylor has said – “There is no place in scientific management for a bird which can sing, but will not sing. Thus, a person who can work, but will not work, has no place in a scientifically managed industry.

For scientific selection and training, special attention should be paid to the following things:

(i) While selecting workers, special attention should be paid to their ability, nature, interest and character.

(ii) There should be arrangements for proper training of workers. Taylor has said that, if a worker cannot do the assigned work, then the worker should be taught to do the work by a qualified teacher.

(iii) Workers should be assigned only the work which they can do.

Q. 21. Tell five benefits of scientific management to friends.

Years.

1. Scientific management increases the efficiency of workers.

2. In scientific management, the salary of workers increases.

3. Workers get free training in scientific management.

4. There is rational distribution of work in scientific management.

5. Workers get mental peace in scientific management.

Q. 22. Tell five benefits to producers from scientific management.

Ans. 1. Scientific management reduces the cost of goods.

2. The quality of goods produced through scientific method starts improving.

3. Scientific management reduces the cost of the product due to which producers get more profit.

4. In scientific management, the producer gets many benefits due to the subtle processes of division of labour. 5. Due to scientific management, there is very little possibility of industrial accidents.

Q. 23. Tell five benefits of scientific management to the nation and society. 

Ans. 1. National income increases due to large scale production.

2. Scientific management establishes complete peace in industries.

3. Consumers start getting better goods at cheaper rates than before. From thisTheir standard of living is high.

4. Due to large scale production of scientific management, the industries established in the country can grow rapidly.Development and expansion takes place.

5. Scientific management increases the income of society. Hence the ability to tax it

There is an increase.

Q.24. Give reasons for criticism of scientific management by owners and managers.

Years.

1. Scientific management is an expensive scheme.

 2. With scientific management, business becomes a laboratory.

3. There is lack of independence in management.

4. Scientific management is useless for small business organizations.

5. A business organization requires more capital.

6. Problem of standardization arises in panic management.

7. Due to the implementation of PRN, the business organization has to face major changes in the structure of its organization.Changes have to be made.

Q. 25. Give five reasons for the criticism of scientific management by others.

Ans. 1. More work load: Under scientific management, workers have to do more work.

2. Monotony: Workers start experiencing monotony by doing the same work for a long time.

3. Unemployment: Increase in per capita production will reduce the demand for workers which will increase unemployment.

4. Destruction of art – Under knowledgeable management, the worker does only a small part of a work due to which he is not able to display his complete art.

5. Exploitation – The wages given to workers are less than the work required.

Q.26. What are the main objectives of scientific management?

Ans. The main objectives of scientific management are as follows–

1. Complete cooperation between labor and capital.

2. To produce maximum production at minimum cost.

3. To contribute to maximum national prosperity.

4. To increase production.

5. To increase human intelligence.

6. To discover facts and principles related to work.

7. To increase the efficiency of workers through standardization.

Q.27. What is administrative restructuring or functional foremanship?

Ans: System of functional organization for administrative reorganization in the field of scientific management.Taylor’s most important contribution. In the traditional management system, only one foreman is appointed in charge of the workers.

Work has to be planned, directed, coordinated and controlled. This was also a difficult responsibility, so Taylor suggested the appointment of special foremen. He gave the special foremanDivided into planning department and production department, each department will have four foremen.

Q. 28. Name the foremen of planning department and production department.Or, name the eight experts who were appointed by Taylor at the factory and planning level.Have been found. 

1. Program Clerk (Route Clerk) What will be the process of production? This Program Clerk,Is decided by.

2. Instruction Card Clerk: Preparing order letter for getting the work done and delivering it to seven employees.

3. Time and Cost Clerk calculates the cost time in all the activities of production.

4. Workshop Disciplinarian: Its job is to settle matters related to discipline and disputes.

Production Department

1. Gang Boss: Its main function is to provide workers, appoint them on machines and also gives orders to start the work.

2. Speed ​​Boss: Maintaining speed and finding out and rectifying the causes of delays.

3. Repair Boss: Maintenance of machines, arrangement for oil cleaning, repair of wear and tear and prevention of misuse of machines.

4. Inspector (Instructor) – Checking the manufactured goods according to the standards and implementing the quality control system.


LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Describe the importance of principles of management.

Ans. The principles of management are important due to the following reasons-

1. Increase in efficiency – Pro. Koontz and O’Donnell have written that “management principles definitely improve managerial efficiency.” In fact, when a manager is aware of the principles of management, he can better find solutions to the problems of the organization. He can take decisions based on principles instead of taking decisions based on experiences and intuition. As a result, the entire organizationThe efficiency of work increases.

2. Contribution to the development of right approach and working system)-The principles of management serve as guiding principles for actions and thoughts. Therefore, with the knowledge of the principles, managers can think about their problems and tasks with the right direction and perspective and can develop appropriate working methods.

3. Facility in training -Once the principles of management are developed, systematic training in management can be given. The development of managerial education or training that has taken place in the latter half of the twentieth century is the result of the development of management principles.

4. Interest in management research – Managerial exploitation is the cause and result of the development of management principles. As the atrophy progresses, new principles will emerge.There will be development and improvement. As new principles are developed, management will decline.New dimensions will develop.

5. Fulfillment of social objectives  Now everyone has started believing that efficient management contributes significantly to the fulfillment of social objectives. Resources can also be used efficiently by developing and using management principles. This provides more satisfaction and better standard of living to the people of the society. As a result, social objectives are fulfilled.

6. Coordination of physical and human resources– Principles of management to achieve the objectives and goals of the organization.They have played an important role in establishing the physical and human resources for the country. These principles make possible optimum use of limited resources available.

7. Proper execution of managerial functions-By developing and practicing the principles of management, managerial tasks can be accomplished properly. The tasks of management like planning, organization, directing, controlling etc. can be accomplished with greater success on the basis of these principles.

8. Contribution to solving complex problems The principles developed on the basis of experience, research, analysis and testing can contribute to the solution of the most complex problems of the business world. These contribute to understanding the dynamic environment of business and its effects. As a result, success can be achieved even in business complexities.

In short, the role of management principles is important. Without this, it is difficult to achieve success in business management in the present era. Not only this, the future development of management also depends on the development of managerial principles.

Q.2. Explain the principles of Henri Feyol.

Ans. Fayol’s General Principles of Management – Henry Fayol has given the following fourteen principles of management –

1. Discipline – Henry Fayol has said that bad discipline is an evil. Which usually comes from leadership. For discipline, Faypol declared that “at every level of discipline, good supervisors and clear fair agreements and judicious application of punishment are required.

2. Division of Work: This is the principle of specialization. Fayol considers specialization essential for efficiency. For maximum efficiency, division of work according to ability is essential. For this, all the work in the organization should be divided and assigned to appropriate people.

3. Unity of Command: The adage of ‘one person cannot serve two masters simultaneously’ has been applied to management and for efficiency, employees are

He can complete his work efficiently only when he receives orders from a single superior. 4. Remuneration – The salary given to employees and the method of its payment should be appropriate and such that it provides maximum satisfaction to the owners and employees. This is essential for the efficiency of workers.

5. Stability of Tenure – Fayol has described unnecessary labor changes as the cause and result of bad management and has pointed out its faults. He considered stability of employees essential for efficient management.

6. Initiative – Initiative means proposing a plan or idea and giving it practical form. For this, Fayol has asked the managers to give up their personal desires and let the lower employees do this work. In other words, initiative should be encouraged at every level.

7. Strength in unity (Espirit de corps) This is the principle of the saying ‘Unity is strength’. If everyone does the work which is based on the cooperation of other people, then that work will be completed more easily and successfully. In fact, the first job of the managers is to maintain unity among the lower employees so that they can take maximum advantage of it and get maximum work done.

8 Unity of Direction – A group of activities having the same objective should be under the same authority and the same plan so that unity of instructions is maintained to establish coordination in the activities performed. If different people have different activities of the same group then unity in instructions will not be possible.

9. Principle of contact with officials (Scalar Principle) – For contact with officials, the lines of the organization should be followed as far as possible and the prescribed path should be followed for mutual management and work. But when it creates unnecessary difficulty and proves harmful, then the route should be made as short as possible. The path for receiving and placing orders should be clear and short.

10. Equity: This principle states that a manager should behave with justice and equality while taking work from his subordinate employees.

11. Centralization – Optimal centralization is essential for proper control in business. Fayol neither used nor explained the word rights, but he was hinting towards this.

12. Subordination of Individual to General Interest: At any time, if personal interest is different from general interest, then both should be coordinated. For this, common interest should be given priority over individual interest so that the group can get support.

13. In order – This principle is the principle of managerial organization which is related to the arrangement of the material and people of the organization. According to this, there should be a definite place for every person and thing in the organization and every person and thing should be at that definite place.

14. Authority and Responsibility – According to Fayol, rights and responsibilities go together. If any work or responsibility is assigned to a person, then he should also be given authority to complete that work, only then will that work be completed. ,

Q. 3. Define scientific management. Write its main principles

Ans. Definitions – The main definitions of scientific management are as follows-

1. “Scientific management will be a process of directing human efforts in which scientific method and specific management are used. Therefore, it can be defined in such a way that it is the application of modern scientific method to solve the problems arising from management method. Has uniqueness in use.”-Walter N. Polkav

2. “The art of knowing what you want people to do and seeing that they work in the most appropriate and economical way is called management.” 3. Scientific management is a set of rules related to administration so that production in the organization can be done. -W. F. Taylor

Control and coordination can be done through new discipline.” Elements of Principles of Scientific Management ——– In the words of H. S. Person, ‘Planting scientific management like a vine or a tree, Taking care, fertilizing, grafting and handling is absolutely necessary. This mechanicalOr it is not like a boiler, which can be purchased and installed.

1. Task Idea: Under scientific management, it is the duty of the manager to find out how much work a first class worker should do under appropriate conditions. Experiments are carried out with caution to determine the scale of work.

2. Experiment: Mr. Taylor has done three types of experiments to estimate the work. (4) Time Study, (b) Fatigue Study, (c) ite

Motion Study. (a) Time Study: Checking and recording the time taken to complete any production is called time study.

(b) Fatigue Study: Taylor found out from the Chakan study that when and how does a worker get tired and how can it be removed? To overcome fatigue, there should be proper arrangement for rest from time to time and work habits should be changed.

(c) Motion Study According to Shri Vishesh, “Motion study is the science by which damage caused by unnecessary, directed and inefficient motion can be prevented.”

3. Planning – Planning is the main basis of scientific management. Under which the needs of all the employees who are engaged in production are fulfilled. 4. Scientific Selection and Training of workers

of Workers)—This main principle of scientific management is related to scientific selection, training, delivery of proper work and motivation of workers. Taylor said that in scientific management there is no place for a bird which can sing but will not sing, similarly a person who can work but will not work has no place in scientifically managed industry.

5. Scientific Allocation of Task: While assigning work, one should keep in mind its ability and efficiency. Right job for the right person

to the right person) should be adopted. 6. Use of appropriate and advanced toolsG Scientific management and scientific mechanization are two sides of the same coin. Therefore, it is necessary that modern and advanced machines be used in production. To maintain the efficiency of machines and equipment, they need to be maintained, repaired and required from time to time.Changes must be made.

7. Incentive Wage System – Workers receiving fixed wages often think that they should do only that much work so that the job remains. In this system, there are two rates of wages—a higher rate and a lower rate paid by the workers.

Wages are paid at higher rates if completed within specified time. On the contrary, if work is done less than the standard, wages are provided at a lower rate.

8. Efficient Cost Accounting System – Cost accounting system to prevent wastage of goods and misuse of equipment in scientific management.

Proper use of the method is necessary. Not only this, it is also necessary to estimate outlay for fulfilling advance orders. Therefore, qualified and special outlay accounting staff should be appointed.

9. Arrangement of Good Material: The efficiency of workers largely depends on the materials and machines they need to do their work.

Is given for. Therefore, it is important that good quality raw material is purchased very thoughtfully, so that the workers can make the best goods in the shortest possible time. At the same time, production costs should be reduced by curbing wastage.

10. Healthy Atomsphere – The working environment of workers has a great impact on the production capacity. If the environment of the factory is healthy and pleasant then the efficiency of the workers will also be higher.

11. Standardization: It is necessary to standardize the machines, tools, methods and materials etc. used in production activities. Certified tasks cannot be determined without adopting proven methods. In the absence of standardized methods, both energy and time are misused. Standardization is the cornerstone of scientific management and the secret of industrial success.

12. Labor Organization – Today there are big industries where thousands of workers work. As a result, direct relationship between owners and workers is no longer possible and their control and inspection work has become extremely complex. Not only this, the industrialist wants to get maximum profit by producing maximum production at minimum cost. This objective can be achieved only when proper organization and supervision of workers is done in the industrial unit.

13. Mental Revolution “Essential idea of ​​scientific management”There has to be a complete mental revolution on both sides, workers and managers.”

Q. 4. Write the properties of scientific thesis.

Ans. Advantages of Scientific Management –

I. Benefits to Workers 1. Efficiency in Management – ​​According to scientific methods

By working, more work is done by the worker in less time. of America’Symonds Rolling Machine Company’ scientistsThe following results were obtained from implementing the management-

(a) The work which was earlier done by 120 girls, now requires 35 girls.

(b) Where earlier a girl got an average of 3½ to 4½ dollars per week, nowThey will receive from $6½ to $9.

(c) Where earlier they had to work 10% hours per day, now the working hours have reduced to 86 hours per day and they have started getting day off on Saturdays.

(d) The accuracy and quality of work increased by one-third as compared to before.

2. Increase in Salaries – 30% increase in the salaries of workers.There is an increase of 100%. The wages of workers in the industry where this system was implemented increased forever.

3. Increase in the standard of living – Along with the end of bad habits like alcoholism, gambling etc., scientific management improves the standard of living of the employees.

4. Training- Arrangements for training of workers are made free of cost by the industry. Therefore, workers get training without any expense.

5. Increase in efficiency – Scientific management of living conditionsIf the level is high then it increases the working capacity and efficiency of the workers.

6. Healthy and peacefulenvironment-Under this, workers get mental peace and they start working more efficiently.

7. Mental Revolution——Works from the point of view of labor and capital. Every worker takes pride in the fact that the manufacturer takes special care of him. The manufacturer tries to provide as many facilities as possible for them.

II. Advantages of Manufacturers-

1. Improvement in the Quality – Produced through scientific method

The quality of goods improves. The production of goods is standardized.

2. Reduction in Cost: Cost starts decreasing, expenditure of planning department increases but due to increase in production, cost per unit becomes less.

3. Elimination of Disputes between Labor and Capital – With the implementation of scientific management, all the reasons causing disputes and dissatisfaction are eliminated. After the implementation of the Scientific Award Scheme in the Bus Company, there was not a single strike.

4. Names of Division of Labor (Advantages of Division of Labour) In scientific management, the producer gets many benefits in the subtle operations of division of labour.

5. Complete Control – Through these, the manufacturer is successful in having complete control over all the smallest elements of the industry, hence there is no inconvenience or hindrance in any work.

III. Advantages to Nation–

1. Increase in Nation Income: Due to large scale production, the country’s industries and business develop rapidly. As a result the nation becomes economically prosperous.

2. Industrial Peace: A country in which there is a conflict between labor and capital.

That country can never progress. With the implementation of scientific management, complete industrial peace is established, because it benefits workers, manufacturers and consumers, that is, everyone. Once peace is established in this way, the organization of society and nation will not be arbitrary but will be scientific.

3. Higher Standard of Living: Consumers in the society start getting better and cheaper goods than before. This increases their standard of living.

4. To Increase Social Status: As the size of production increases, the independence of the country also increases, because on the one hand, the industry

By expanding the business, more taxes will be received and on the other hand, due to the higher standard of living of the people, their ability to pay income tax will also increase.

Q.5. Explain the demerits of scientific management.

Ans. Demerits of scientific management –

Despite the many benefits of scientific management, it has become a victim of criticism. its special

Can be divided on the following two grounds-

(i) Protest by workers

(ii) Special by employers

1. Protest by workers –

1. Scientific Management is Inhuman – In this

The managers act arbitrarily and the workers are treated unfairly and they do not get the opportunity to raise their voice against the management.

2. Destruction of art: Under this system, the worker does only a small part of a work and does not get the opportunity to complete the entire work and showcase his art.

3. Lack of Initiative: After the implementation of scientific management, workers do not get the opportunity to use their ideas and intelligence. They are there only to follow orders. The worker has to work under many owners or higher officials.

4. More workload: The working class says that under scientific management they have toMore work has to be done. This has a bad effect on their health and age. According to Cardullo, “If workers are made to work at this pace, their speed will slow down, they will be able to do less work in life, provided that if they work slowly with less power, then industry and society, in which The longer they live, the more they will benefit.”

5. Unemployment: With the increase in per capita production, the demand for workers will reduce which will increase unemployment and if this scheme is implemented in old factories, many workers will be fired on the basis of incompetence.

6. Unfairness: Sometimes dissatisfaction increases due to the interference of heads of various departments all the time. In this system the work of each worker is controlled. The workers do not get their fair share of the increase in production due to the hard work and dedication of the workers.

7. Monotony: By doing the same work for a long time, the worker starts experiencing monotony. Due to lack of novelty, disinterest arises and the efficiency of the worker gets limited.

8. Opposition by Labor Unions: This system is not beneficial in the eyes of labor unions because it divides workers into different categories and their nomenclature is also different.

9. Lack of Confidence on Workers: Workers are not given any confidence in their own abilities and characteristics. In this systemIt is believed that the worker cannot work out the procedure himself. II. Opposition by employers (Employers Apathy)-

(a) Costly Method: A lot of expenditure has to be incurred in planning and even after expenditure, its benefits are not received immediately. Reduction in production cost is possible only after a long period of time.

(b) Burden in Depression – The expenditure of the planning department becomes a burden in the recession. This increases the cost. During recession, the number of workers is reduced but the number of employees like clerks, officers etc. cannot be reduced.

(c) Dependence on Specialists: In this method the producer becomes a puppet in the hands of the experts. The producers have to work accordingly.

(d) Lack of Stability: The factory becomes a laboratory. New experiments keep happening every day. Stability comes to an end due to day to day changes. This causes loss to the producer.

Conclusion – This criticism arose due to misunderstanding in understanding the real nature of scientific management. But the truth is that the technique of scientific management can be used very successfully. Even this movement can be effectively implemented not only in industry but also in parishes, colleges, schools, religious institutions like temples, mosques, gurudwaras and churches etc.

Q.6, How is scientific management related to mental revolution?

Ans. Meaning of Mental Revolution – ‘Mental science is a basic principle of management.’ Its meaning is to bring revolutionary changes in the beliefs and thoughts of both the workers and the owners.

According to Dr. Taylor, “Scientific management in true sense means a complete mental revolution among the workers engaged in a particular industry in the feeling of responsibility for its work.

Along with this, managers, foremen, superintendents, management boards and owners have to bring about a mental revolution towards the workers. Scientific management cannot be implemented in the absence of complete mental revolution on both sides.”

Mental Revolution-A Fundamental Principle of Scientific Management – A fundamental element of scientific management is ‘mental revolution’. This means that there should be a radical change in the attitudes of both employees and employers. Taylor believed that to bridge the gap between the employer and the worker, bothIt is absolutely necessary to have a ‘mental revolution’. In the words of Taylor, “Scientific management in true sense means a complete mental revolution among the workers engaged in a particular business in the feeling of responsibility towards work, responsibility towards co-workers and responsibility towards service provider.

“The main objective of scientific management is to increase productivity, whereas productivity can be increased in two ways – 1. By using good tools, good materials and good workers, 2. By creating motivation among the workers for work. The second method is by To increase the productivity of the economy, it is necessary to bring about a ‘mental revolution’ among the workers. According to Dr. Taylor, the true interest of the capitalists and the workers is the same and

The progress of both parties depends on each other’s progress. This is the basis of scientific management. Taylor has asked to give importance to cooperation instead of selfishness. For this, it is necessary to bring change in the thoughts and beliefs of both the classes. Dr. Taylor has written at one place, “Scientific management is not a efficiency method. It is not just a method of finding costs. It is not a time study. ..” It is not a speed study nor is it functional. It is an organization system.” Its basic idea is to bring about a mental revolution in both workers and employers alike.

An important aspect of this mental revolution is that both the classes do not keep an eye on the division of surplus but focus only on increasing its size and quantity. Industrial development, wages of workers and dividends of owners depend on the increase in profits. If both the parties continue to revolve around their own narrow interests then the development of the organization will not be possible. Therefore, both the parties will have to adopt the path of cooperation instead of selfishness.

One’s own interests will have to be sacrificed for the larger and collective interests of the organization. Any principle of management, no matter how good it may be, should not be implemented at the expense of anyone’s interests. No matter how good the material, machinery and tools are used and the best quality of production is

The method should be adopted, unless the workers develop a sense of responsibility and duty, it will not be possible to make good use of all these best things and methods. Mr. Hunt has defined this idea as follows-

“The use of beautiful and new tools and equipment can give pleasant results only when the human relations between the capitalists and the workers are strong and the growing gap between them can be bridged.”

Kimwal has said that ‘It is important to pay special attention that scientific data and system cannot take the place of human being. Personal qualities are special and important in human activities.Keep and will keep the place.

Therefore, it is necessary that the feelings and hearts of the working classes be won before implementing the system of scientific management. This work can be done only when workers are considered an essential part of production and not just a unit of production, they are respected.

Their hearts can be won only by providing good working conditions, reduction in working time, proper remuneration and arrangement for rest. Unfortunately or due to circumstances or due to the faults of the society, there is disappointment and disregard among the workers towards performing their duties because The workers suspect that the owners are using some strategy to exploit them in the said works related to scientific management.

Probably they want to take more and more work from them or want to lay off the workers. For this reason they do not cooperate with the owners, but oppose the efforts of scientific management and hesitate to implement them. As a result, the objectives of scientific management remain unfulfilled.

But this is not the fault of the workers. The employing class is also not aware of their responsibilities and duties. Exploiting the workers in some way or the other, taking more work for less wages, doubting them, and due to strong selfishness, their behavior becomes inappropriate while giving practical shape to the questions of scientific management.

They do not try to understand the protests of the workers, are unable to assess their weaknesses and the real importance of their interests, as a result of which they are not able to get the cooperation of the workers, but despite many efforts, their objective is only partially accomplished.

In fact, there should not be any tussle between the two parties in the division of their benefits. Both parties should try to protect the interests of each party equally. According to Taylor, “The mental revolution consists in this, that both sides of the industry should try to increase the surplus to such an extent that there would be no need to fight over its division.”

Therefore, there is a need that workers and managers consider each other’s interests and come closer to each other’s reality. Workers themselves should think that if they work more, they will be able to get higher wages, better working conditions, more labor welfare and social security. On the other hand, managers should think that workers are not just a part of the machine.

 He is also human and has needs too. He should get an important place, respect and recognition in the industry and he should be considered an important stakeholder of the industry. What I mean to say is that scientific management should benefit both parties. In the words of Taylor, “The principles of scientific management should be based on the justice of both the parties and until both the parties are satisfied and happy with it.”

This cannot be called scientific management.”

Therefore, it is clear that the plan of scientific management cannot be made successful unless a revolutionary change is brought about in the outlook of workers and capitalists. This change is called mental revolution.

Q.7. What are the essential characteristics of scientific management?

Ans. Characteristics or characteristics of scientific management — The following characteristics or features of scientific management –

1. A Definite Plan: In relation to production, production is done by making a definite plan before starting the work.

2. Scientific Analysis and Experiment- Before implementing any plan, analysis and scientific experiment of production methods is done.

3. A Set of Rules: According to the plan, some rules are made which facilitate the implementation of scientific management.

4. Strict restrictions on following the rules (Firmness) – To follow the rules properly, the management has to bring certainty in its behavior and the rules are strictly followed.

5. Timely Study: In this, the problems arising from time to time are solved at the same time through appropriate experiments.

6. Economy by eliminating all unnecessary elements of productionMaximum production is done at minimum cost.

7. To Increase Efficiency: Efforts are made to continuously increase the efficiency of workers through various experiments and measures.

8. Responsibility: Responsibility is placed on one person and distributed among various employees. The responsibility of every person is limited and definite.

9. Define Object: There is a definite goal in scientific management.

And all efforts are made to achieve it.

10. Co-operation: To make scientific management successful, labor andGood relations are maintained between the capitals.

11. Incentive Wages – Appropriate and motivating wages for the workers.There is a provision for wages.

Q.8. What is the technique of scientific management?

Ans. The technical aspect of scientific management refers to the method of mechanization that is used to implement the technique of scientific management in a business enterprise. Scientific management technique was developed jointly by Taylor and his colleagues and the following steps are taken to implement this technique-

1. Division of Work (Work Study)

2. Task Idea and Planning

3. Experiment

4. Scientific Selection and training

5. Standardization

6. Incentive Wage System

7.Mental Revolution

1. Work Study – Work study is the technique of studying a work with the aim of making it simple, convenient, safe and efficient. Under this, work related facts are collected after detailed study of the work and on the basis of these facts, the present method of working is improved and made simple, convenient and efficient. In this way, with the help of this technology, an organization develops optimal methods of doing its work, through which there is reduction in wastage of material, reduction in accidents and significant increase in productivity. In this way, through work study, the highest productivity (top productivity) is to be achieved in the organization, the knowledge of which is necessary for the managers. Those managers who want the efficiency of their industry and business to remain at a high level, can achieve this objective through work study. You can be successful and move your organization towards progress with time.

2. Task Idea: Under scientific management, it is the duty of the manager to find out how much work a first class worker should do under appropriate conditions. Experiments are carried out with caution to determine the scale of work. When Taylor worked at Midvale Steel Company, he realized that workers save themselves time by wasting time. At the same time, he also observed that wages are paid at the same rate to the workers instead of paying them according to their qualifications or ability.

At the Beechingham Steele Company, a worker loaded an average of 12.5 tons of pig iron, but Taylor proved through his experiments that a first-class sailor should load 47½ to 48 tons of pig iron per day. According to William Lauffigwell. , “Determining levels of accomplishment after all factors which affect accomplishment are 1 standardised.”-William LeuffigwellPlanning – Planning is the main basis of scientific management under which the needs of all the employees who are engaged in production are met.

In industrial units where there is scientific management, there is a planning department which prepares the outline of work for the next day in advance. For this, there is a Pigeonhole Almirah in the industrial unit, in which one compartment is fixed for each worker.

 When Jai Shramik comes to work in the morning, he finds two papers in his box. In one it is written what work he has to do, what tools he will need for it and where they will be obtained. In the second paper, complete details of the work done by him on the previous day and the wages earned are written. Which employee will work where, is clearly shown through maps and maps.

3. Experiment: Mr. Taylor has done three types of experiments to estimate work – (a) Time Study, (b) Fatigue Study, (c) Motion Study ).

(a) Time Study: Checking and recording the time taken to do any production activity is called time study.

(b) Fatigue Study – Taylor found out from fatigue study that when and how does a worker get tired and how to remove it? To remove fatigue, there should be proper arrangement for rest from time to time and the work habits should be changed.

(c) Motion Study According to Mr. Gilveth, “Motion study is the science by which damage caused by unnecessarily directed and inefficient motion can be prevented.” 3. Planning – Planning is the main basis of scientific management under which the needs of all the employees who are engaged in production are met.

4. Scientific Selection and Training of Workers – This main principle of scientific management is related to scientific selection, training of workers, delivery of proper work and motivation. Taylor has said, “There is no place in scientific management for a bird which can sing, but will not sing; similarly, a person who can work, but will not work, has no place in a scientifically managed industry.” ( “Scientific Management has no place for a bird that can sing and won’t sing. No man who can work and won’t work has and place under Scientific Management.”)

5. Standardization: It is necessary to standardize the instruments, tools, methods and materials etc. used in production. Standardized work cannot be accomplished without adopting standardized methods. In the absence of standardized methods, both energy and time are misused. Standardization is the cornerstone of scientific management and the secret of industrial success.

6. Incentive Wage System – Workers receiving fixed wages often think that ‘only that much work should be done so that the job remains.’ After studying this problem, Mr. Taylor developed an incentive wage system based on time and motion study. Adopted the wage system (A Differential Piece Rate System).

Under this system, workers are given standardized wages and bonus after completing the dedicated work. In this system, there are two rates of wages – one higher rate and the other lower rate. Workers are paid higher wages if they complete the assigned work within stipulated time. On the contrary, if work is done less than the standard, wages are provided at a lower rate.

7. Mental Revolution: Mental Revolution is a basic principle of scientific management. Its meaning is to bring about a revolutionary change in the beliefs and thoughts of both the workers and the owners. According to Dr. Taylor, “The true meaning of Scientific management in India means a complete mental revolution among the workers engaged in a particular industry, a complete mental revolution in the feeling of responsibility for its work.

Along with this, the managers, foremen, superintendents, management boards and owners have to bring about a complete mental revolution towards the workers. Scientific management cannot be implemented in the absence of complete mental revolution on both sides.”


NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Commerce Stream


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