NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 suggestions for projects work

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 suggestions for projects work

Class12th 
Chapter NameMass Media and Communications
Chapter numberChapter 7
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPsychology
Medium English
Study MaterialsNotes & important questions
Download PDFSociology Chapter 7 Notes PDF

suggestions for projects work


In general, the methodology of any plan is called a project. Man becomes successful in achieving his goal by working according to the project under different subjects of life. We know that a group of persons is called a society.

The science in which all the activities of society are studied is called Sociology. To do all the activities related to the subject matter of Sociology, a project is definitely made. A plan is made related to the subject matter.

Based on this plan, the work system is determined. According to this working method, the plan is given a working form. On the basis of this project, efforts are made to achieve the objectives and goals related to the subject matter.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 suggestions for projects work

The analysis of the subject matter is done by systematically and systematically completing the project work. Finally, by working according to the project, all the conclusions regarding the subject matter are obtained.

Some suggestions can be given for project work under Sociology. In this regard, it is kept in mind that research and observation work is done to decide the project work for the subject matter of social activities.

To work on each research question i.e. atrophy topic, a suitable research method is required. A question can often be answered by more than one method, but it is not necessary that one research method is suitable for all questions.

In other words, for most research questions, the researcher has the freedom to choose the possible methods. But this choice is usually limited. After carefully determining the research question, the first task of the researcher is to choose the appropriate research method.

This selection should be made not only on the basis of technical merits (i.e. compatibility between the question and the method) but also on the basis of practicality. Practicality may include many things such as the amount of time available for the research, the resources available both in the form of people and materials, and the conditions in which the research is to be done, etc.

Various methods are used for social research work and research work, such as the survey method, interview method and observation method. Nowadays, various things can be studied in relation to possible topics and topics for small-research projects, such as public transport, media, household appliances used in home and family, use of public space and different age groups. Changing aspirations etc.

Thus, it is necessary to study various household items for preparing project work. People use television, bike, computer, the internet, information system and furniture etc. Some people keep the work of their daily life in written form in the form of a diary. Similarly, some people also compose autobiographies. To keep all the works of social life systematically, making the project work is very beneficial.


VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Write the definition of the project.

Ans. According to Ballard, “A project is a bit of real life that has been imparted into school.”

2. What is meant by project work?

Ans. Literally, project work is made up of two words project + work, project means plan and work means methodology or method. This is how the project work. Means the functioning of the scheme.

3. What is the aim of the project work?

Ans. The goal of project work is either utilitarian or creative. The knowledge gained through project work is useful and practical. Probably keeping this in mind, I.B. Varma has written “Knowledge should be useful and practical.”

Project work ensures this use because it is not artificial but is implemented under natural conditions. It gives good results with minimum wastage. It gives complete satisfaction and a useful test to the children.

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4. Write three steps of organizing project work. 

Ans;.

(i) Selection of the problem.

(ii) Selecting a topic of interest to the project maker.

(iii) The subject being within the means limit.

(iv) To be sure about the usefulness of the problem.

5. When can the project work be successful?

Ans. Planning, organizing and conducting a project work is similar to running a business, requiring technical knowledge and efficiency.

6. Write the merits of project work.

and;

(1) Scientific Satisfied

(ii) Opportunity for confidence.

(iii) Equal opportunity for development.

(iv) Practicality.

(v) Development of social feeling.

7. What is planning?

Ans. Planning is the arrangement of means for achieving a certain goal, on the basis of which the goals recognized by the society can be achieved in a certain period.


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1, Why is project work required?

Ans. Mr Kilpatrick, a supporter of pragmatist ideology, is considered the father of the project method or project work. Expressing the need for project work, he has written, “In modern times, school and society have become increasingly and widely separated from each other.

Thought and action have become unrelated in space, time and distinction in the two spheres. There is very little connection between what is studied in school and what is happening in the world.

In school, children do not get any opportunity to participate in social activities with adults, so we want education to penetrate into the depth of real life, not only social life but the good life that we aspire for. We do.”

This means that students should not be given knowledge in schools in a stereotyped manner, but they should be given knowledge by putting them in project work according to their interests, tendencies and needs so that the social approach in education is not neglected. Could

2. Write the definition of the project.

Ans. Meaning and definition of a project: (i) Stevenson (Prof. Stevenson): “A project is a problematic work which achieves perfection in its natural conditions.” (A project is a problematic act.

carried to completion in its natural setting.) 

(ii) Kilpatrick: “A project is whole-hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment with full involvement.”

(iii) Ballard: “A project is a bit of real life that has been imparted into school.” It is clear from the above definitions that project or planning in a real social environment is a problematic task to acquire knowledge and new experience. Its basic purpose is practical knowledge is to be acquired at the level.

3. How do you collect the facts for the project work?

Ans. Collection of Data: The collection of facts is the main task in project work or surveys. Surveyors have to collect facts with care, diligence, promptness, integrity and diligence. The compilation of facts can also be divided into different parts-

(i) Establishing contact with the informants (To create rapport with the informants): Informants cannot be interrogated directly, because first of all it is necessary to create clear thoughts and faith in the informants towards the survey. This situation is beneficial to remove the hesitation of the informants. In English this situation is called “Rapport”.

(ii) To collect information: At this stageThe surveyor collects factual information from the informants with the help of study instruments.

In addition to collecting primary facts from the informants, the surveyorDoing

(iii) Supervision over the field workers: Required. Enumerators or Investigators who collect information from time to time should be supervised by higher officials so that field workers can be saved from emotional and other influences. This step is important in the collection of accurate information. Secondary facts are also collected through published records, books, letters, diaries etc.

4. Write the merits and demerits of the project work.

Ans. Merits of Project Work :

(i) Psychological satisfaction is obtained. Children get psychological satisfaction.because the attainment of knowledge through it is not through terror but through their natural instincts.Happens according to

(ii) Opportunity for self-development is available: In this, the children themselves are active, think on their own and take instructions from teachers or directors as needed. In this way, this work makes children self-reliant and instills self-confidence in them.

(iii) Equal opportunities for development are available: Project work is fast, simple and itemized.Wisdom provides equal opportunities for development to all children.

(iv) Development of social spirit: Project work is based on cooperation,As a result, the social sense continues to develop in children.

(v) Development of character: This work brings children closer to each other in sorrow and pain, as a result, children gradually start feeling the feeling of ‘Satya Shivam Sundaram’. In fact, this is also the goal of the welfare of mankind and the development of character. Highest status.

Demerits of Project work : (i) Need of more money,

(ii) Inconvenience in finding a suitable project,

(iii) disorganization of the reading method,

(iv) Absence of all forms of knowledge acquisition,

(v) Lack of systematic studies,

(vi) Difficulty in adjusting to the existing environment in the school.


LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. What is meant by project work? Write the steps of organizing project work.

Ans. Meaning of project work: Literally, project work is made up of two words project + work. The meaning of the project is from the plan and the meaning of work is from methodology or method, in this way the meaning of project work is from the methodology of the plan. In fact, the concept of project work cannot be explained by mere literal meaning.

From a sociological point of view, the notion of project work is substantial and comprehensive. Project work consists of collecting facts about a real social problem by going into the field and following different levels of the scientific method. have to pass through.

Generally, social survey method is followed for project work. The social survey is an important study method of social sciences. It is a scientific means of studying and solving social problems.

Planning and Execution of Project: In the entire process of planning and conducting project work or social survey, one has to go through several stages:

(A) Project work/Organization of social survey, (B) Collection of facts/material,

(C) Analysis and selection of facts,

(D) Demonstration of facts.

Planning the survey or project work: Planning the project work or survey can be divided into the following steps:

(a) Selection of the Problem: The following points should be kept in mind while selecting or choosing the problem in conducting any survey:

(i) The subject of interest of the surveyor should be selected so that he can work with more dedication and hard work.

(ii) The subject with little prior knowledge about the survey can conduct the survey in a definite manner.FromformativelyProved to be helpful in organizing.

(iii) It is also necessary for the subject to be within the means limit so that an accurate survey can be possible.

(iv) While selecting the topic or problem, be sure about its usefulness.

It is necessary to have so that the desired social purpose can be fulfilled.

(b) Determination of Purpose or Object: Planning

The second step is the determination of purpose. Once the objective is determined, it becomes easy to design the survey. In fact, once the objective is decided, the study tools, methods, etc. can be successfully decoded.

(c) Organization of Survey: After determining the problem and objective, it is also necessary that there should be a proper organization for the survey plan. From this point of view, a survey committee is often organized.

Survey Director, Chief Investigator etc. are representatives of this committee. In fact, the purpose of this organization is to facilitate, uniformity in fieldwork and to make activities related to social reforms more possible.

2. Write the method of analysis, selection and display of facts in project work.

Ans. Analysis and Interpretation of Data: There are the following steps in the analysis and interpretation of data: (a) Weighing the Data: In these, some of the criteria

The significance of the facts is checked on the basis. (b) Editing of Data: The following tasks are included in the editing work:

(i) To arrange the facts in a systematic manner so that it may be known from which sources the information is yet to be obtained.

(ii) Checking of Answers: In this, mistakes in answer filling and other errors are detected.

(iii) Removal of unnecessary facts: By this unwanted facts are removed. ,

(iv) Codification: Uniform to save timeThe facts are expressed by a number so that there is convenience in classification.

(c) Classification and tabulation of facts data): 

After editing the facts were divided into different groups on the basis of similarities and differences.is divided into sections or groups and thus the entire collected material is summarized and provided. Tabulation to make this classified material more understandable(Tabulation) is done.

In fact, abbreviated as numerical tablesTo do is to tabulate.

(d) Analysis and Generalization of Facts: Some general conclusions are drawn on the basis of a comparison of various facts and mutual relations found in them. Drawing general conclusions is called generalization.

Presentation of Data: The presentation of facts can also be divided into two parts:(af) Diagrammatic Representation of Data In order to reveal the facts in an understandable and easy way, the facts are displayed by pictures. goes. In fact, visual presentation is the art of showing the main points in a short time.

(b) Preparation and Publication of Report: Preparation and publication of the report is the last step in the whole process of the survey. The following points should be kept in mind while preparing the report:

(i) Simplicity of language and ideas,

(ii) presentation of facts in a logical sequence,

(iii) no repetition of facts,

(iv) clear and simple definitions of technical terms,

(v) the use of necessary headings and sub-headings,

(vi) footnotes,

(vii) Tables, pictures etc. should be near the relevant material. The report is published after generation.


FAQs


Q. State two merits of project work.

Ans. (i) Psychological satisfaction and
(ii) Development of social feeling.

Q. Name the different stages of project work.

Ans.
(i) Organization of project work/survey.
(ii) Compilation of facts/material.
(iii) Analysis and classification of facts.

NOTES & QUESTIONS ANSWER


  1. Introducing Indian Society
  2. The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society
  3. Social Institutions: Continuity and Change
  4. The Market as a Social Institution
  5. Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion
  6. The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
  7. suggestions for projects work
  1. Structural Change
  2. Cultural Change
  3. The Story of Indian Democracy
  4. Change and Development in Rural Society
  5. Change and Development in Industrial Society
  6. Globalisation and Social Change
  7. Mass Media and Communications
  8. Social Movements

MCQS IN ENGLISH


  1. Introducing Indian Society
  2. The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society
  3. Social Institutions: Continuity and Change
  4. The Market as a Social Institution
  5. Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion
  6. The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
  1. Structural Change
  2. Cultural Change
  3. The Story of Indian Democracy
  4. Change and Development in Rural Society
  5. Change and Development in Industrial Society
  6. Globalisation and Social Change
  7. Mass Media and Communications
  8. Social Movements

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