NCERT Solutions For Class 12 English Kailedoscope Non-Fiction Ch-6 on science fiction summary

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on science fiction summary: Isaac Asimov is a well known essayist of english literature. Isaac Asimov, a Russian born-American author and bio-chemist has invented science fiction as new branch of literature in which he explains science concepts in a historical way. 

He relates the period of industrial revolution to the birth of science fictions. He recalls pre-historic period when magic, strange tales were told by the primitive men. 

Science and technology were understood later-on as key to understand universe. Fictions are witten by taking into consideration, the stages of development in the fields of science the technology at the current level and the author imagines the phenomenon, these subjects will do in future. 

Here lies fiction but on science basis. He describes the pre-scientific universe as store house for writing science fiction because curiosity and inquisitiveness being already there in the form of myths, legends etc. Priest, magician, wizard, Shaman were there who imagined such fictions.


NCERT Solutions For Class 12 English Kailedoscope Non-Fiction Ch-6 on science fiction summary


Class12th 
Chapter06
Chapter TypeNon-Fiction
Chapter Nameon science fiction
Authorissac asimov
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectEnglish Elective  (Kaleidoscope)
Medium English
Study MaterialsVery important question to answer
Download PDFCLICK HERE- on science fiction PDF

on science fiction summary


As the author to this essay, in its two parts i.e. the Pre-Scientific Universe of Science Fiction; is a bio-chemist and renowned for writing science fictions and science books, 

it is natural that he is here talking about science fiction with introduction on their origin, the events, human instincts and the name by which these science fictions were called during pre-historic period. 

He first starts with story as essence of writing on each and every mode, manner, intention etc. He tells magnificence of story, its origin through human-beings gregarious interactions, collocutions, conversations, gossips etc.

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 English Kailedoscope Non Fiction Ch 6 on science fiction summary

The author says a story may involve not the clash of baseball and bat, or of hockey stick and puck, 

but of gas-gun and sphere in an atmosphere enclosed on a space station under zero gravity. It is still a sports story by the strictest definition you care to make, but it is science fiction also. 

He tells that tales of the strange and different, of life not as we know it, and of powers transcending was existed prior to the birth of science fiction. 

Human powers, the author says will be greater in the future than in the past. If we can imagine the different ways in which they will be greater, we can write our stories.

Pre-historic fictions in their invisible forms-There was notion that the universe was the play-thing of life and the will, that if there were events that seemed analogous to human deeds but that were far greater in magnitude, 

they were carried through by life form’s is resembling those we know, but greater in size and power. These were pictured in human form but of super-human strength, size, abilities and length of life.

Gods are pictured in pre-historical fictions as whimsical and unpredictable. Formulae placating the gods and persuading them to do the right thing become the subject-matter of pre-historic fiction of science. 

Curiosities, inquistiveness and their reflection in mysteries, secrets etc, the scientific fiction of pre-historic periods contain in themselves. 

Economists, sociologists and meteorologists are followed in their principle and it may or may not be accepted as reality however, nearer to reality. 

The author considers all ancient stories as science fiction or in brevity, he refers it as “scifi”. He takes the priest, magician, wizard and shamans as scientist vis-a-vis the modern scientists. Their phenomenal acts and the detail is therefore, as per the learned author; science fiction of pre- historic period.

Universe of science fiction in their all visible and fectual form-Science fiction is through its background hence, it has vast magnitude. 

The author tells that subject-matter for science fiction can be found in abundance either it from nomadic life of a cow boy or that of a fish boy and it may also a jungle in space. 

Secrecy is the essence of science fiction and it should be maintained and discussed only at the last reach of fiction. He refers to John W. Champbell, an editor to science fiction. 

Campbell tells all conceivable societies of past and future, probable or improbable, realistic or fanatastic can be made subject- matter of study.

Sherlock Holmes is also a science fiction writer and the detective trend, he applied in his novels becomes helpful to a writer of Sci-fi. It’s an invention of Q-rays-says the renowned sci-fi writer. 

These requires some knowledge on natural sciences like physics, chemistry, biology etc. It should be correctly defined otherwise, the context would become ridiculous. 

Its a pebble like, in which society is put in curiosity but readers can introduce to the investigator. He refers his science fictions – The Caves Of Steel and The Naked Sun-ic explain that such style can be adopted while writing science fictions.


on science fiction summary in hindi


दो भागों में- The Pre-scientific Universe तथा The Universe of Science Fiction प्रस्तावना सहित प्रस्तुत निबंध का लेखक एक जैव-वैज्ञानिक तथा विज्ञान-संबंधी कहानियाँ एवं वैज्ञानिक पुस्तकें लिखने के लिए प्रसिद्ध है । 

स्वभावतः वह यहाँ प्रस्तावना के साथ विज्ञान-संबंधी कहानी, उसके स्रोत, घटनाएँ, मानव बुद्धि तथा वह नाम जिससे प्रागैतिहासिक काल में वे कहानियाँ जानी जाती थीं की चर्चा करता है। 

हर प्रकार और ढंग तथा प्रवृत्ति आदि पर लेखन के सार तत्व के रूप में वह कहानी प्रारंभ करता है। वह कहानी की विशालता, मानव, प्राणियों द्वारा उसकी उत्पत्ति, सामूहिक पारस्परिक संबंध, स्थान प्रबंध वार्तालाप और बात-चीत आदि के बारे में बताता है । 

लेखक कहता है कि कहानी बेसबॉल और बल्लों का टकराव या हॉकी का डंडा और दुष्ट प्रेत को संभवतः सम्मिलित नहीं कर सकता है बल्कि गैस-गन और वातावरण में शून्य गुरुत्व पर अन्तरिक्ष स्टेशन पर स्थापित ग्रह की हो सकती है । 

फिर भी यह कठोरतम परिभाषा से खेल की कहानी है, किन्तु यह एक विज्ञान संबंधी कहानी भी है ।

लेखक कहता है कि विभिन्न प्रकार की जीवन की विचित्र कहानियों जैसा कि हम जानते हैं और बढ़ती हुई शक्तियाँ वैज्ञानिक कहानी के पहले अस्तित्व में थीं । लेखक कहता है कि मानव शक्तियाँ अतीत की अपेक्षा भविष्य में ज्यादा महान होंगी । यदि हम कल्पना करें कि किन विभिन्न रूपों में वे महान होंगी तो हम कहानियाँ लिख सकते हैं । 

अदृश्य रूपों में प्रागैतिहासिक कहानियाँ-विचार था कि दुनिया जीवन और इच्छा के लिए खेल की वस्तु है, कि यदि घटनाएँ थीं जो मनुष्य के कार्यों के सदृश थी किन्तु उनका महत्त्व अधिक था, वे जीवन के विभिन्न रूपों द्वारा ग्रहण कर ली गयी जो उन्हीं के अनुरूप लगती हैं। किन्तु आकार और शक्ति में बड़ी है। 

उन्हें मानव रूप में मूर्त रूप दिया गया किन्तु मानवेतर शक्ति आकार क्षमता और जीवन के साथ प्रागैतिहासिक कहानियों में देवताओं को और अवर्णनीय रूप में चित्रित किया जाता है । 

देवताओं मो ज्ञान्ा करने का सूत्र और उन्हें अच्छे कार्य के लिए प्रेरित करणा प्रागैतिहासिक वैज्ञानिक कहानियों की विषय-वस्तु बन जाते हैं। प्रानैतिहासिक काल की वैज्ञानिक कहानियों में उत्सुकता, जिल्लासा और उनका रहसयमय प्रतिविम्ब सन्निहित पाते हैं । 

सिद्धान्त रूप में अर्थशास्त्रियों, समाजशास्त्रियों और अन्तरिशास्त्रियों का अनुसरण किया जाता है और इसे वास्तविकता के रूप में स्वीकार या अस्वीकार किया जा सकता है, चाहे वह वास्तविकता के करीब हो । 

लेखक सभी प्राचीन कहानियों को वैज्ञानिक कहानियों समझता है, या संक्षेप यह Sci-fi के रूप में इसका उल्लेख करता है। वह पुजारी, जादूगर ओझा आदि को आधुनिक वैज्ञानिकों के समतुल्य समझता है । उनका पटना विषयक कार्य और उनका विस्तार विद्वान लेखक के अनुसार प्रागैतिहासिक यल की वैज्ञानिक कहानी है ।

सभी दृश्य और वास्तविक रूपों में वैज्ञानिक कहानी की दुनिया वैज्ञानिक कहानी अपनी पृष्ठभूमि के कारण है इसलिए इसका आकार बहुत बड़ा होता है । लेखक कहता है कि वैज्ञानिक कहानी की विषय-वस्तु चरवाहे या मछुआरे के असभ्य जीवन या अन्तरिक्ष में जंगल हो सकता है । 

गुप्तता (रहस्य) वैज्ञानिक कहानी का सार तत्व है और इसका उल्लेख और जिक कहानी के अन्तिम मोड़ पर करना चाहिए। लेखक वैज्ञानिक कहानी के सम्पादक जॉन डब्ल्यू कैम्पवेल का उल्लेख करता है। 

कैम्पबेल कहते है कि अतीत और भविष्य के संभाव्य या असंमान्य, वास्तविक या काल्पनिक सभी विचारणीय समाजों को अध्ययन का विषय-वस्तु बनाया जा सकता है । 

शलाक होमर भी एक वैज्ञानिक कहानी के लेखक हैं और उन्होंने अपने उपन्यासों में जिस जासूसी प्रवृति का प्रयोग किया है यह ‘Sci-fi के लेखकों के लिए बहुत सहायक होती है। 

प्रसिद्ध ‘Sci-fi’ लेखक कहता है कि यह Q-किरणों का एक आविष्कार है इनमें प्राकृतिक विज्ञान जैसे भौतिकी, रसायनशास्त्र, जीव-विज्ञान आदि के कुछ ज्ञान की जरूरत होती है। इसे सही-सही परिभाषित किया जाना चाहिए वरन् प्रसंग (संदर्भ) हास्यास्पद बन जाएगा । यह एक चमकदार पत्थर के समान है 

जिस पर समाज को चिन्ता में बैठा दिया जाता है, किन्तु पाठकों को अनुसंधानकर्ता से परिचय करा सकते हैं। लेखक अपने वैज्ञानिक कहानियों The Caves of Steel और The Naked Sun का उल्लेख यह स्पष्ट करने के लिए करता है कि इस तरह की शैली को विज्ञान-कहानी लिखते समय अपनाया जा सकता है।


WORD-MEANINGS


Prolific writer = बहुसर्जक लेखक, Natural Phenomenon प्राकृतिक चमत्कार, Superhuman = काल्पनिक मानव, Whimsical and Unpredictable = सनकी और विलक्षण, अपरिमेय, Placating प्रसन्न करना, Persuading विश्वास में लेना, 

Sneer = व्यंग करना, उपहास करना, Erratically at best = क्षम्य अपराध या त्रुटि, Fascinate = सम्मोहित करना, मोहित करना, Aero-navigation = हवा में तैरना, League = संघ, साँठ-गाँठ, Powerful travesties = नकल करना, विकृति उत्पन्न होना, Centaur किंनर, नपुंसक, 

Satyr = लंपट, कामुक, Sphinx= नृसिंह देवता, Harpy = चुड़ैल, Gryphon = ग्रिफिन, Gorgon = चुड़ैल, Extraterrestrials = स्थलभाग से परे, Haughty = घमंडी, Unswervable = अडिग, Muddish = गंदा, Nomadic life घूमंतू जीवन, Puck = चपटी रबड़ की चक्रिका (आइस हाकी में गेंद की तरह प्रयुक्त) 

Plumbs = किसी रहस्य को समझ लेना, Recesses = मंद पड़ना, क्षीण होना, Scoundrel दुष्ट Retreat पश्चगमन, पीछे हटना, Moment of failure of nerve = विचार क्रम का भंग होना

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on science fiction question answer


Q. 1. What is the parallel drawn between maths and legends of the past and science fiction? 

Ans. Parallelism in myths and legends of the past and science fiction- It is explained as follows- 

(i) The anthologies and novels being written presently bear myths however of some cryptic ways. The author refers to John Dickson Carr who has written a science fiction but it is apparent from his work that he is even unknown to the basics of science i.e. elements and compounds.

(ii) The literature available in modern era does not differ between myths of the past and that of scientific progress particularly in the field of human feelings, aspirations, tremulations etc. and such books are the best seller volumes. 

(iii) The myths and legends of the past and science fiction equally cater to the emotionl needs of people. Both general curiosity for the future, the uncertain and indefinite future.” 

(iv) Both of them depict human life so far not known or invented. 

Q. 2. What gives science fiction its validity?

Ans. Science fiction has its validity and it can be stated. It’s positive and rational thinking of human-beings. Self-study of the period before 1800 including pre-historic period, an intense study of the human feelings, sentiments, their manifestation in imaginary figures of details, ghosts etc. 

and the details rendered by scientific inventions with all authertic evidence will give the science fiction its validity. Introspection with unbiased mind can only lead human beings to understand invaluable contribution of science fiction to the society as a whole.

Q. 3. Which literary works does the author have in mind when he refers to “Open seasame” or the concept of Winged horses of flying carpets

Ans. The first work i.e. “Open Seasame” is the phenomenon in Alibaba and Forty Decoits (Arabian tale), phenomenon of winged horses from “Panch Tantra” and the phenomenon of flying carpets from “one thousand tales of Arabian Nights”. 

All these one anthologies of legends and myths told in the past. These ancient myths and legends fulfil emotional needs against background of a universe that is controlled by Gods and demons who can, in turn, be controlled by magical formulas either in the form of enchantments to coerce or prayers to cajole or conjure.


COMPREHENSION


PASSAGE NO. 1

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow- 

The respect that people have for science and for scientists (or the fear that people have or a combination of both) rests on the certain belief that science is the key to the understanding of the universe and that scientists can use science to manipulate that key. 

Through science, people can make use of the laws of nature to control the environment and enhance human powers. By the steadily increasing understanding of the details of those laws, human powers will be greater in the future than in the past. If we can imagine the different ways in which they will be greater, we can write our stories. 

Questions:

(i) Why is respect and fear of scientist existed together?

(ii) What do you understand by manipulation of the key? 

(iii) Tell the function of scientists?

(iv) What is the use of understanding nature laws? 

(v) How does human power increase in future?

Answers:

(i) It is because if scientists are of positive bent of mind, they would do research on things good for society and environment as a whole. 

(ii) Science is understood as key for universal knowledge but science can be manipulated for wrongful acts, subversive acts and mal-feasance. 

(iii) Scientists are the people qualified on one or other branck of nature science like, physics, chemistry, biology, physiology, anatomy etc., 

(iv) It increases human power over the laws of nature and meets to gross retaliation by nature in the form of disasters and epidemics.

(v) These will increases when fictions on scientists topics are written This is because science fiction or sci-fi are written on the imginations based on the science topics.


PASSAGE NO:2

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow- 

Consider the doors that open with ‘Open sesame’ rather than by the click of a remote-control device. Consider the seven-league boots that can transport you across the countryside almost as quickly as an automobile can. 

Or, For that matter, think of the monsters of legend, the powerful travesties of life invented by combining animal characteristics: the man- horse Centaur, the man-goat Satyr, the woman lion Sphinx, the woman- hawk Harpy, 

the eagle-lion Gryphon, the snake-woman Gorgon, and so on. In science fiction we have extraterrestrials that are often built up on the same principle. 

Questions:

(1) Why does the author say consider the doors that open with “Open Sesame”? 

(ii) What intention of author do you see in his comparison between “OpenSesame” and “Remote Control”?

(Iii) Why should one imagine the monsters of legend? 

(iv) What are extra terrestrials built in a science fiction?

Answers:

(i) He summons reminiscence in readers that of “Alibaba and Forty Robbers. Herein was that word, a key to the vault where the robbers had concealed their booy. 

(ii) He wants to refer deterioration in spiritual faculty of human beings so powerful as to consider things with mere spell of some words having specific

reverberations while it is remote control device

(iii) It is because monsters described therein are dumb founding, thrilling

and mysterious. Imagination like that of sphinx in science matters shall make science fiction, more impressive and stimulant to the science scholars. 

(iv) These are alike “Open Sesame” of ancient period. Difference is only

that of experiments with material object, human bodies and things all

perceivable. 


PASSAGE NO. 3

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow- 

The beings who controlled natural phenomena were therefore pictured in human form, but of superhuman strength, size, abilities, and length of life. Sometimes they were pictured as super animal, or as super- combinations of animals. 

(The constant reference to the ordinary in the invention of the unusual is only to be expected, for imagination are sharply limited, even among the best of us, and it is hard to think of anything really new or unusual-as Hollywood ‘Sci-fi’ constantly demonstrates) 

Questions: 

(i) Who were pictured in human form?

(i) What do you understand by super animal and super combination of animal? (ii) What is reference of ordinary in the invention of the unusual?

(iv) Why are imaginations sharply limited for science fiction?

Answers:

(1) These were super-humans capable to control natural phenomena. 

(ii) We may refer to satyr, sphinx, harpy grybhon and gorgon in order to tell them super-animal and super combination of animal. 

(iii) It’s stretch of imagination because human body is ordinary but when sphinx is imagined, it has half upper lion while another half is lion. 

(iv) It is because science is based on finding in depth, the characteristics, properties, nature, mallability, these are not super-human like hence, only scientific bent of mind can imagine science fiction that too is very limited. 


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Why does the author impose a condition of public awareness? 

Ans. It is because the ideas, the raw material to brain, generated by watching through eyes, ear, tongue, skin and nose, all sensory organs; cannot be said scientific or based on logic or unaffected by ego, affection, pretty interests, bias, prejudices and stereotypes, discrimination. 

When raw material i.e idea is not available in its filtered form, the mechanisation inside brain is disrupted and sometimes, the energy, without proper outlet left for emissions; manifests in emotional outbreaks or countless offences committed in the society.

Q. 2. Why does the author says that pre-scientific universal can also

be understood from the eye of a science fiction also

Ans. The author compares the priest, magicians, conjurers, shamans, wizards as the scientists of pre-scientific or pre-historic era. It was budding state of science through conscience. 

The author appreciates the phenomenon of nature and tells the above said scientists as known how to adjust with the nature. 

They were a few people hence, masses were under their natural ruling which was accepted as reverence to these people. 

He indicates ruling under Three Orders (priest, nobility and commoners) in the fidual system had lasted longer than any other governing systems interpreted in political science. People were unknown to laws of nature and just in nursery of that universal faculty.

Q3. How does the author highlights the mentality of the people of pre-scientifle universe, still in its swings, who know the nature lawx howeven in superficial cognition? 

Ans Ideas join imagination and an imagery on nature laws, they invent in the form of Centaur Satyr, Sphinx, Harpy, Gryphon and Gorgon, all represent Armulae saturating these handful people and they relate masses to them under we or another tactics. 

The author refers such moulding of public by astute people in ebriety of their passions as- “longing for wonder is satiated in the background of a universe that is controlled by gods and demon who can, in , be controlled by magical formulas either in the form of enchantments to coerce of prayers to cajole.” 

He further says-Those who had invented or noticed the formuals had no problems in finding guilty parties on whom to blame the failure of formulae in specific instances, so that faith in the formulas themselves never wavered”. 

Here he tells about a few people, understood only Visible scope of nature laws but artful in creating deception to human eye or film making. 

Q. 4. What difference does the author tell between pre-scientific universe and the universe of science fiction? 

Ans. He tells that pre-scientific universe existed parallel to the universe of science fiction, is filled with ideas and imagination and it manifests in coercion, torment, oppression, suppression, extortion, extermination while universe of science fiction gives catharsis to longing for wonder, the basic instinct in human beings; against the background of a universe that is controlled by impersonal and answervable law of nature. 

Q.5. With which apt way does the author explain need of literature tickling the science fictions ? 

Ans. The author categorically says that literature of explanatory nature is always required in the universe of science fiction. It’s scope should not be pruned out. 

He points out the power of literature is proved capable even to conduct the universe based on ideas and imagination so long as we still watch its glimpses in so-called cosmopolitans in the phase of globalisation since 1990’s in India. 

It is literature which alone can generate a shift to science fictions from legends, myths etc. generated by ideas bearing literature of pre-scientific universe. However a rational or scientific process of thinking is all mandatory in writing science fictions. 

Q. 6. Why does according to author John W. Campbell admit that science fiction as per his vision can not be written? 

Ans. This was because in his vision, he had accepted domain of science fiction as wide as to cover past and future, probable or improbable, realistic or fantastic conceivable societies. 

He had earlier said that science fiction deals with all events and complications prognostications in the society, he had imagined. 

However, later-on he admits that it is impossible to write a science fiction mystery. Scientific analysis or contemplation, the science fiction requires-

it’s opinion of the author when he recalls the views of John W. Campbell. 

Q. 7. From the text cite some examples of stories that protary a sense adventure and wonder.

Ans. Man horse centaur, the man goat gryphon, the snake woman gorgon were the protagonists or heroes of the ancient stories told during the pre- scientific era i.e. before industrial revolution which was launched in 1800 CE 

Q. 8. Can you guess which literary works the author has in mind when he uses the word “Open Sesame” or the concept of winged horses or flying carpets? 

Ans. It’s concept of wizard, magic, spark, palpitation, pulse beat i.e. people who can control natural phenomenon like priest, prophet etc. It must have been happen so during pre-scientific or pre-historic period. This concept rests on the certain belief that science is the key to the understanding of the universe and that scientists can use science to manipulate that key-It so happens when we talk on post 1800 CE period. 

Q.9. “The background of the story is as important as the content”. Expand on one or two points that the author has made in support of the above statement. 

Ans. Importance of background and content of a story-Background of a story consists of the place, the prospective clues, the situation or circumstances prevailing since a long past and the components involve in any event relevant to the plot etc. 

The author says the background involves a society significantly different from our own and it merely underpins or adds to the story but never does any change in the nature of story. Similarly, content should

be almost relevant and cohesive to the title of the story. The author here says that some competitive activity of an athletic nature is a part of the content of a sports story while nomadic life of the cowboy of the American crest in the later half of nineteenth century is the part of a western story. Similarly, the danger implicit in a forested tropical wilderness is the part of a jungle story.

Q. 10. The writer cites examples from various legends and myths to show the fascination that magic or the supernormal, has for human beings in general, can you think of similar examples from any Indian myth, folklore, tribal, legend etc. 

Ans. (i) In tribal stories oceans fly in the sky as birds, mountains swims in the water as fish, animals, speak as humans and stars grow like plants. These can be angry, sad or happy.

(ii) Tribal people’s worship terricota icons of their dead ancestors. They sit before the image in a trance and do conversation with them. They consider their prosperity can sustain only when their ancestors are propitiated time to time.

(iii) People’s offering milk to snakes under assumption that they are incarnation of “Shesnag”, the earth keeper, on his one thousand hoods. 



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