NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 3 Human Strengths And Meeting Life Challenges

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 3 Human Strengths And Meeting Life Challenges

Chapter NameHuman Strengths And Meeting Life Challenges
Chapter numberChapter 3
Medium English
Study MaterialsVery important question to answer
Download PDFHuman Strengths And Meeting Life Challenges pdf

Human Strengths And Meeting Life Challenges

Pressure can provide energy like electricity, so stress can be described as a pattern of responses of an organism to a stimulus event that disturbs its equilibrium and exceeds its capacity to cope. It happens.

Each person’s response to pressure depends on his personality, upbringing and life. Varies based on experiences. Everyone’s stress responses are different. There are replicas. Some major sources of psychological stress are frustration, conflict, internal and social pressure etc. Frustration arises when a person or situation blocks our needs and motivations, which hinders the attainment of our desired goal.

There can be many reasons for frustration, such as social discrimination, interpersonal loss, getting less marks in school, etc. There can be a conflict between two or more incompatible needs and motivators. Many events, whether they are planned (like moving to a new home) or unpredictable (like breaking up of a long-term relationship) happen in a short period of time, so we find it difficult to cope with them and we are more prone to stress symptoms there are

Celle kept animals in the laboratory for long periods of time by applying various stressors such as high temperature, X-rays and insulin injections. He also visited the hospitals and observed the patients suffering from various injuries and diseases. Selye found similar patterned physiological responses in all. Selpe calls this pattern general adaptation syndrome, or G.I. A. S. (GAS). According to him, G. A. S. There are three stages under it – conscious response, resistance and exhaustion.

The truth is that due to stress, the functioning of the immune system becomes weak. Due to this disease can arise. The immune system protects the body from attacks from inside and outside the body. Neuroimmunology focuses on the relationship between the mind, the brain, and the immune system.

It studies the effect of stress on the immune system. In the immune system, white blood cells or leucocytes recognize and destroy foreign substances (antigens) such as viruses. Antibodies are also manufactured by them.

Coping is a dynamic situation-specific response to stress. It is a set of certain concrete responses to stressful situations or events, which are aimed at solving the problem and reducing the stress. Locating is a dynamic developmental process that occurs in challenging life situations.

However, it refers to the maintenance of positive adjustments. Bouncing back in the face of pressure and calamity and coming back to its place as before is called status establishment.

SituationConceptualization of setting Expresses feelings of self-meaning and self-confidence, self-reliance and self-reliance, finding positive role models for oneself, finding a soul mate, developing cognitive skills such as problem-solving, creative processing -Prosperity, and resilience, and the belief that my life is meaningful and has a purpose.

Situational individuals are able to overcome the effects of trauma, pressure and adversity, and learn to lead mentally self-sufficient and meaningful lives.

Positive health and well-being are developed through a balanced diet, exercise, positive attitude, positive optimistic thinking and social support. Along with this, there is also a need to establish all-round harmony or harmony in society. It is also necessary for us to avoid such unhealthy escape routes as smoking, drinking, drugs and other harmful behaviours.

Human Strengths And Meeting Life Challenges Questions and Answers

Q. 1. Explain the concept of pressure. give examples from daily life। 

Ans. Stress is a part of life. Stress is neither a stimulus nor a response. Rather, there is a continuous transaction process between the individual and the environment. Thus, stress can be described as a pattern of responses by an organism to a stimulus event that disturbs its equilibrium.

And much more than he is capable of doing in front of him. Stress has become associated with both cause and effect, however, this approach to medicine can create a crisis. Hans Selye, the father of modern stress research, defined stress as “the response of the body to any demand”.nonspecific response.”

Stress is not a factor that is found within the individual or in the environment. ItsRather, it is embedded in an ongoing process within which individuals act in their social and cultural environments, appraise these conflicts and try to cope with the various problems arising from them.

Stress is a dynamic mental/cognitive state. It disrupts the homeostasis or creates such an imbalance due to which there is a need for the solution of that imbalance or to restore the homeostasis. Concept of Stress Stress refers to the experience of pressure and discomfort.

Is. The causes of pressure can be yourself, the people around you and the environment. Example—You have to catch a train at 8 in the morning but your autorickshaw gets stuck in a traffic jam. You have to cover a distance of 5 km in 20 minutes. Your heart is racing, you’re sweating, your jaw is clenching, you’re repeatedly checking your watch, you’re cursing at the crowd, and you can’t think clearly.

This type of situation is a stressful situation in which there is pressure on you to reach your destination. The moment you reach the station, you heave a sigh of relief. This relief makes you realize the stress you were going through and that creates pressure. Nowadays life has become fast-paced and the pressures are so much that we all are living under pressure in one way or the other. Also, everyone handles the pressure well

Q. 2. Describe the symptoms and sources of stress. 

Ans. Symptoms of pressure, the response of every person to pressure, his personality, and follow-It varies depending on nutrition and life experiences. Everyone has different patterns of stress responses. The symptoms of stress are physical, emotional and behavioral. Any symptom can indicate the prevalence of pressure, which if not resolved can have serious consequences.

That is, the stress or the symptoms produced due to stress can be presented in the form of various reactions. We put the reactions to pressure in the following categories-

(i) physiological responses, (ii) affective responses, (iii) cognitive responses, and (iv) Behavioral responses.

Q.5. Explain the effect of stress on psychological functions.

Ans. Some major sources of psychological stress are frustration, conflict, and internal and social pressure. There are etc. Frustration arises when a person or situation blocks our needs and motivations, which hinders the attainment of our desired goal.

There can be many reasons for kunta, such as social discrimination, interpersonal damage, getting low marks in school, etc. in two or more incompatible needs and motivators. There can be conflict. Other changes also occur within individuals. four major pressures with stressful situations effect of is associated with-

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(i) Impulsive Effects Persons who are under pressure often sudden state of mind they experience change and behave like eccentrics, due to which they get alienated from family and friends.

(ii) Physiological effects when psychological stressors act on the human body. Some hormones in the body cause specific changes in metabolic activity.

(iii) Cognitive effect If the pressure due to stress is sustained continuously then the person suffers from mental overload.

(iv) Behavioral Effects – Under the influence of pressure, a person starts feeling a lack of concentration in his behaviour. He starts feeling pleasure in consuming drugs. It starts running away after sleeping and completing the work.

Q.6. How life skills are useful to face the challenges of life can you describe? 

Ans. Life skills are the abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that individuals enable the individual to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of daily life. – Persistence, time management, critical thinking, improving relationships, self-care as well as coping with unhelpful habits such as perfectionism, procrastination or procrastination. Freedom from etc., are some of the life skills that will help in facing the challenges of life.

(i) Assertiveness: Assertiveness is a behaviour or skill that helps in clear and confident communication of our feelings, needs, desires and thoughts.

(ii) Time Management By learning to manage and delegate time, release pressureHelp can be found. One major way to reduce time pressure is in the perception of time. Change has to be brought about.

(iii) Discrimination Thinking Many problems related to stress arise as a result of distorted thinking. Some of the rules of discriminating thinking are as follows – challenging your distorted thinking and irrational beliefs, removing potentially intrusive negative anxiety-provoking thoughts, and making positive statements.

(iv) Improving Relationships Communication is the key to strong and lasting relationships. We need to avoid undue jealousy and resentful behaviour.

(v) Self-care: If we keep ourselves well-rested, fit and well-rested, we are better prepared physically and emotionally to face the pressures of daily life.

(vi) Overcome Unhelpful Habits like- perfectionism, avoidance, Delaying or avoiding etc. are such tactics that can be helpful in coping for a short time.

very short answer-type questions

Q, 1. What is the engineering concept of pressure?

Ans. This force or power due to which heat or pressure causes distortion or deformation in a physical object is called pressure from the engineering point of view.

Q. 2. Explain the difference between distress and eustress.

Ans. The negative or harmful effect of stress is called distress and negative-come positive affect is called eustress.

Q, 3. What is meant by primary and secondary evaluation?

Ans. The assessment of whether an event is stressful or not and if so, to what extent it can be harmful is called primary assessment. The review of resources to meet the pressure after the primary assessment is called a secondary assessment.

Q. 4. What is the importance of personal assessment of stress in dealing with stress? 

Ans. If a person evaluates a pressure as weak or considers himself capable of dealing with it, then it is easier to adjust. On the contrary, the problem of adjustment arises when the evaluation is done. Individual differences are seen in this type of evaluation.

Q.5. What are the main sources of pressure?

 Ans. The main sources of stress are trauma-related traumas, new life events, Get confused.

Q, 6. State the sources of psychological stress.

Ans. The sources of psychological stress are internal and personal. frustration, mental conflict, pressure, tension etc. are included.

Q.7. What is a self-defensive solution?

Ans. Some tactics are resorted to at the unconscious level to avoid emotional damage or devaluation caused by pressure. This is called a self-defensive solution. Like- suppression, suppression etc.

Q.8. What is meant by ‘burnout’?

Ans. Responding to long-term and continuous stress results in a person’s loss of energy and a state of fatigue or exhaustion. Extreme fatigue and physical exhaustion are experienced. This is called ‘burnout’ in technical language.

Q.9. Yes. A. S. What is? Whose concept is this?

Ans. Hans Selye explained the physiological consequences of pressure to G.A.S. have proposed a model called the General Adaptation Syndrome. It is a three-stage theory that includes the stages called signal, resistance and exhaustion respectively.

Q, 10. What is the immunity system?

Ans. The immune system is called the system that provides protection against adverse effects on the body’s balance due to any kind of external or internal factors, which are external antigens—They are ready to protect from the dangers caused by bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms, etc.

Q. 11. Briefly explain the condition of probation.

Ans. The physiological form due to an increase in pressure or lack of ability to resist the state of illness itself is called the state of exhaustion. Sometimes a person dies in this state.

Q. 12. How is lifestyle related to health?

Ans. With a healthy lifestyle, a person experiences self-realization in every way. But when the lifestyle remains polluted, there is no experience of self-realization. It has a bad effect on the positive health of the person.

Q. 13. State the importance of diet in lifestyle.

Ans. Diet has the most important place in a self-sufficient and happy life. It has a favorable effect on physical health as well as mental health, ideological purity, positive thinking, cognitive ability and behavior. vegetarian food is the safest and is considered healthier.

Q. 14. What is self-realization?

Ans. Self-realization means- physically, mentally, spiritually and ideologically feel well

Q. 15. What is called positive health?

Ans. healthy physical, mental, social and spiritual self-realizationThe condition is called positive health.

Q. 16. What are the main factors that facilitate self-realization?

Ans. Diet and exercise are key factors in facilitating self-esteem.


Q. 1. What is Adjustment?

Ans. Man is born in a social and physical environment and the conduct of flourishing life depends on the balance or harmony between the expectations of the environment and the efforts of man to fulfill those expectations.

the person due to environmental expectationspsychologicalThe adaptive responses done by the body and maintaining harmony with it is called an adjustment. For example, as soon as there is a change in the atmospheric temperature, the balance gets disturbed and our physical activities start in such a way that the harmony between the physical temperature and the atmospheric temperature starts to re-establish.

Q. 2. What do you understand by pressure? Give an example.

Ans. Stress refers to the feeling of pressure and discomfort. yourself under pressure, There can be people and environments existing around you. If your crop is ripe, prepare to harvest, and then it rains heavily. So you wake up helpless and worried. Here your morale is environmental.

Q. 3. Mention the various reactions to pressure.

Ans. We put the reactions to pressure in the following categories-

(i) physiological responses, (ii) affective responses, (iii) cognitive responses, and (iv) Behavioral responses.

(i) Physiological reactions: Under this come the physiological functions that are affected by stress and do not work normally. The following are the most common reactions of a person to pressure:

(a) rapid heartbeat, (b) muscle tension, (c) dry throat and mouth, (d) stomach feeling of being sick, (e) trembling etc.

(ii) Emotional reactions: Anxiety, depression, anger, restlessness, Lack of control over emotions etc.

(iii) Cognitive responses – The following are cognitive responses to stress: are included-

(a) difficulty in concentrating,

(b) same speed and capacity of any new thing inability to learn from

(c) forgetfulness,

(d) Difficulty in taking correct decisions in time,

(e) doubt,

(f) Confusion in thoughts,

(g) Negative or subjective thoughts.

(iv) Behavioral responses—

(a) shouting,

(b) disjointed conversation,

(c) irrelevant things,

(d) causing injury,

(e) sabotage etc.

Q.4. Mention the sources of pressure.

Ans. The sources of pressure can be placed in four categories, which are as follows-

(i) Family – If you feel pressure because of a serious illness of a family member, then the source of your pressure is the family.

(ii) Vocational/Academic—For a student the pressure may be exams or hostel etc. Low salaries and overworked bosses, uncooperative colleagues and assistants, and poor work direction are some of the professional pressures.

(iii) Personal pressures are many. There are inappropriateness, inferiority and insecurity based on personal pressures. Like- “My memory is weak”, “I am black”, “I am fat”, “I am poor”, “I am not intelligent” etc. Due to these, a person feels inadequate or insecure.

(iv) Environmental – Unforeseen natural calamities like famine, earthquake, flood etc. There are environmental pressures.

Q.5. What is a solution device? Explain the various methods.

Ans. People often change jobs when they feel pressure, whether they are in the office or elsewhere. Like going out drinking tea, smoking cigarette, gossipingEtcetera. This reduces the problem. But these methods do not work in all types of pressure.

Self-centred or positive coping strategies are those that help reduce stress. Some subjective positive solution methods are as follows – logical thinking, discussion, sublimation

(i) Logical Thinking Suppose you get some injury in an accident, instead of being worried or afraid, you should think that God’s grace

That my hands and feet are not broken, have been safe and sound and I will be careful in future.

(ii) Interpretation – You can explain the misunderstanding between you and your friend to a third party. Reconciliation can be done by talking with the help of a friend.

(iii) Sublimation – A couple who had lost their only child started running an orphanage. By sublimating their suffering in a creative way, they are serving such children who do not have guardians.

Q.6. Define stressors and stress responses with suitable examples.

Ans. Stressors are those events or conditions to which people need to react. Like riding a bus or having an interview. That is, pressure arises as a result of some condition or emotional state.

The pressure components themselves are called stressors. Common stress reactions are boredom, frustration, pressure to complete conflicting tasks, meeting deadlines, increased responsibilities, divorce, and debt burden.

Q. 7. What do you understand by pressure? Give the reactions and solutions.

Ans. Concept of Stress Stress refers to the feeling of pressure and discomfort. The causes of pressure can be yourself, the people around you and the environment. Example: You have to catch the train at 8 in the morning but your autorickshawGets stuck in a traffic jam.

You have to cover a distance of 5 km in 20 minutes. YourHeart palpitations, sweating, clenching jaws, ticking my watchStaring, cursing at the crowd and unable to think clearly. This type of situation is a stressful situation in which there is pressure on you to reach your destination.

The moment you reach the station, you heave a sigh of relief. This relief makes you realize the stress you were going through and that creates pressure. Nowadays life has become fast-paced and the pressures are so much that we all are living under pressure in one way or the other.

Also, not everyone is able to organize or control the pressure well. That’s why it should be known what are the sources of pressure and how to deal with them.

Q. 8. Mention the health disorders (physical and mental) that arise as a result of stress.

Ans. Many physical disorders caused by pressure are as follows – speech problems such as stuttering, sexual problems such as impotence, coldness, heart disease, headache, nausea, dizziness, sweating, high blood pressure etc. Mental disorders are- simple phobias, social phobias, stage fright, depression, tension, headache, hysteria, insomnia, increased anger, hatred, increased jealousy etc.

Q.9. How to deal with the problem of pressure in daily life?

Ans. We can get relief from the problem of stress in daily life if regular morning physical exercise, morning walks, gradual relaxation, adopt meditation yoga, think positively, do social work etc. Apart from these, there are also measures, such as time management, and return reduction program.

Q. 10. What is post-traumatic stress disorder? 

Ans. It is a rare disorder. This deformity is the repressed deformity that occurs after a terrible tragedy has passed. Its symptoms are- anxiety, doubt, pending tension, sleep disorders, nightmares and isolating oneself etc.

It often occurs after a tragedy such as a road or other serious accident, physical or psychological victimization such as rape or sexual abuse, or the death of a loved one.

Q. 11. What kind of benefits does a person get from yoga and meditation?

Ans. Yoga and meditation regulate almost all the functions of the body, such as breathing, pulse rate, blood pressure, secretion of hormones, development of excretory products, etc. They help individuals to overcome negative emotions such as anger, anxiety, depression and jealousy etc. Yoga and meditation increase positive thinking, clarity of thoughts, speed of learning and level of attention.

Q. 12. Describe the method of time management.

Ans. The techniques of time management mainly include three-

1. Capacity,

2. Planning and

3. Priority setting ability is enhanced with the help of simple notes, to-do lists, etc. Planning includes preparation, goal setting, scheduling of future events and activities, etc. Planning and prioritizing as per the requirement reduces the pressure. If the fixed tasks are to be classified into A, B, and C categories, if the tasks are to be done according to the exact and proper time budget, then time becomes very effective.


Q. 1. Give the reactions and solutions to the pressure.

Ans. Reaction to Stress: Reactions to stress can be classified into the following categories:

(i) Physical Reactions: Those bodily functions come under this.are affected by pressure and do not function normally.

The following are the most common reactions of a person affected by pressure-

(a) rapid heartbeat,

(b) muscle tension,

(c) dryness of the throat and mouth,

(d) feeling of having a stomach ailment (in Tet language it is like having butterflies in the stomach),

(e) Tremors and so on.

Usually, the weakest and most sensitive part of the body system is the first to be affected by the pressure. That’s why the symptoms that are seen are called psychosomatic reactions. For example, if the respiratory system is weak, pressure attacks it and asthma can be the result. Similarly, if the digestive system is weak, it can be the target of an attack of pressure.

This can result in ulcers. Thus each system can show the effect of pressure and a variety of symptoms such as blood pressure, tremors, abdominal pain, headache, joint pain and lisp can be produced.

(ii) Emotional Reactions — Emotional reactions include anxiety, depression, crying, restlessness, lack of control over emotions, etc.

(iii) Cognitive Reactions: Cognitive reactions to stress include the following—

(a) difficulty in concentrating,

(b) the ability to learn anything with equal speed and ability,

(c) extension,

(d) Difficulty in taking correct decisions, that too in time.

For Behavioral Reactions – When you

But if you are angry, leave that place. Drink two glasses of cold water. Divide your attention by reading, walking or listening to music etc.

Q. 2. Explain the effect of stress on health and the measures to get relief from it.

Ans. Stressors and Stress reactions these are events and situations (such as a bus ride or an interview) to which people react. It is necessary to do

Stress responses are the physical, psychological, and behavioral responses (such as nausea, anxiety, and fatigue) that individuals show in the presence of sources of stress. For example- Sunita has to travel for two hours every day in a crowded bus. The weather outside is hot and dry. In a hurry, she has forgotten to keep her lunch. Sits inside the bus after quarrelling with the conductor on some small issue.

The bus is running behind its scheduled time. By the time Sunita reaches her destination she is tired, restless, depressed, and lethargic. Now it is very clearly known that in the modern age, people are suffering from stress diseases in abundance. Stress has become a fundamental part of life.

Effect of Stress on Health There are indications that 7.5% of human diseases are due to stress. Anxiety and restlessness are common symptoms found during periods of stress. When they become intense and habitual, then they become fearful. A phobia is an irrational fear of an object, person, animal, or situation.

When a person comes near a feared situation, he feels unnecessarily worried and therefore always wants to avoid it. Some of the common malformations are

(i) Social phobia— Inability to address the public (stage fright).

(ii) Phobia of closed space – There is a fear of closed space. Anxiety is an unpleasant and vague feeling of impending danger and fear in the future. A person with multiple concerns is always unclear, confused in thinking and judgmental speech defects such as lisp and stammering, and urinary problems such as bedwetting are found in children.

Q. 3. Describe the different types of pressure.

Ans. The scope of ‘pressure’ is wide. A person has to face many types of pressures during his lifetime. Secondly, in light of the vastness of the region, it is very difficult to classify the stresses into types. Nevertheless, broadly an attempt can be made to understand it by dividing it into three main types. These three types are described here-

1. Environmental Stress (Environmental Stress)resides in it, unexpectedly some kind of disequilibrium arises in it. Occurs which is of catastrophic nature,

As-Earthquake, floods, fires, landslides, cyclones, tornados, thunderclaps etc. these changes in the environment of extreme intensity and unexpected or sudden consequences. of these events

The effect is also widespread, as many people are affected at once.

2. Social Stress Some social events, such as someone in the family’s death of a person, illness, divorce, strained relationship, separation, hostile neighbours etc. are examples of ‘social pressure’. Most of these are ‘major life stressors’, which affect the individual at various points in life.

Individual differences are found in the experience of such pressures. Some people are badly affected by the problem of serious illness which has to be considered for long-term adjustment, while some people consider such incidents as temporary.

Some incidents in this category are the result of daily confusion due to which irritation or irritability arises. These events are experienced as pressure only by those people with whom these events happen.

For example, everyday estrangement between husband and wife, irritation caused by the mischief of children, misbehaviour with children, quarrels between brothers for property, estrangement from neighbours etc. If such incidents continue to happen continuously for some long time, then the stressful effect of these incidents assumes rapid consequences, whose negative effect is also serious, such as abandonment of family or society, suicide, violent quarrels, etc..

Sometimes these incidents also have a bad effect on mental and physical health, such as blood pressure disease, heart attack, mental depression etc.

3. Psychological Stress — This type of pressure is experienced only by the individual. That’s why it is personal. The main source of this type of pressure is also internal. These internal sources are often frustration or disappointment, mental conflict or conflict, stress etc. To understand psychological stress, one should consider the following mental stressors, viz.

(i) Frustration Frustration or frustration arises when a need or motivation is obstructed or not satisfied. In addition to the obstruction created in the path of satisfaction of motivation, the absence of the desired goal also generates frustration.

For example, suppose a student wants to go to a picnic organized by the school, but due to the strict disciplinary restrictions of the parents, his ‘desire’ is obstructed, as a result of which the student is deprived of enjoying the picnic. (deprived) happens. This situation would be frustrating for that student.

Q.5. Throw light on lifestyle and health.

Ans. ‘Stress’ has a direct effect on the general health of a person. There is considerable evidence from studies that there is a strong link between stress and health. In modern times, apart from other causes of dangerous diseases like heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes etc., ‘pressure’ is considered to be a very important reason. Due to pressure, the chances of developing these diseases are very high.

In the context of modern-day run-of-the-mill, increasing competition, changing lifestyles, heaps of problems and challenges, etc., it is surprising how some people live for more than 100 years. considered it is a matter of a healthy diet.

Biological effects, stability of family and personality characteristics play an important role in extending human life and maintaining good health. Therefore, in ‘Art of Living’ (AOL), special emphasis is given that by adopting a balanced lifestyle, a person can maintain not only longevity but also a mentally and physically self-sufficient life.

This balance can be achieved through a combination of a low-fat diet, regular exercise, increased exercise, and continued activity in the later years of life.

The existence of individual differences in individuals is an eternal truth. This variation is seen not only in their biological, social and personal characteristics or qualities but also in their lifestyle. Some people or say, most people include some such habits in their lifestyle which are harmful to their soul life. In this way, man becomes his own enemy and adopts such a lifestyle which has a very bad effect on his health and soon alarm bells start ringing.

For example, cigarette smoking, drug addictions, alcoholism, unhygienic food habits, emotional immaturity, and irregularity in daily routine. , etc. have become an integral part of the modern lifestyle.

Q. 6. Discuss some of the major methods of stress management.

Ans. Stress is called the ‘silent killer’ which silently kills a person slowly. Available statistics from the medical world show that 50-70 % of fatal diseases are due to pressure and about 40% of deaths result from pressure. Heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, kidney-related diseases, intestinal diseases etc. are prominent in fatal diseases.

In view of the increasing negative effects of stress, nowadays special emphasis is being laid on training related to ‘stress management’. There has been an increasing trend towards various methods of stress management in schools, offices and different groups of people. These methods are termed as ‘Art of Living’ (AOL) in modern times which have many techniques. Some of these techniques are given below-

1. Cognitive Behavioral Techniques – Through these methods, people are made to practice being mentally ready to resist pressure. In this, proper methods are trained to develop ‘cognitive defects’ and to face the pressure through proper knowledge of the consequences of pressure, its effects etc. There are three stages of this technique- ‘Teaching’, ‘Training’ and ‘Practice’ In the stage of teaching, the subject is informed about the result of pressure and its effects. It helps to know the symptoms of stress in order to develop a cognitive understanding of stress.

2. Biofeedback – In the process of controlling the physical aspects of stress, due knowledge of the body’s functioning and training is given to control it. Techniques such as yoga and support are examples of these, with the help of which responses to stress are well organized, which help in reducing the effects of stress.

3. Relaxation: The condition opposite to pressure is called relaxation. In this, by reducing the muscular tension, the pressure and the tension generated by it are reduced. Generally, starting from the lower part of the body, the upper part is relaxed. Sometimes, relaxation is also done through the practice of sleeping for certain hours. Taking deep breaths and exhaling is also a method of controlling and relaxing the breathing process. Pranayama is a form of this technique.

4. Exercise — Aerobic exercises, swimming, walking, asanas, dancing, jumping rope, walking in Brahma Bela, taking walks in open spaces, etc. are helpful in reducing the effect of pressure. Using these types of exercises regularly is very beneficial. But, if there is a paucity of time, it must be done at least three days a week, three times (at least 15 minutes each time). Each session should consist of a warm-up, exercise and cool-down phases. This increases endurance, flexibility, the strength of the heart and blood vessels, and the ability to withstand pressure.


Q. What is an adjustment?

Ans. Maintaining harmony in the physical and environmental environment is called an adjustment.

Q. What is adjusted?

Ans. When a person’s behaviour or his direct performance is in accordance with the expectations of the members of the group to which he belongs, then we call that person adjusted.

Q. How many types of pressure are there?

Ans. There are two types of pressure-
(i) environmental, (ii) social

Q. Why does pressure arise?

Ans. Stress arises due to the conflict between interest and motivation.

Q. What is pressure?

Ans. Stressors are events or conditions to which people are required to react. Like riding a bus.

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