NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders

Chapter NamePsychological Disorders
Chapter numberChapter 4
Medium English
Study Materialsimportant question to answer
Download PDFPsychological Disorders pdf

Psychological Disorders

According to many psychologists, ‘deviant’ is simply a label given to behaviour that deviates from social expectations. Abnormal behaviour, thoughts, and impulses differ significantly from society’s ideas about proper functioning. Every society has certain norms which are said or unspoken rules for proper conduct in society.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders

These behaviours, thoughts and emotions which break the social norms are called abnormal. The norms of each society develop from its specific culture, its history, values, institutions, habits, skills, technology, and art. Although several definitions of abnormality have been used over the years, no one also universal acceptance has not been found. However, most definitions share some common features,

Most often four are considered such as deviation, distress, dysfunction and danger. Psychological problems arise due to inadequacies in a person’s thoughts, feelings and worldview.

Each approach used today emphasizes a specific aspect of human behavior. And accordingly interprets and treats the abnormality. This approach also emphasizes the role of various factors

such as biological, psychological and interpersonal and socio-cultural factors when there is a high level of anxiety that is bothersome and interferes with our normal activities is a sign of the presence of anxiety disorders, the most common category of psychological disorders. Dissociation is the disconnection between thoughts and feelings. amputation

There is also a sense of unreality, estrangement or detachment, loss of personality and sometimes loss of identity or change. In substance dependence, the substance to which one is addicted

There is a strong desire for its use, the person shows tolerance and withdrawal symptoms and he has to consume that drug compulsively. A variety of models have been used to explain abnormal behavior. These biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, humanistic, existential, and pathological pressures

Tantra and socio-cultural approaches. Major psychiatric disorders include anxiety, body dysmorphia, dissociative mood, schizophrenia, developmental and behavioral, and substance abuse disorders.

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders Questions and Answers

Q. 1. Identify the symptoms associated with depression and mania.

Ans. Depression Introduction and Symptoms Depression can also be understood as a symptom or a disorder. Depression is a type of mood disorder characterized by negative thoughts, mood, Behave etc. In this condition, there is a lack of interest or pleasure in biological activities.

Major symptoms of depression are changes in body weight, persistent sleep problems, fatigue, inability to think clearly, irritability, slow functioning, and thoughts of death and suicide. Apart from this, there may be other symptoms, such as having a feeling of excessive guilt or worthlessness.

Mania: Introduction and Symptoms – Sometimes a person becomes abnormally excited due to the effect of an event or scene. Feeling extreme tension, resentment and instability, he becomes prone to sabotage. Mistaking the frenzy for irritation or anger, we try to pacify it.

Symptoms: People suffering from mania are euphoric, hyperactive, talkative and easily agitated.

Q. 2. Describe the characteristics of hyperactive children.

Ans. Children who are impulsive may not be able to control their immediate reactions or think before they act. They find it difficult to wait or wait their turn, have difficulty resisting their immediate temptations, or cannot tolerate delays or delays in gratification.

Minor incidents, such as dropping things, are common, while more serious accidents and injuries can also result. There are also many forms of hyperactivity. A.D.H.D. The children are always doing something or the other. It is very difficult for them to sit still or quietly during a lesson.

The child may squirm, fuss, climb up the room or simply run aimlessly around the room. Parents and teachers say of a child who has a spiny foot, who always walks and talks incessantly. It is found four times more often in boys than in girls.

Q. 3. What do you understand by substance abuse and dependence?

Ans. In substance dependence, a strong desire arises for the substance to which one is addicted, the person shows tolerance and withdrawal symptoms and he has to consume that substance compulsorily.

Substance abuse consists of repeatedly occurring adverse or harmful consequences that are related to substance use. People who regularly use substances disrupt family and social relationships, perform poorly in the workplace, and pose a physical danger to others.

Alcoholism and Dependence—People who abuse alcohol or alcohol in large amounts consume alcohol regularly. slow drinking affects their social behaviour and begins to affect their ability to think and work.

Heroin abuse and dependence Heroin abuse significantly impair social and occupational functioning. Most abusers develop a dependence on heroin.

Q. 4. Can a distorted body image lead to an eating disorder? its variousClassify the forms.

Ans. It is a common misconception that a distorted body image can lead to an eating disorder. Attempts to improve body composition by eliminating eating disorders through eating less or more, eliminating food items, etc. remain far from any kind of result.

Classification of eating disorders- Eating disorders can be mainly classified into three categories-

(i) Lack of sweetness (ii) Excessive appetite (iii) Uncontrolled eating.

Q.5. “Physicians diagnose illness by looking at the physical symptoms of a person. How are psychiatric disorders diagnosed?

Ans. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) believes that the assessment of the patient’s ‘mental disorder’ is not only on one broad aspect but on five dimensions or dimensions. These dimensions. These are related to biological, psychological, social and other aspects.

Recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) M. (DSM) systemPsychotherapists are of great help in the diagnosis, prognosis and management (DPM) of the individual.

Through this system, mental disorders are diagnosed on the basis of the thoughts, emotions and behaviors of the patients. This system of diagnosis adopts a broad or broad base of diagnosis. Hence it is a ‘multiaxial diagnostic system’ i.e. this system is not dependent only on symptoms (axis).

Q.6. Distinguish between obsession and compulsion.

Ans. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder — Obsessiveness is an unpleasant and unwanted thought. Which keeps coming into the mind again and again despite the person trying to resist. The most common obsessions are sexual, aggressive, religious, and contamination and suspicion. Recurrent thoughts of killing a loved one or constantly worrying about whether or not to turn off the gas stove on the way to work are examples of obsessions. Are.

Compulsivity is an action or series of actions that a person feels compelled to do repeatedly, despite knowing that it is a futile action, such as repeatedly washing hands + The more common forms of compulsive actions are- To count, arranging, checking, cleaning, or mentally repeat a series of mantras or numbers.

Obsessiveness and obsessiveness are often active together, i.e. obsessive thoughts produce compulsive behaviors, however, one-quarter of people with these disorders only have thoughts, and don’t act on them. In contrast, compulsion actions are always associated with victimization.

The reason need not arise. People who suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder. are unable to control their preoccupation with certain thoughts

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Q. 1. Why do mental disorders arise?

 Ans. According to Hippocrates, mental disorders arise due to malformations of the brain.

Q. 2. When does a person experience extreme anxiety?

Ans. anxiety disorder experiences. But in reality, maintains contact.

Q. 3. What are the types of anxiety disorders?

Ans. The major types of anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, sudden anxiety disorder, maladjustment, psychosis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, etc.

Q.4. What is worry?

Ans. Anxiety is a state of mental tension characterized by fear, doubt and physical excitement. remains in existence.

Q.5. What are the symptoms of panic psychosis?

Ans. increased heart rate and breathing, rapid breathing, chest discomfort, tremors, Panic psychosis is characterized by sweating, dizziness, and a sense of helplessness. There are symptoms.

Q.6. What is disease predisposition?

Ans. Predisposition to a particular mental disorder is called predisposition.

Q.7. What was Freud’s view on mental illness?

Ans. Freud on the basis of a psychodynamic approach in relation to mental illnesses called ‘the unconscious has been described as important.

Q.8. D.S. What is M.IV?

Ans. DSM-IV is the model proposed by the American Psychological Association, which is the current prevailing basis for the classification of different types of abnormalities.

Q.9. What is Down syndrome? What is its main tense?

Ans. Down syndrome is a type C type of mental retardation that is caused by a biological cause, that is, due to an aberrant process of alleles.

Q. 10. What is generalized anxiety? 

Ans. Excessive free-spiritedness is called generalized anxiety. For such people, every little thing is unnecessarily excessive. Causes concern.

Q.11. Which disorders are included in somatic basis psychosis?

Ans, when frustration or conflict or other psychological distress arising out of psychological causes manifests in the form of distortion of ‘indigenous’ components, then it is called psychotic disorders of somatic basis. The reasons for such deformities are not physical but psychological.

Q.12. What type of pathology is indicated by ‘memory loss’?

Ans. Amnesia is a form of dissociative development.


Q.1. Briefly describe Anxiety Disorder.

Ans. Anxiety – The restless mental state is called apprehension or apprehension and fear. According to a recent survey by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) of America, the imprint of ‘anxiety’ is the most important among different types of mental disorders, because the number of such patients is the highest in the population of the whole world.

There are many types of anxiety, such as generalized anxiety, panic, different types of phobias, obsessive-compulsion, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSI). ) etc. are the main types.

Earlier a person suffering from anxiety disorder was called ‘neurotic’. But, nowadays, a cluster of different symptoms is included in the anxiety group and used as a criterion to determine the clear and manifest form of anxiety.

Q. 2. What is the biological perspective of abnormal behavior?

Ans. Behind every twisted evolution is a similar molecule, this extraThe statement that points to biological causes in understanding abnormal behaviour. Modern advances in the field of gene and chromosomal studies, behavioural genetics, biochemistry and endocrine glands results and findings in the field of neuropsychology present substantial evidence in favour of the role of biological factors.

Q.3. Briefly explain post-traumatic stress disorders.

Ans: Most of the victims of AMS, war, terrorist attack, riots, rape, accident or flood, earthquake or natural calamities etc. go in the direction of visibility, depression or inertia in the immediate aftermath or in the coming months and sometimes for years. Stress, experience insomnia and complain of difficulty in concentration.

They have frequent nightmares in which they re-experience the accident or accident. The prevalence of trauma, the presence of symptoms similar to the traumatic event, and the victim’s vulnerable ‘coping style’ are some of the factors found to be associated with PTSD perceived attacks. This is thought to be a stress response that reoccurs many times after a stroke.

Its victims experience emotional recollection of everyday events and a feeling of separation from other people. There may be symptoms of sleep problems, difficulty concentrating, an exaggerated startle response, and feelings of guilt.

Q. 4. What is the standard of abnormal behaviour?

Ans. Since it is not easy to differentiate between normal and abnormal behaviours. Therefore, we necessarily need some conclusion or criterion to define abnormality in order to accurately identify, evaluate, treat, and prevent abnormal behaviour associated with mental disorders. There must be some criteria for classifying certain behaviours as abnormal on the basis of which we can identify individuals with mental disorders in order to provide assistance.

The American Psychiatry Council has set some criteria to define and classify mental disorders which have been widely accepted. Accordingly, mental disorders are defined by the following two broad conclusions. (i) A clinically significant behavior or set of behaviors or symptoms of the individual and which impairs the individual’s ability to function.

(ii) Such behaviours are considered culturally assimilated or inappropriate. Abnormal behaviour is thus viewed in terms of cultural inappropriateness and the problems it poses to the individual or his group, community or society. It is difficult for a person with abnormal behaviour to adjust harmoniously in society. Abnormality adversely affects the well-being of an individual and the well-being of his society.

Q.5. What are the symptoms of mood disorders?

Ans. In our daily life, we often come across people who are always either very sad or always very excited. Sometimes such incidents are also seen and heard that a person who is always happy suddenly commits suicide, while such people are often successful and well-adjusted in their lives.

These types of incidents usually happen in a state of disturbed emotions. For example, suppose a student commits suicide after failing in an examination, a girl commits suicide due to divorce by her husband, etc. There are many such situations that make a person emotionally disturbed.

Being ‘depressed’ due to these states of disturbance indicates the affective or mood disorder of the person.


Q. 1. What are the socio-cultural factors of mental disorders?

Ans. Socio-cultural factors – play an important role in the occurrence of psychotic disorders. There are cultural differences in these. For example, growing up in poverty does not equip children with the resources to cope and leaves them more vulnerable to psychiatric disorders.

Prejudice, discrimination, unemployment, inequality between men and women, rapid social and technological changes, etc. work at a deep level and in a complex manner and are helpful in giving rise to mental disorders. Unfortunately, our knowledge of these factors is limited.

Types of causes: Primary, predisposing, precipitating and reinforcing causes of psychotic disorders have different relationships with the origin of development. There are four types of reasons for this point of view. A primary cause is a condition whose presence is essentially necessary for mental development to occur, but psychosis may or may not occur due to the presence or absence of other factors. The antecedent cause is one such condition.

(which occurs earlier, but increases the likelihood of the disorder occurring later. It increases the individual’s susceptibility to psychosis. A precipitating cause is an immediate condition that contributes to the maintenance of abnormal behaviour that has already occurred. Is helpful.

Predisposition to a particular mental disorder is called diathesis or predisposition. In other words, people have certain susceptibilities to specific psychosis. The reason for this lies in the texture or personality of the person. Excessive demands on the individual by some stressor or environment compel the individual to make adjustments.

The individual tries his best to do so by activating the resources available to him. Nevertheless, there comes a point when the individual cannot cope with these exorbitant demands and begins to break down. This is known as a manifestation of mental disorders. In this context, biological, psychological and socio-cultural factors have an important role to play. However, the mutual interaction of all these is of special importance.

Q, 2. What are the biological factors of mental disorders?

Ans. The biological causes underlying mental disorders are diverse. genetic defects, chromosomal abnormalities, endocrine disruption, anatomical impairments, conditions in brain function, and physical deprivation. All of these alone or combined can lead to abnormal behavior.

If defective genes are passed on from parents to offspring, they can cause physical or mental development. Some psychosis has been found to have a strong genetic basis. Similarly, a severe condition of mental retardation called ‘Down’s Syndrome’ is caused by the addition of an extra chromosome to the 21st pair of chromosomes.

A form of acute mental retardation in young children, ‘Cretinism’, is caused by low secretion of thyroxine hormone from the thyroid gland. Other aspects of body constitution and anatomy also play an important role. They determine our basic tendencies to respond to stress and consequently our adaptation to stress.

Neurotransmitter dysfunction is largely responsible for a variety of symptoms and psychiatric disorders. In the end, Due to malnutrition and lack of rest, the physical balance also deteriorates. Excessive physical deprivation also gives rise to mental abnormalities.

Q. 3. What are the main types of anxiety disorders?

Ans. There are many types of anxiety disorders. Its main types include Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Various Types of Phobia, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Somatoform Disorder, Dissociative Disorder and Post- Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

Generalized anxiety disorder—It is a disorder characterized by unrealistic and excessive anxiety. Traditionally it was described as ‘free-floating worry’, lasting for months or more and not based on immediate life experiences. Individuals with generalized anxiety disorder exhibit those characteristics. It is a common disorder and roughly five percent (5%) of the entire population suffers from it at some point in their lives.

Panic psychosis – Its speciality is that there is a sudden attack of panic in an unexpected, refractory and manifest form that cannot be explained, which reaches its peak within 5-10 minutes. Increased palpitations and breathing, rapid breathing, discomfort in the chest, trembling, profuse sweating, dizziness, and a sense of helplessness are the main symptoms of this type of seizure.

Q. 4. What are the major types of personality disorders? Give an example of any society-1.

Ans. Personality disorders tend to be long-lasting, maladjustive, and have a promiscuous relationship with the environment. They create problems in interpersonal relationships and problems or result in personal distress while at work.

You may have come across people in your life who are overly suspicious and distrustful of others or overly methodical and even in small things so methodical that your patience begins to be tested. You must have also seen such people who give more importance only to themselves and give less time to others. They suffer from some sort of personality disorder.

their behaviour understanding these disorders will definitely help you deal with all of them effectively. These disorders have been placed in the following categories.

(i) ‘Paranoid’, ‘Schizoid’ and ‘Schizotypal’.

(ii) Dramatic (histrionic), self-loving (anti-social), ‘and’ borderline.

(iii) Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive Compulsive and Passive Aggressive.

(iv) Self-defeating.

Paranoid – These individuals have desirable feelings of doubt and disbelief. They are cold and incapable of having close, affectionate relationships with others. They are very sensitive to criticism and are afraid of losing their independence and power. They rarely delve into their problems and rarely seek psychological help.

schizoid devoid of They lack humour and social skills and are happy in lonely work. A schizotypal person thinks, sees, transmits thoughts and behavingThey have awkward ways of doing things etc. They are like ‘Shijyayat’. But apart from this, the awkwardness of speech and thoughts is visible in them, sometimes to the extent of absurdity.

Histrionic: Such people always want to keep themselves in the center of attention. They try to attract attention and convey their message in an intimate and dramatic way. They may even threaten suicide to impress other important people. These usually respond in the form of memory impressions rather than detailed descriptions. This deformity is found more in women than in men.

Self-loving (Narcissistic) – Such people love themselves and give a lot of importance to it. They expect a lot of constant attention and special favour from others. They think that there is superiority, power and beauty or special skill in love affairs. They lack empathy and take advantage of others.

Borderline — Such individuals are more likely to have temporary interpersonal relationships with women than men. Intense attachment, dependence and manipulation are especially visible in their relationships.

They are experienced in the areas of sexual misconduct, drug abuse and fearless driving and have a perpetual feeling of emptiness. Avoidant individuals avoid relationships and social interactions. They tend to engage in relationships. So want to be, but the fear of rejection from others and doubt in self-realization stops it.

Q.5. Schizophrenic and DelusionalDescribe the disorders.

Ans. Schizophrenia refers to the condition of ‘mental derangement’ which is a severe form of psychosis. The English word for schizophrenia is derived from the Greek words ‘schizo’ and ‘phone’.

Schizo means ‘split’, while phone means ‘mind’. In this way, ‘schizophrenia’ literally means split of mind.

Schizophrenia is a common disorder among various severe mental disorders, which include patients with severe or acutely disordered moods and split personalities. Their entire personality is divided into pieces due to which various elements of their personality get scattered.

Emotional impoverishment, the dilapidation of thought, weak social relationships, delusions and hallucinations predominate in them and their behaviour is bizarre. There are

Q.6. on Substance-Related DisordersLight up

Ans. In modern times, the use of ‘alcohol’ i.e. alcohol and other psychoactive drugs is being considered as a symbol of civilization and pride. The result of this is that the prevalence of these drugs is increasing day by day.

Although, from the point of view of health, some of these substances have been completely banned and some have been partially banned, in spite of this, the expenditure of these substances or the number of addicts is increasing.

As a result of prolonged use of these substances, physical and mental health is badly affected. By using these, the body parts are protected from heavy diseases. become victims of diseases such as liver cirrhosis, kidney failure, cancer etc. This can happen to drug addicts.

Symptoms of negative changes in motivation, attention, concentration and functional coordination etc. flourish in mental diseases. As a result of consuming them for a long time, there are many types. Mental disorders, such as P.K. T., Korsakoff psychosis, delirium tremens, etc. develop which in most cases prove to be incurable (the chances of recovery of such patients depend on the longevity of the addiction and the adequate cooperation of the patients and those close to them). depends.)

There are many types of substances in drugs, such as alcohol, smack, ecstasy, bordures, Opium, gutka, tranquillizers (sedatives), charas, morphine l. S. D. BenzeneMethedrine, Amphetamine, Cocaine etc. As a result of their regular consumption, there is a negative effect on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) which results in muscular contractions in the person, side effects on the eyes, inconsistency in blood pressure, water in the body. Lack of immunity, reduction in immunity, change in body chemistry and physical imbalance.

Its psychological effects include hallucinatory experiences, poor memory, cognitive distortions, emotional imbalance, passivity, thinking disorder, lack of decision-making, etc.

Q.7. Different types of behavioural disordersTell to

Ans. The maladjusted behaviors that develop in childhood carry over into adolescence and adulthood. Some of the psychotic disorders that flourish in these states are listed below-

Attention Deficit / Hyper ActivityDisorder) Some children may suffer from either or both of these problems. this someone is not able to pay enough attention to specific stimuli or has a very high level of hyperactivityperform. Due to both of these, there is a decrease in their academic social efficiency.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder – This is a type of conduct disorder. Children often have a tendency to rebel against their parents, teachers or other persons who insist on disciplinarian behaviour and try to curb the child’s narcissistic tendencies. If these tendencies are not properly managed for some reason, then this tendency takes the form of permanent psychosis in children.

Separation Anxiety Disorder – Children suffer from this disorder as a result of being separated from their parents. They develop excessive anxiety which results in a fearful response. Such children are also deprived of encouraging affection which leads to adjustment difficulties. Eating Disorders – There are two types of eating disorders.

Some children develop the tendency of dieting. They go on a diet with the aim of controlling weight, making the body tall and slim and psychologically attracting the attention of others. This is called ‘anorexia nervosa’.

On the other hand, some children are excessively interested in eating. This type of disorder is called the disorder of bulimia nervosa. Such people, after eating a large amount of food, do the act of vomiting, the act of cleaning the stomach and doing more physical exercises. The basic basis of cognitive and emotional aspects in the development of both these types of disorders. It happens.

Q.8. Throw light on HIV AIDS.

Ans. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV).

According to an estimate by the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 9 million Indians are living infected with HIV, whereas, around the end of 2000, the population of these infected persons in the whole world was 36.1 million. So, it is clear that it is a serious health issue. Therefore its knowledge, of this infectious disease

May be helpful in controlling the spread. HIV is a fatal infectious disease for which efforts are being made to cure it. This is most often unprotected sex – behaviour or other factors, infected blood or body

Caused by the transmission of liquids etc. The need to create awareness and educate people about safe sex practices needs to be emphasized. There is a need to remove misconceptions related to HIV AIDS.

The rest of the life of HIV AIDS patients can be made happy and enjoyable. Psychosocial support is to be provided to such patients and their relatives as a community service. To prevent the spread of its infectiousness, an awareness campaign was conducted at the community level.

expected to go. Programs related to the identification of dangerous behaviours and infection suppression should be encouraged.

It is the need of the present time so that HIV/AIDS can be prevented. A progressive role of the psychologist is expected in overcoming the epidemic of HIV/AIDS.

They can play an important role at both the primary and secondary levels. Psychologists can primarily be helpful in behavioural change that will control the spread of HIV. Psychologists can play an important role in the lives of people living with HIV by providing new communication and appropriate counselling regarding HIV testing, counselling patients and their families on how to manage the disease, counselling and coping methods, etc.


Q. What is dysthymic psychosis?

Ans. Dysthymic psychosis is a mild form of depression characterized by euphoria and depression. The states keep on changing dominantly and alternately.

Q. Mention two main symptoms of schizophrenia.

Ans. In patients with schizophrenia, hallucinations and paranoia-related targets of reference are central.

Q. Mention the physical diseases related to drug addiction.

Ans. Drug addicts are prone to liver cirrhosis, neurological disorders, kidney disease, cancer etc.

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