NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches And Counselling

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches And Counselling

Chapter Nameherapeutic Approaches And Counselling
Chapter numbertherapeutic Approaches And Counselling
Medium English
Study MaterialsVery important question to answer
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A special relationship between a client and a therapist is called a therapeutic relationship or therapeutic relationship. It is called friendship. Although all psychotherapies aim to alleviate human suffering and promote effective behaviour, they differ greatly in concepts, methods, and techniques.

present feelings associated with the sense of the futility of one’s existence etc. which are psychological cause problems.

Psychodynamic therapy considers emotional insight to be an important benefit that the client gains through therapy. Psychodynamic therapy has studied the structure of the psyche, and the dynamics between the various components of the psyche, and conceptualized the sources of psychological distress.

Irrational beliefs mediate between antecedent events and their consequences. ImpulseThe first step in logic therapy is antecedent belief-consequence (PEC) analysis. the events leading to the psychological distress are recordedDistorting current reality.

Individual psychotherapy is the main method of psychotherapy for adults with psychological distress. Therapists need professional training before they can practice psychiatry.

Textbook Review Questions and Answers

Q.1. Describe the nature and scope of psychotherapy. Highlight the importance of therapeutic relationships in psychotherapy.

Ans. Nature-Psychiatry An Effective Treatment for Relieving Psychological Distress which is accomplished through a voluntary relationship between the client and the therapist.

Psychotherapy aims at changing maladaptive behaviours and reducing feelings of personal distress. and helping the patient to adapt better to his environment.

Scope – In the therapeutic process, the human relationship between the client and the therapist is the centre of therapeutic attention, in which the interaction between the patients results in desirable improvements in thinking, resolution, awareness, etc. That is, the subject areas of psychiatry are the following-

1. Strengthening the client’s determination to improve. –

2. Reducing emotional pressure.

3. Unleash the potentialities for positive development.

4. Modification of habits.

5. Making changes in the patterns of thinking.

6. Increasing self-awareness.

Q. 2. What are the different types of psychotherapy? On what basis have they been classified?

Ans. Classification of Psychotherapy Psychotherapy can be classified into three broad groups, namely psychodynamic, behavioural and existential psychotherapies. Chronologically, psychodynamic therapies appeared first, followed by behavioural therapies, while existential therapies, also called third forces, appeared last.

Basis of classification of psychiatry – The classification of psychiatry showing differences in concepts, methods and techniques is based on the following parameters-

(i) What is the reason, which created the problem?

(ii) How did the cause emerge?

(iii) What is the main method of treatment?

(iv) What is the nature of the therapeutic relationship between the client and the therapist?

(v) What is the main benefit to the client?

(vi) What is the duration of treatment?

Thus different types of psychotherapy differ on multiple parameters. However, they all follow the same method of providing psychological treatment for psychological distress. The therapist, the therapeutic relationship, and the process of therapy become agents of change in the client. Which leads to the alleviation of psychological distress.

Q.3. A therapist asks the client to share all his thoughts, even experiences from early childhood. Describe the technique and type of therapy used in it.

Ans. Technique—The oldest form of psychotherapy, psychodynamic therapy has been used to conceptualize the structure of the psyche, the dynamics between different components of the psyche, and the sources of psychological distress.

Since the psychodynamic approach ultimately considers conflict to be the main cause of psychological disorders, the first step in treatment is to bring out this intrapsychic conflict.

Psychoanalysis invented two important methods to bring out the inner conflict, the free association method and the dream interpretation method. Types of therapy Techniques involving transplantation are used for a given condition.

Transference and interpretation are the methods of treating the patient. As the unconscious forces are brought into the conscious world by the above methods of free association and dream interpretation, the client begins to identify with the therapist as persons from their past, usually childhood.

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The therapist can be seen as the punishing father or the neglectful mother. The therapist maintains a non-judgmental yet permissive attitude and allows the client to continue this process of establishing emotional identity. This is the process of imputation.

The client begins to express to the therapist his frustration, anger, fear and depression that he had harbored towards the person in his past but could not express them at that time.

The doctor currently becomes that person’s substitute. This condition is called transfer neurosis. it is of two types occurs-

(i) positive other imputation and

(ii) Negative implantation There is also resistance in the process of implantation. Since the process of attribution exposes unconscious desires and conflicts, which increase the level of suffering,

The client resists attribution.

Interpretation is the basic tool by which change is effected. resistance (confrontation and clarification are two analytical techniques of interpretation.

In resistance, the therapist points to one of the psychological aspects of the client that the client must confront.

The explanation is a process through which the therapist brings an unclear or confusing phenomenon into focus. Duration of treatment for four-five days a week with one-hour session daily

Psychoanalysis can go on for many years. This is an intense treatment. three stages in treatment there are three stages-

(i) The client becomes familiar with the routines.

(ii) Attribution and resistance on the part of the client and resistance explanation mean integration function.

(iii) The third stage is the stage of termination.

Q.4. Discuss the various techniques used in behavior therapy.

Ans. Introduction — Behavioral therapies hold that psychological distress is caused by faulty behaviour patterns or thought patterns.

Therefore, their focal point is the behaviour and thoughts existing in the client. A vast set of specific techniques and improvement-oriented interventions in behaviour therapyIt happens.

The basis of behaviour therapy is to characterize faulty or dysfunctional behaviour.

to discover the factors that reinforce and maintain behaviours and the methods by which they can be converted.

Method of Treatment Clients who suffer from psychological distress or physical symptoms that cannot be considered a physical illness are interviewed from this point of view.

So that their behaviour patterns can be analyzed. Behavioural analysis is performed to find dysfunctional behaviour, factors predisposing to impaired learning, and factors that perpetuate impaired learning.

Dysfunctional behaviours are those behaviours that tax the client. Antecedent factors are the reasons that predispose a person to engage in that behavior. Sustaining factors are those factors that lead to the perpetuation of delinquent behaviour.

The physician accomplishes this by establishing antecedent operations and consequent operations.

Desirable Techniques—There are many techniques available to change behaviour. The principle of these techniques is to reduce the client’s emotional arousal level, and to change behaviour by classical conditioning or operant conditioning with varying relevance of reinforcement.

There are two main techniques of behavioural refinement-

Inhibitory reinforcement and aversive conditioning. Negative affect refers to a consequence associated with an undesired response. That which is annoying or not liked. Aversive conditioning refers to the repeated association of an unwanted response with an aversive consequence.

If adaptive behaviour occurs only occasionally, positive reinforcement is given to increase the deficit. People with behavioural problems can be given a token as a reward each time a desired behaviour is performed. This is called the token economy.

Differential reinforcement can simultaneously reduce unwanted behavior and promote desired behavior and the simultaneous use of positive reinforcement for undesired behavior and negative reinforcement for unwanted behavior can be a method. The second method is to positively reinforce the desired behavior and ignore the unwanted behavior.

The second method is less painful and equally effective. Gradual desensitization is a technique propounded by Wolpe for the treatment of phobias or irrational fears. The therapist relaxes the client and the least anxiety

Asks to think about the generating situation. According to the principle of mutual inhibition, two opposing forces at the same time,

Appearance blocks weak power. The process of modelling or impersonation learns to behave in a particular way.

Q.5. Explain with examples how cognitive distortion occurs.

Ans. Introduction—Cognitive distortions are ways of thinking that are normal in nature but that distort reality in a negative way. Under the dysfunctional cognitive structure, cognitive errors in social reality are seen. Cognitive distortions are displayed in the form of negative automatic thoughts.

(i) According to his theory of psychological distress characterized by anxiety or depression, a core schema or system is developed, which includes the individual’s beliefs and action patterns.

Thus a client who was neglected by his parents in childhood develops a core schema that “I am not wanted”. During his lifetime some decisive event happens in his life. In school, he is laughed at by the teacher in front of him.

ThisThe critical event activates his core schema “I am not wanted” which are negative thoughts persistent irrational thoughts, such as ‘no one loves me’, ‘I am ugly’, ‘I am stupid’, ‘I am successful’ Can’t be and so on.

These negative automatic thoughts also lead to cognitive distortions. Cognitive distortions are ways of thinking that are normal in nature but that distort reality in a negative way. These thought patterns are called dysfunctional cognitive structures. These cognitive errors about social reality generate.

very short answer-type questions

Q. 1. Explain the meaning of the word ‘medicine’.

Ans. ‘Medicine’ is a broad technical term that refers to the treatment or practice of helping a patient. Relates to the efforts made by a mental health specialist to overcome difficulties.

Q.2. What is the basic objective of the psychologist in psychotherapy?

Ans. The basic objective of the psychologist in psychotherapy is to remove, reduce, or modify the current symptoms of maladjusted behavior and in turn to help the individual gain insight into his or her problem.

Q.3. What is psychotherapy?

Ans. Identifying and reducing the symptoms of adjustment behaviour of mental patients The method used to overcome and enable readjustment is called psychotherapy.

Q. 4. The result of the relationship between the patient and the therapist in psychotherapy how is it?

Ans. Establishing a professional friendly relationship between the patient and the therapist in psychotherapy occurs.

Q.5. How many stages are there in psychotherapy?

Ans. Three Stages of Psychotherapy – Stages of Primary, Middle and Termination StagesThere are

Q.6. What is meant by the medical settlement?

Ans. A contract of mutual understanding and gratitude between the patient and the therapist is considered therapeutic. Samjita says.

Q.7. What are the main types of biomedical therapy?

Ans. There are three main types of biomedical therapy-

(i) Insulin coma technique,

(ii) pharmaceutical therapies and

(iii) Psychosurgical procedures.

Q.8. What is the basic principle of psychodynamic therapy?

Ans. Psychodynamic therapy is based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.

Q. 9. What is autocracy or free association?

Ans. Whatever thoughts come to mind without hesitation, even if they are pointless otherwise, expressing freely is called free association.

Q, 10. What is Biofeedback?

Ans. Biofeedback training to influence the patient’s personal physiological mechanismsThey say.

Q. 11. What is RET?

Ans. Rational Emotive Therapy is called RET which is a form of cognitive therapy. There is technology.

Q. 12. What is the meaning of Ashtang Marg?

Ans. Patanjali has mentioned eight paths of yoga which are called Ashtanga Marga. These are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi respectively.

Q. 13. When should the therapy session end?

Ans. Often the therapy session is terminated when the patient appears to be able to readjust. But if necessary, it can be terminated in the middle of it seems futile to run the therapy session or it is difficult to get the cooperation of the patient.

Q. 14. Whose gift is Manoshalya Kriya? 

Ans. of ‘Moniz’.

Q.15. Who and when won the Nobel Prize in the field of medicine for mental disorders?met? 

Ans. Moniz was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1949 for a surgical operation called prefrontal lobotomy for the treatment of psychiatric patients.

Q. 16. Why is behaviour therapy called behaviour modification?

Ans. In behavior therapy, emphasis is placed on the acquisition of adaptive behavior by modifying erroneous acquired or learned behaviors, hence it is called behavior modification.


Q.1. What do you understand by psychotherapy?

Ans. Psychotherapy is the method of removing the abnormality of personality by using psychological methods or means. In other words, we can also say that the psychological methods by which personality conflicts or knots are resolved

Or maladjusted behaviors are converted into accommodative behaviors, they are called ‘psychotherapy’. Page has defined it and said- ‘The treatment of personality disorders by psychological methods can be termed as psychotherapy.

Q. 2. Explain the purpose of psychotherapy.

Ans. All types of psychotherapy aim to achieve some or all of the following goals:

(i) Encouraging the determination of the patient to improve the disease.

(ii) To reduce emotional pressure.

(iii) Unleash inner potentialities for positive growth.

(iv) Improving habits.

(v) Bringing change in the way of thinking.

(vi) To promote awareness.

(vii) Improving interpersonal relations and communication.

(viii) Simplifying the decision-making process.

(ix) To be aware of one’s preferences in life.

(x) To engage with one’s social environment in a more creative and self-aware manner. The goal of all psychotherapy is to relieve human suffering and nurture it more effectively, but there is great variation in these concepts, methods, and techniques.

Q.3. Write a short note on ‘Reiki’.

Ans. ‘Reiki’ is a Japanese word. It is related to a simple ‘hands up’ healing technique and is a type of energy medicine. In relation to health, it is an interesting development.

The universal life force or energy calms the mind and body. Energy is transmitted by moving the hands on certain places on the body. The flow of energy accelerates the healing process. Just as energy is the basic nature of the universe, similarly Reiki is the basic nature of existence.

Our thoughts and emotions are all made up of energies of different frequencies. By bringing the body and mind in contact with universal energy, Reiki can heal a person from bondage and make him feel healthy and independent.

Reiki awakens the energy of life in the body. According to this the body is actually a vibration of energy at a certain frequency. Negative thoughts are experienced as negative experiences.

Such thoughts can take the form of headache, ulcer or anger. Reiki brings such thoughts to higher vibrational frequencies of universal life force energy which then penetrate and destroy any blockage.

Q.4. What is Pranic Healing?

Ans. Pranic healing is not intended to supplement, but complement drug therapy.Is. Pranic healing is the transfer of very subtle energy from one person to another. Pranic healing physical, mental, emotional and spiritual without the use of touch or toolsDistortions have to be resolved.

In this, according to mental activities, our body is actually made up of two parts – the visible physical body and the invisible energy body called Bioplasm or ‘Aura’.

The visible physical body is that part of the human body that we see. touch and with which they are most familiar. Our ‘aura’ is that luminous energy body that enters the visible physical body and spreads beyond it.

Pranic healing is a traditional science and art of healing, which used prana or life energy and chakras or energy centers to perturb energy levels. There are three primary sources of healing prana – solar prana, air prana and earth prana. Solar prana is the prana derived from sunlight.

It enlivens the whole body and promotes health. The prana stored in the air is called Vayu Prana. It is taken up by the lungs through respiration. And also directly assimilated by the energy centers of the bioplasmic body. These energy centres are called chakras.

The prana situated in the land is called the land prana. It is received by the soles of the feet. Walking barefoot increases the amount of Bhoomi Prana absorbed by the body. It takes a lot of practice and time to reach a certain level of proficiency in Pranic needed.

Q. 5. What are the limitations of psychotherapeutic methods?

Ans. How successful is psychotherapy? It is very difficult to evaluate it. Nevertheless, the general findings of various researchers clearly indicate that different therapeutic approaches are effective to varying degrees. Does psychotherapy encourage maintaining the status quo? Should it do this? This is a difficult question involving ethical and social issues and has no definite answer.

Which therapy will be more beneficial in which type of patient with which type of problem is a more difficult question? It is clear from experience that different medical systems have their limitations and the same applies to patients and their problems. Psychodynamic therapy is generally effective on reflective individuals. But for others, it is of limited utility.

It requires more time, money and effort from the point of view of the people getting treatment. Behaviour therapy is most effective with children and those with habit disorders. Although it is simple and inexpensive, it is also mechanical and somewhat catabolic. Cognitive therapy has proven efficacy in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Humanistic therapy is useful for individuals who have potential but feel blocked by existential problems.

Q.6. For which mental disorders have drug therapy been used?

Ans. Drug therapy has been used mainly for four types of disorders – schizophrenia, mania, depression and anxiety. These drugs are called psychotropic drugs because they affect the psychological behavior of the patients. These substances are also called psychotropic drugs.

Although they are used for major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. calm in patientsि induce a state of anxiety and reduce the intensity of disordered symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. Patients cut off from society using these to respond to the environment seems

However, long-term consumption of these in excessive amounts also produces other unwanted side effects. Although drug therapy is not yet completely successful in the treatment of schizophrenia. Anti-mania drugs are used to treat patients who are highly agitated, agitated, and sometimes unmanageable.

Anti-depressant drugs are used for patients who suffer from depression. Anti-anxiety drugs are called mild sedatives.

Q.7. What is Psychosurgery?

Ans. For the treatment of psychosis or psychotic, the ‘psychosurgical technique’ is also used. In 1935, Moniz proposed prefrontal lobotomy for such patients, for which he was also awarded the Nobel Prize in 1949.

However, later it was seen that surgery also has some side effects which are disastrous. Hence this technique is hardly used these days. This technique is used as a last resort.

Q.8. What do you understand by Yoga?

Ans. ‘Yoga’ is an ancient functional ideology of India that is used for the prevention of physical and mental diseases. ‘Yoga’ in the true sense of health and well-beingIt is said to be a ‘nurturant’ and promoter.

According to Patanjali- ‘Yoga’ ‘restrains’ the pictures and the instincts of the mind or its goal is to restrict the mental instincts.

Meaning of ‘Yoga’ in SanskritMental instincts have to be tied in such a way that a couple is legally bound to each other in a love bond. i.e. by restricting and controlling mental thoughts, instincts etc., the individual selfThe means of uniting the individual self with the universal or God is called Yoga.


Q. 1. What are the characteristics common to all psychotherapeutic approaches?

Ans. For an emotionally disturbed person, many types of psychological support are simultaneously available in daily life. It can range from the simple advice of a teacher or enlightened person to the consolation of a friend, parent or relative, to the sermon delivered by a saint, religious leader or priest.

All of these work to some extent in the direction of emotional healing. There are some elements of psychotherapy in these actions of the people around us, yet there is a significant difference between these actions and the actual meaning of psychotherapy.

Psychotherapy consists of a systematic attempt to treat an individual using psychological means. This can be done by a trained person who voluntarily (knowingly) enters into a professional relationship with a patient with an emotional problem.

Its purpose is to remove, reduce, or modify the current symptoms of the maladjusted behavior, and in turn to help the individual gain insight into his or her problem.

Psychotherapy helps the individual to choose more accommodative and solution-oriented behaviours, through which personal growth and ‘self’ are in harmony. However, curative changes can occur in the patient’s life even without psychotherapy,

As in self-correcting and or sometimes through the use of suggestive measures such as ‘placebo’. initially psycho-emotional

Considered limited to verbal and non-verbal therapy methods used to overcome difficulties. More recently, with advances in the field of cognition, cognitive aspects of communication have come to be included in clinical settings.

However, as a whole, the centrepiece of psychotherapy is the unique relationship between psychotherapist and patient. This process emphasizes both verbal and non-verbal communication so that the individual can relieve stress and set conditions for re-learning and personal growth and development.

All approaches to psychotherapy share the following characteristics:

(i) It uses a sequence of rules contained in different principles of medicine,

(ii) Only those who have received real training can do psychotherapy because an untrained person can unconsciously expect good and do harm.

(iii) In the case of treatment, a doctor and a patient, can solve their problems. seeks and receives, are involved, the individual is central to the healing process, and

(iv) The interaction between the above two persons – the doctor and the patient, creates and strengthens the therapeutic relationship. It is a confidential, interpersonal and dynamic relationship. This human connection is the focus of any type of psychotherapy and the vehicle for change.

The aim of psychotherapy is to reduce personal psychological stress by changing maladjustive behaviours and to help the patient adjust better to his environment. Help is to be given. On some other occasions, improper marital, occupational and social adjustments is also necessary that important changes are made in the personal environment of the individual.

Q. 2. What are the techniques to bring unconscious material to the level of consciousness?

Ans. Psychodynamic therapy is based on the psychoanalytic approach. Inherent in this therapy is the belief that mental problems stem from childhood experiences. Often the child has suffered some mental trauma or may have been in situations provoking antisocial impulses. These impulses are repressed in the unconscious.

In spite of living like this in the unconscious, there remains the fear of their coming into consciousness. Most of the mental energy of sick people is spent in suppressing impulses and they have very little energy left to lead a more effective life.

It is believed that by gaining insight into such repressed material, one is freed from the suffering and shame associated with it. There are various approaches to psychoanalysis followed by practitioners oriented towards following are the techniques-

(i) Free association – In this the patient is only asked to express whatever is in his mind. Thoughts come on their own, without trimming them down or taking care of how much what’s personal, hurtful, embarrassing, or irrelevant. The patient is asked to express his/her thoughts and feelings in a spontaneous/spiritual manner in a relaxed posture.

(ii) Analysis of dreams Freud had said that dreams are highways to reach the unconscious. In sleep, ego control is often less alert and repressed thoughts are expressed than in the waking state. What the dreamer sees in the dream is more likely to come out of the unconscious in dreams than the dream itself, and they are in the form of symbols. The subject matter is revealed. It is a mixture of present and past desires, which remain in a subtle form in a single event.

(iii) Analysis of resistance Individuals may show resistance during free association, dream analysis or therapy. This can manifest in many forms; Such as coming from the heart on fixed occasions, making an excuse for illness or health, showing no desire to talk about some things/episodes, sudden silence (obstruction), forgetfulness etc. Discussion is done so that he can better understand the unconscious causes of such resistance.

(iv) Transference analysis — Just as individuals have been reactive with some important persons in childhood, usually with their mother or father, in the same way in the present as a patient, those individuals are reactive with the therapist as well. Are. This reaction may be in the form of rebellion, dependence, or overwhelming love for the therapist. In a therapeutic setting, efforts are made to address the ill effects of disrupted early relationships. Resolving transference is also an essential element in effective psychodynamic therapy.

Thus, psychodynamic therapy seeks to help patients develop insight into the origins of difficult emotional patterns by bringing in unconscious material and re-experiencing the past over the course of the therapy process. There are many types of psychodynamic therapy, such as psychoanalysis-oriented psychotherapy, interpersonal therapy, or Jung’s depth-oriented psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis-oriented psychotherapy remains the therapy of choice for those seeking greater self-analysis or insight into themselves.

Q.3. What are the steps involved in the gradual desensitization technique?

Ans. It is one of the most well-known and widely used techniques of behavior therapy, which is used in the treatment of depression and other disorders associated with anxiety. This technique, developed by Wolpe, is based on the assumption that a person cannot be both relaxed and anxious at the same time. Therefore, when the patient is in a state of total relaxation when an increasingly increasing anxiety-producing stimulus is presented, the relaxation state overcomes the anxiety state and the patient becomes desensitized to the anxiety-producing stimulus. desensitised). sorted

The following four steps are followed as part of the desensitization procedure.

(i) Interview—Some preliminary interviews are conducted. After this, the person is given some personality questionnaires to find out the main sources of anxiety.

(ii) Training for relaxation How the patient is relaxed during the initial few sessionsFor this, various relaxation techniques are used.

(iii) Structure of concern hierarchies- On the basis of preliminary interviews, a hierarchy of situations ranging from moderate to extremely high levels of anxiety is prepared.

(iv) Desensitization sessions- In these sessions, when the patient is in a state of relaxation, he is asked to imagine a scene of the least anxiety-producing state or a picture of the said state is presented in front of him. After some time, the therapist presents a relatively slightly higher anxiety-producing condition in the hierarchy and then proceeds sequentially to higher conditions, until the anxiety-producing stimulus reaches the highest level. Go

Q.4. What is the focal point in cognitive therapy?

Ans. The use of cognitive therapy has increased substantially over the past two decades because of its efficacy, especially in the treatment of depression and anxiety. Pioneers in the use of cognitive therapy were Albert Elis and Aaron Beck. The term ‘cognitive’ refers to functions such as attention, judgment, learning, thinking, memory, and consciousness used to make sense of the world of our experience.

Cognitive therapist’s negative processes and structures have a significant impact on behavior. Negative or self-defeating subjective schematic thoughts of self, the world, and the future, the so-called cognitive triad, make the self miserable, the environment threatening, and the future fearful.

Ellis’s Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) — This is one of the most popular therapy approaches, which attempts to change the patient’s underlying maladaptive thought processes. Psychologically, a self-sufficient person is one who is able to think properly and behave according to reality. Many people harbour unrealistic beliefs and perfectionist values. they act accordingly,

Q. 6. Describe the method of Psychodynamic Therapy.

Ans. The psychodynamic therapy method of modern psychotherapy of psychiatric treatment is the system. This system started in 1880 AD with the studies of Sigmund Freud. He has proposed a ‘psychoanalytic technique’ for the treatment of psychopaths, which is actually a detailed, revolutionary and systematic theory. Later, Freud’s disciples and some others also carried forward this tradition.

Psychodynamic therapy techniques are based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. That’s why Freud’s name is taken as the father of this method of therapy.

The psychodynamic (psychoanalytic) therapy approach is based on the belief that childhood experiences play a major role in the origin of mental problems. When the developing child is faced with mental traumas or situations that stimulate undesirable impulses, these traumatic experiences and impulses are repressed in the unconscious.

But the possibility of conscious expression of these repressed impulses remains. The maximum amount of mental powers or energy of sick persons is consumed in repressing such impulses.

As a result, too little energy is available to adjust effectively to the realities of a large and complex environment, resulting in maladjustment. So if the patient has an insight into such repressed thoughts, currents and impulses received, he can be free from the sufferings associated with them.

Psychodynamic therapy is based on this belief. The method of psychoanalytic therapy is actually not a single method, but it includes several techniques. These techniques are as follows-

Free Association—The patient is placed in a comfortable position and in a dimly lit room, and instructed to say whatever comes to his mind without hesitation and hesitation, be it thoughts or words. Meaningful or nonsensical, moral or immoral, social or antisocial, real or unreal, the patient expresses his feelings, and thoughts instinctively as per the instructions of the doctor, and the doctor organizes the thoughts expressed by him in a meaningful way. Is.

In this way the patient is able to reveal the repressed thoughts in his unconscious and the therapist helps the patient to develop ‘insight’ about the repressed thoughts of the unconscious. The therapist helps the patient to become aware of the patient’s relationship with the unconscious and present distress, which develops ‘insight’ in the patient. Dream Analysis also discusses. Freud believed that dreams are a highway into the unconscious. in dreams what the patient says are the expressed dream subjects as symbols of unconscious experiences. appear.

Therefore, by analyzing the expressed subjects of dreams and knowing the hidden or latent subjects, the feelings of the unconscious can be known and understood. Therefore, by analyzing the expressed dream themes (which are disguised by the ‘dream work’) the patient can be helped to develop an understanding of the unconscious’s repressed feelings and their relationship to the present distress.

Analysis of Resistance During autonomy or free association, dream analysis or therapy, the patient exhibits resistance in various ways, such as not arriving at the appointed time for the therapy session, being absent by making excuses and expressing thoughts. There can be various forms of resistance like showing reluctance to act, taking sudden silence etc.


Q, For which type of patients is cognitive therapy more beneficial?

Ans. Cognitive therapy has been shown to be very beneficial for patients suffering from depression and anxiety.

Q. What happens in rehabilitation therapy?

Ans. In rehabilitation medicine, after-care facilities are provided to patients who are released from therapy.

Q. What is the meaning of a sheltered factory?

Ans. In a sheltered factory, mentally ill people get an opportunity to learn, use their skills and get employment.

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