NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 6 Attitude And Social Cognition

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 6 Attitude And Social Cognition

Class12th 
Chapter NameSelf and Personality
Chapter numberChapter 6
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPsychology
Medium English
Study MaterialsVery important question to answer
Download PDFAttitude And Social Cognition pdf

Examples of mental actions or activities related to gathering and interpreting information about the social world are collectively referred to as social cognition. In addition, social cognition is activated by cognitive units called schemas.

All definitions of attitude agree on the point that attitude is a state of mind. It is a set of ideas about a subject in which an evaluative characteristic (positive, negative or neutral quality) is found. The thought component is called the cognitive component, the emotional component is known as the affective component, and the tendency to act is called the behavioural component.

Attitude has four main characteristics-valence (positivity or negativity), extremeness, simplicity or complexity (multiplicity) and centrality. Attitudes are also formed towards various subjects, things and persons when we

interact with others. But there are certain situations that lead to specific attitudes. Builds. In general, attitudes are the result of one’s own experiences and interactions with others. learned through the medium. Along with learning, genetic factors such as attitudes

affect only indirectly. Change in attitudes is more likely when the information comes from a highly reliable source. comes from a less reliable source. A person’s attitude is not always displayed through his behaviour. Similarly, the actual behaviour of a person may be opposite to the attitude of the person towards a particular subject.

All religions teach us that we should help or help people who are in need. This behaviour is called pro-social behaviour. Philanthropic behaviour is very similar to altruism, which means doing something for others without any sense of self-interest or concern for their welfare.

Image formation takes place in a systematic way and the first and adjacency effect and environment shows effect.

People respond by helping others in need (prosocial behavior) but it is determined by many factors. Research studies have proved that sources, media and information are major factors in attitude change. In general, rapid or strong, consistent and useful attitudes have greater resistance to change. Prejudice generally refers to negative attitudes that there are biased views towards a person or group, discrimination is also done in society due to prejudice. Family, reference groups, media etc. play an important role in removing discrimination.

Causal attribution is an important aspect of social cognition. It shows the way of causal explanation of important events of social life by the individual. One tries to know in terms of the reasons that determine his success and failure.

It has been found that individuals often blame internal causes for personal successes and external causes for failures. This defect is called the fundamental attributional error. The behaviour done with the view of benefiting others is called social behaviour.

Such behaviour is determined by the constructive state of mind, the cost of the help, the eligibility of the help seeker, and the behaviour of others in a similar situation. It has been found that the more people present, the less help is given.


Textbook Review Questions and Answers


Q. 1. Define attitude. Discuss the components of attitude.

Ans. Attitude is a special state of mind which manifests in society in a favourable or unfavourable manner towards a person, event, group, problem etc. According to Allport, “Attitude is the mental and neurological state of the individual which sets in motion the reactions to the related objects and situations.”

In the view of Second & Backman, “The term attitude refers to certain regularities of an individual’s feelings, thoughts and predispositions to act toward some aspect of his environment.” That is, “Attitude refers to a person’s feelings, thoughts and tendencies, which make a person prone to action towards certain aspects of the environment. Three aspects prevail in attitude.

(a) the emotional aspect,

(b) the cognitive side,

(c) behavioral or neurological side there are three types of attitudes – cognitive (thought), affective (feeling) and behavioural (action). The cognitive component refers to a belief, such as a person’s belief about something and about which he or she forms an attitude.

Through this, how one evaluates the characteristics of a person, object or place, and its condition is known. This evaluation can be positive or negative. For example, it can be thought that the views of a particular political party are good or not good for the country. The second component is emotion. Attitude refers to how a person feels about an object.

When a person thinks about something, interacts or communicates with someone, he also has positive or negative feelings for someone. Our liking or disliking of a person informs the emotional component.

The third component of an attitude refers to actual behaviour. If a person has a positive attitude towards someone, then his behaviour towards that person will also be favourable. He approves of that behaviour, takes his side in front of others and helps and co-operates with him. The above three components are related to each other. These become understandable when we analyze attitudes towards an attitude object.

Q. 2. Are attitudes acquired? How are they acquired? Explain.

Ans. Once attitudes are formed, they are difficult to change. ItsDespite this, a person brings a lot of changes in his attitudes during his lifetime. This change does not happen suddenly or dramatically, it happens so slowly that the person is not aware of it. For example, advertisers are always trying to change our attitudes. Some attitudes have more power of resistance and some are easily changed.

Often family, friends, well-wishers or seniors keep telling what is good and what is bad. All over the world, advertising companies worth about 5 thousand crores tell people which product they should buy. As soon as you turn on the TV, your eyes and ears are bombarded with all kinds of advertisements.

In any public place you visit, you will come across huge boards with attractively written information on coaching centres or buying products of a particular brand. Political parties try to change your attitudes in their favour.

New techniques are always being developed to attract people’s attention and bring about changes in attitudes in the desired direction. Attitude change can be in a positive or negative direction. this change is compatible

may or may not be compatible. Corresponding change means a change in the direction of your original attitude.

In contrast, anomalous change implies a change in the opposite direction. Anomalous change is usually compounded in accretion. In fact, whether or not our attitudes will change depends on a number of factors. Here the factors that contribute to attitude change will be discussed.

These factors are classified into two categories (i) Attitude characteristics and (ii) Communication-related factors. Let us examine these factors. Characteristics of Attitude — In attitude change, the following characteristics of attitude.

play a major role-

1. Strength Attitudes that are strong are difficult to change. For example, if you have a strong belief that India should build an atomic bomb, you will ignore information that contradicts your attitude.

2. Complexity — It refers to the factors that constitute attitudes. For example, attitudes towards parents will be more complex than attitudes towards a brand of soap.

3. Importance – If attitudes are the basis of our relationship with friends or goals in life, then these attitudes are stable because changes in these attitudes will affect many other aspects of life.

4. Reciprocal relationship – If one attitude is associated with several other attitudes and if there is a balance between them, they will reinforce each other. 5. Utility – If the attitude is helpful in performing the tasks of the individual, then there will be less possibility of change in them. For example, if membership in a club boosts your self-esteem, you will maintain a positive attitude toward the club.

Q, 3. What are the factors affecting attitude formation?

Ans. The factors which have a hand in attitude formation and development are the following:

1. Motivational factor or determinant (Motivational determinant) The motivator plays an important role in the formation of attitude. A person is motivated by hunger, thirst, work and social motivation. It is in the context of these motivations that the need arises. Motivation is satisfied by the satisfaction of needs. The basic needs of children after birth are related to hunger, thirst, etc., and motivation.

2. Verbal information and media communication) Language and media are also seen to be very effective in the formation and development of attitudes. Cognition and behaviour through language and verbal information and communication media help in understanding and formation of attitude towards the object or person.

Parents and neighbourhood people give information or information regarding any caste, class, object or event to their children, on the basis of which they are favourable or unfavourable for those things. Attitude is formed. Murphy and Newcomb’s study suggests that white children had heard of black children being sick, sick, mean, and ugly,

That’s why they didn’t like to play with black kids. He had an adverse attitude towards blacks. Today given by radio, television, newspapers, speeches, magazines etc. Pictorial or linguistic information also determines attitude formation and development. Festinger’s study confirms this.

3. Cultural Determinant The culture of the people of a society or country has its influence on the development and formation of the attitude of the people of that society. Due to the difference in culture, there is a differences in the culture of different castes and countries. People of any society, caste or class develop themselves according to their cultural patterns.

Sociologists, psychologists and anthropologists agree that culture plays an important role in the formation of attitudes. Rith & Benedict’sPattern of Culture and Margaret Mead’s book Sex and Temperament provide a lot of evidence that confirms the effects of culture on attitude.

4. Social determinant or factor – Under the social determinant, the influence of many types of social groups is seen in attitude formation and development. Primary and secondary groups come in those collective groups. When a child is young, he learns socialization as a member of the primary group (family). There he builds his attitude according to the ethics, way of life, ideals, customs, norms and patterns and beliefs of the people of his family. On growing up, he becomes a member of a larger group or organization.

5. Triaumatic experience-Traumatic experience also plays a role in attitude formation. Freud and other psychologists have said that traumatic experiences in childhood form attitudes. If sorrow is experienced by anything, person, caste or class. So an unfavourable attitude is formed about that whole caste or object.

6. Social learning – The formation and development of attitudes and the effect of social learning are also seen. In the view of psychologists, conditioning and observational learning help in the formation of attitudes.

Attitudes are formed through the process of classical conditioning. When parents repeatedly discuss the good or bad qualities of a person in front of children, they develop positive and negative attitudes according to the law of conditioning.

Q. 4. Does behaviour always affect the attitude of a person? Explain giving relevant examples.

Ans. A person’s attitude is not always displayed through his behaviour. Similarly, the actual behaviour of a person is the attitude of the person towards a particular subject. may be antagonistic.

Psychologists have found that there will be consistency between attitude and behaviour when-

1. The attitude is strong and occupies a central place in the attitude system,

2. The person should be conscious or aware of his attitude,

3. There is little or no external pressure on the individual to behave in a particular way. For example, when there is no group pressure to follow a specific standard happens,

4. The person’s behaviour is not being observed or evaluated by others and

5. The person thinks that the behaviour will have a positive consequence and, therefore, wants to engage in that behaviour.

Q.5. Explain the importance of schema or schema in social cognition.

Ans. Social Cognition – Social cognition is the study of the mental processes by which we make sense of our social world consisting of individuals and social situations. The mental processes involved are often automatic and often occur without our conscious knowledge or will.

You will recall that people instinctively evaluate other persons and social objects. We try to manage the motivations and qualities of other people. In fact, the field of social cognition is concerned with the ways in which we interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about various aspects of our social world.

We use various strategies to make social decisions easily and with less effort. An important process of social cognition is negative attribution.

That is, to collect and interpret information about the social world. are examples of mental actions or activities associated with social cognition, which are collectively referred to as social cognition.

In addition, social cognition is activated by cognitive units called schemas. social cognition through mental units called schemas are directed. A schema is defined as a mental structure that provides a framework, set of rules, or guidelines for processing information about an object. In the context of social cognition, the basic units are social schemas.

Category-based schemas that people associate with groups are called stereotypes. These are category-based schemas that are overgeneralized, not directly verifiable, and do not allow for exceptions.

Thus it can be considered that the set or bundle of all those processes involved in understanding the social world around us is called social cognition and they are guided by mental structures called social schemas. Stereotypes, which are a type of social schema, consist of overgeneralized beliefs about a specific group that often generate and reinforce prejudices.


VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q, 1. What is attitude?

Ans. Attitude is the mental and neurological state of a person, which gives momentum to the reactions to related objects and situations.

Q. 2. How are attitudes acquired?

Ans. Attitudes are acquired through ancient conditioning, processes.

Q. 3. What are the major factors affecting attitude formation?

Ans. Factors affecting attitude formation include family, reference group, and personal and media exposure.

Q. 4. Mention any two characteristics of Attitude.

Ans. (i) Attitude is a relative attitude, (ii) Attitudes are in favourable or unfavourable directions.

Q.5. What are the components of attitude?

Years, It is an organization of affective, behavioural and cognitive components.

Q. 6. What are the methods used in measuring attitude?

Ans. Attitudes are measured by (a) attitude survey, (b) rating scales, such as Likert’s and Thurston’s behavioral scale.

Q. 7. Is Attitude an acquired instinct? How?

Ans. It is an acquired instinct that is learned by the child through socialization in the family, and education earned.

Q. 8. State the role of the family in the formation of attitude.

Ans. The family as a primary school is a powerful medium of communication of initial information about various places, objects etc. to the child. Children adopt the attitudes of their parents. The information they receive about the social world from their parents forms the basis of their attitudes.

Q.9. What is prejudice?

Ans. Prejudice is a preconceived idea that is thoughtless and refers mostly to negative attitudes about individuals, groups, etc. in society.

Q. 10. How do the poor and the rich act as a source of prejudice?

Ans, Deprived and privileged people consider each other as inferior and superior and

confirm their position. This leads to an attitude that is prejudiced.

Q.11. What do you understand by intergroup conflict?

Ans. People join groups for different needs and reasons. Therefore, when their mutual needs clash, intergroup conflict occurs, which can be both within one’s own group or between two groups. This situation arises when the requirements/goals are in conflict with or contrary to the norm.

Q. 12. What are the measures to remove prejudice?

Ans. By providing opportunities for contact between different groups (which is not superficial), positive prejudices can be overcome by developing attitudes, cognitive interventions etc.

Q. 13. What is the basis of social discrimination in Indian society?

Ans. Gender discrimination, caste discrimination, religious discrimination, language discrimination etc. are the main basis of social discrimination in Indian society.

Q. 14. Give the definition of faith.

Ans. Beliefs are summaries of past experiences that guide future interactions with the world. provide predictability and meaning.


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Define attitude.

Ans. Attitude is a special state of mind which manifests in society in a favourable or unfavourable manner towards a person, event, group, problem etc. According to Allport, “Attitude is the mental and neurological state of the individual that sets in motion the reactions to the related objects and situations.”

In the view of Second & Backman, “The term attitude refers to certain regularities of an individual’s feelings, thoughts and predispositions to act towards some aspect of his environment.” “makes” us respond to certain aspects of the environment.

Three sides are dominant in attitude- (a) affective side, (b) cognitive side, (c) behavioural or neurological side.

Q. 2. Explain the consequences of attitude.

Or, describe the characteristics of attitude.

Ans. For proper knowledge of the result of attitude, one has to pay attention to its characteristics which throw light on its result. Those features include the following-

(i) Attitude is related to some subject, event or person. Attitude is born only when some event or idea is exposed. (ii) Attitude is learned in the environment. Unfavourable or favourable attitudes are formed on the basis of pleasant or sad experiences in life.

(iii) Attitude is directed towards a particular situation. Attitude refers to a person’s behavior in a particular way. orients in the direction

(iv) Attitude is relatively stable. However, it also changes when circumstances change.

and brings promptness in his dealings.

(v) Attitude has the quality of motivation. Individuals create attitudes by being motivated

(vi) Attitude can be quite intense as well as less intense.

Q.3. What is the pomegranate between prejudice and stereotypes? 

Ans. Prejudiceexpresses. The cognitive component of prejudice refers to generalized beliefs and expectations about a group. It has to do with the way we think about others.

Stereotypes—are preconceived ideas that persist about different groups. All the members of a group are perceived equally irrespective of their distinctive qualities and characteristics. Centuries are often used automatically. In doing so, time and effort are saved in evaluating different individuals separately.

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Q. 4. Explain the major ways to resolve conflict. 

Ans. The following are the major ways to resolve the conflict

(i) To come out of the situation.

(ii) To believe the other party on the basis of evidence.

(iii) Conciliation and reconciliation.

(iv) To arrive at a solution together.

(v) Negotiations and Transactions.

(vi) To win at all costs.

(vii) Inviting a third party for arbitration. This third neutral party

Mediation or Panchayat can be done to resolve this. A third party in the panchayat listens to the arguments of both groups and then decides. In mediation, a mutually soulful solution is found.

Q.5. What is the Likert method?

Ans. Likert Scaling Method — This method was developed by Rensis Likert(Rensis Likert) in 1932 which is known as the ‘summated rating method’. Since this method was developed by Likert, it is also called Likert’s method after his name.

There are many steps or steps in making a scale by this method. In the first stage a number of statements related to different aspects of the ‘attitude object’ are prepared. For example, if the attitude towards women’s empowerment is to be measured, then what are the shortcomings in the various aspects related to this subject, such as women’s competence, empowerment at the present time,

Statements will be prepared regarding what could be the future consequences of empowerment, its justification or inappropriateness in the social context, etc. While writing these statements it is necessary to pay attention to simplicity, clarity, brevity etc. Also, there are two types of consequences for statements. Some statements are to show a favorable attitude while some statements are to show an unfavorable attitude. Both the types of statements are arranged in random order and five categories of alternative answers are given against each statement.

(I) Strongly Disagree, (2) Disagree, (3) Neutral, (4) Agree and (5) Strongly Agree are written to answer in any one option category. These statements are given to the person whose attitude is to be measured (applicable subject), who has to circle (O) or (V) the answer to any one of the five-point answers given in front of each statement. Expresses ‘disagreement’ or ‘agreement’.

By is the final form of the scale. Attitude is measured by obtaining the agreement or disagreement of the subjects using this last form of the scale.

Q.7. Briefly describe the Bogardus method.

Ans. Emory Bogardus a sociologist developed a scale called ‘Bogardus’s social distance scale’ to measure attitudes in the form of social distance.

He believes that the individual tries to maintain distance between himself and other groups according to the degree of compatibility or dissimilarity of attitudes. Therefore, attitudes towards different racial groups can be measured on the basis of social distance.

In this scale, the names of caste, race, community or religious groups are given whose7 categories of closeness or distance relations are written in front. The respondents were of these seven types of relationships.It is asked to express the type of relationship it wants to make. These seven types of relationships can be as follows-

1. Closer relationship through marriage

2. As your best friend in your club 3. As your neighbor

4. By giving a job in your profession

5. As a citizen of our country 6. As a guest of our country

7. kick you out of your country these, 1 to 7 are respectively indicative of the attitude of not keeping the closest and any kind of relationship. while the rest show varying degrees of social distance. close relationships like this1 point for making in and 7 points for wanting to be cut out of social life completely are provided.


LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. How is an attitude formed? Discuss the factors or determinants of attitude formation in this regard.

Ans. The following are the factors that play a role in attitude formation and development. Major are-

1. Motivational factor or determinant – Motivator plays an important role in the formation of attitude. A person is motivated by hunger, thirst, work and social motivation. It is in the context of these motivations that the need arises. Motivation is satisfied by the satisfaction of needs. The basic needs of children after birth are related to hunger, thirst, etc., and motivation.

2. Verbal information and media communication—Language and media are also seen to be very effective in the formation and development of attitudes. Through language and verbal information and communication mediums, it helps in understanding the perception and behaviour and in relation to the object or person, it helps in the formation of attitude.

Parents and people of the neighbourhood give information or information regarding any caste, class, object or event to their children. On their basis, a favourable or unfavourable attitude is formed toward those things. Murphy and Newcomb’s study suggests that white children had heard of black children as sick, sick, mean, and ugly.

3. Cultural Determinant The culture of the people of a society or country has its influence on the development and formation of the attitude of the people of that society. Due to the difference in culture, there is a differences in the culture of different castes and countries. People of any society, caste or class develop themselves according to their cultural patterns.

4. Social determinant or factor (Social determinant) creates its attitude according to the conduct, living, ideals, customs, norms and patterns and beliefs of the people of the social determinant. On growing up, he becomes a member of a larger group or organization. There also he develops his attitude according to the ideals, norms, values, beliefs, methods and goals of that group or organization.

5. Triaumatic experience Traumatic experience also plays a role in attitude formation. Freud and other psychologists have said that traumatic experiences in childhood form attitudes. If unhappiness is experienced by any object, person, caste or class, then an adverse attitude is formed about that whole caste or object. 6. Social leaming attitude formation and development and the social effect of education are also seen. In the view of psychologists, conditioning and observational leaming helps in building attitudes.

Attitudes are formed through the process of classical conditioning. When parents repeatedly discuss the good or bad qualities of a person in front of children, they develop positive and negative attitudes according to the law of conditioning.

For example, the saying of parents that Ram was God, Ram was a good king, Ram destroyed a demon like Ravana, Ram’s kingdom was good, then a favourable attitude towards Ram is formed. Similarly, repeated saying about Ravana that Ravana was a demon, Ravana abducted Sita, Ravana was evil, creates an adverse attitude in children towards Ravana.

Not only this, through observational learning also, children develop a favorable or unfavorable attitude towards a real event, situation or object by seeing or experiencing it. Bandura has confirmed this through his study. For example, when terrorists kill innocent people, seeing such an incident, a child or an adult develops an adverse attitude towards terrorists. In addition to the above determinants, stereotypes, biases, personality factors, and emulationAttitude is developed and formed by other factors.

Q, 2. What are the methods of measuring attitude?

Ans. Knowledge of people’s attitudes towards a subject like reservation or capital punishment or women’s rights is important for many reasons. Attitudes are personal, those who have them do not know directly. For these reasons, social psychologists have developed several methods for measuring people’s attitudes. A brief description of these techniques is given below-

Attitude Survey This is the simplest technique of attitude measurement. In an attitude survey, the researcher asks questions by telephone and the response of the respondent gives information about their attitudes. The result of these questions is free or bound.

Open-ended questions can be asked to answer the respondent. What according to you should be the qualifications for the Prime Minister of India? Although these questions yield detailed answers, the answers are complex to analyse. Hence most of the questions are closed-ended.

For example, you can ask whether women are eligible to become the Chief Minister of a state. One of the four categories can be answered, such as yes, no, probably don’t know. However, in such questions the answer of the respondent becomes limited.

Rating Scales—In these scales, the respondent expresses whether he agrees or disagrees with a statement. One of the most popular scales is the Likert scale. Self-confidence or non-self-confidence towards the questions asked in these scales (attitude statement) choose any one point from the five-point scale, as given below-

The Likert technique is called a summed rating scale because the individual’s attitude score is determined on the basis of the absolute sum of the responses given to all the items of the scale.

In Activity 4.2, only one type of attitude measurement has been mentioned, whereas there are many methods. But these measurements can have clear information. First, all its items are based on the self-report of the respondents. The assumption behind this is that people express and express their preferences by following instructions and selecting response options. Second, attitudes are not measured directly or with the help of a single question. always taken more than one or often a sufficient number of statements

Q. 3. Which factors play an important role in attitude change?

Ans. Once attitudes are formed, they are difficult to change. Despite this, a person brings a lot of changes in his attitude during his lifetime. This change does not happen suddenly or dramatically, it happens so slowly that the person is not aware of it. For example, advertisers are always trying to change our attitudes. Some attitudes have more power of resistance and some are easily changed.

Often family, friends, well-wishers or seniors keep telling what is good and what is bad. All over the world, advertising companies worth about 5 thousand crores tell people which product they should buy. As soon as you turn on the TV, your eyes and ears are bombarded with all kinds of advertisements.

In any public place you visit, you will come across huge boards with attractively written information on coaching centres or buying products of a particular brand. A political party, on your side you strive to bring about a change in attitudes. attract people’s attention and wantNew techniques are always being developed to bring about a change in attitudes.

Attitude change can be in a positive or negative direction. This change can be consistent or inconsistent. Corresponding change means a change in the direction of your original attitude. In contrast, inconsistent change implies a change in the opposite direction. Usually, the disproportionate change in attitude is complex. In fact, whether or not our attitudes will change depends on many factors. Here the factors that contribute to attitude change will be discussed. These factors are placed in two categories-

(i) Characteristics of attitude and (ii) Factors related to communication. Let us examine these factors. Characteristics of Attitude—The following characteristics of attitude in attitude change play a major role

1. Strength – Attitudes that are strong are difficult to change. For example, if you strongly believe that India should make an atomic bomb, then you will not pay attention to information, which is contrary to your attitude.

2. Complexity—It refers to the factors that constitute attitudes. For example, attitudes towards parents will be more complex than attitudes towards a brand of soap.

3. Significance – if attitudes are the basis of our relationship with friends or goals in life these attitudes are there, then there is stability in these attitudes because changes in these attitudes affect other aspects of life. Many parties will be affected.

4. Reciprocal relationship – If one attitude is associated with several other attitudes and if there is a balance between them, they will reinforce each other.

5. Utility – If the attitude is helpful in performing the tasks of the individual, then there will be less possibility of change in them. For example, if membership in a club enhances your self-esteem, you will maintain a positive attitude toward the club.

Q. 4. What are the sources of prejudice?

Ans. Prejudice is an experience found in every society. Researchers have explored a number of ways that motivational and emotional sources of bias serve.

1. Inspirational Sources: Insistence on Self-Satisfaction – People justify their status by putting others down. Often people who are in need are called ‘lazy’, ‘irresponsible’ and ‘ambitionless’ – these characteristics justify their status and their good standing. We do. Through this, the economic and social superiority of the poor and capable people is justified.

Such discrimination also affects victims who view themselves as less privileged than those with advantages, perceiving these negative characteristics as true—people with disabilities may confirm their own expectations and thereby create prejudiced attitudes. lives.

Self-bias- Often people are divided into categories of ‘own’ (own group) and ‘other’ and behave towards them accordingly. Ask children which school is better, theirs or another school in town and they are most likely to name their school.

2. Cognitive Sources — Prejudices based on beliefs about groups, races, and other things. The subject has also been considered. It is believed that the root of bias is the fact that our memory is not reliable and therefore we refer to those groups of people as existing ones in our experience. considered different from

There will be no country or society where there is no prejudice and discrimination. They are active in every society in some form or the other and shape the relationships between different groups in all societies. Prejudices that individuals hold about another significant group (minority or majority) are important for conflict between groups.

Q.5. What are the measures that help in reducing prejudice?

Ans. A very important question is how to reduce prejudice and discrimination in society. The ferocity of racial prejudice has led to many tragedies in the long history of mankind. In World War II, 60,00,000 Jews were killed by the Nazis because of racial prejudice.

It was this strong religious bias that was responsible for communal violence and the killing of millions of Hindus and Muslims during the partition of India. There is independence. Even after 50 years, caste prejudice is still destroying the fabric of Indian society.

Since we are bound to think that it is a fantasy that there could be a society that would be free from prejudice and people would be treated equally irrespective of caste, class and nationality in a sense of self.

For psychologists, working in such a society or at least developing ways to reduce prejudice in society is a challenging task. Some useful possible interventions in this direction are mentioned below.

Providing opportunities for contact between different groups – An important technique for reducing intergroup conflict is to allow different groups to have direct contact with each other. be given more opportunities. It is very difficult to maintain negative stereotypes about each other when people have to work side by side.

Yet intergroup conflict cannot be reduced by contact alone. For this, it is necessary that the effort to increase mutual contact should be made in the social and economic system itself. Until this happens, communication between groups will be difficult and distrust and suspicion will increase intergroup prejudices. It is also necessary that when two groups come in contact, there should be an equal distribution of power among them.

Q.6. what is faith What is the function of faith?

Ans. about ourselves, about the world we live in, about the other world about the causes of various incidents and so on in other contexts (Belief) is created. Here one can ask the general question, why do people believe? What beliefs does a person form about certain objects, persons, groups or events? For example, why do you believe that Indians are religious?

Or the belief that all our success or failure depends on luck. We make assumptions about the general properties of objects, events or groups based on what people say or experience. It is not necessary that what a person believes is right but his actions are definitely guided by the beliefs.

Beliefs involve the summation of past experiences and make future interactions with the world predictive and meaningful. Once beliefs are in place, the individual thinks that he knows what to expect from an object, event or group and how to interpret and make sense of what he observes.

 Without beliefs, we would all be troubled by the complexities of our environment. Beliefs provide a simplified context for everything a person sees, and in part. It also decides what information the person collects.

Q, 7. As a result of and determination of pro-social or pro-social behaviorDiscuss.

Ans. Man is a social animal. As a result, the help of others is involved in most of the activities of man. Being a social animal, it is inevitable for an individual to depend on the help of others.

Without the help of others both the existence and progress of the individual is unimaginable. So each helps the others in some way or the other. Such helpful behavior is called ‘Pro-Social Behaviour’ and since pro-social behavior is pro-social, that is, it is useful for the society, therefore pro-social behavior is also called ‘socially useful’ behaviour.

To understand ‘prosocial’ or prosocial behaviour, consider an example. You must have read some such incidents in daily newspapers that one person saved another by risking his life. A woman was drowning and a man who did not even know her, jumps into the river and saves the drowning woman. Here the question arises that why does a person do this type of altruistic behaviour?

Q. 8. Throw light on Bystander Behaviour: Altruism and Empathy.

Ans. It is a common experience that incidents of road accidents, beatings, snatching etc. usually happen and many people pass or live near these places. Many people are also eyewitnesses of such incidents. The victims of these incidents also make noise for help, the people around such victims also stand and watch for a short time and still walk away. No one takes the active initiative to help them. Most of the people are passive spectators.

The question arises why don’t common people take the initiative to help in these critical times? To find the answer to this question, a small group of students were called into the psychology laboratory for a study. On reaching there, the students were asked to wait for some time in the lobby adjacent to the laboratory so that the arrangements and preparations for the experiment could be done.

The group of students [were] actually the subjects for this study. Waited in the lobby. Some people were taking some furniture etc. from the lobby to the room attached to the laboratory. The subjects waiting for the experiment suddenly heard the sound of a crash (as if someone had fallen from a height). A few moments later, cries for help were heard.

What will the consumables waiting in the lobby do in this situation? Will they help the person who is calling for help? If yes, after how long will help reach there? To know the answer to these questions, the researcher tried to study.


FAQs

Q. What is socially useful behaviour?

Ans. Helping others selflessly or doing charity is called socially useful behaviour.

Q. Altruism is prosocial behaviour. How?

Ans. The meaning of charity is to do good or mala (i.e. to benefit) others without any inherent self-interest. In this sense, it is antisocial behaviour because it is pro-social.

Q. Mention any two determinants of antisocial behaviour.

Ans. In the determinants of prosocial behaviour, ‘observation eligibility’ and ’emotional state’ have special importance.


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