NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 7 Social Influence And Group Processes easy pdf

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 7 Social Influence And Group Processes

Class12th 
Chapter Namesocial Influence And Group Processes
Chapter numberChapter 7
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPsychology
Medium English
Study MaterialsVery important question to answer
Download PDFsocial Influence And Group Processes pdf

social Influence And Group Processes Summary


The group refers to the presence of two or more people, mutual interactive relationships, common goals and relatively stable relationships. Group members behave in accordance with group expectations and maintain their identity as a part of the group.

The basis of the relationship between the individual and the satisfaction of needs, his identityThe desire for group and emotional affection, the desire to gain information, the desire to gain security and feel safe, and self-esteem increase.

Proximity, similarity, cohesiveness etc. contribute to group formation. There are many dimensions of identification of different types of groups, such as primary and secondary groups, formal and informal groups, internal and external groups, etc.

The group has a great influence on the behavior of the individual. Due to the influence of the group, there are changes in the attitudes, behaviours, perceptions etc. of the individual. Conformity, obedience and compliance are examples of social influence.

The various positions of the text can be summed up in the following words: Groups are different from other types of aggregation of individuals. Interrelated roles, status or prestige and expectations are the main characteristics of the group.

A group is an organized arrangement of two or more individuals. People join groups because of group security, status, self-esteem, goals

acquisition, knowledge and information or information and psychological and socialProvides satisfaction of needs.

Proximity, similarity and common motivation and goals facilitate group formation. Generally, the result of group work is beneficial. However, sometimes the phenomenon of groupthink can arise in a cohesive and homogeneous group.

Groups are of different types, such as primary and secondary, formal and informal. and ingroup and outgroup. Groups influence the behavior of the individual. social facilitation and social there are two main effects of the narcissistic group.

Conformity, compliance and obedience are the three main forms of social influence. Conformity is the most indirect form of social influence; Obedience is the most visible form; The position of compliance lies between the two.

In a social situation, people interact either through cooperation or competition. One’s own definition of the question of who one is is called social exclusivity.

Group conflict occurs in all societies. Conflict between groups can be reduced if we know the reason for the conflict.


class 12 Psychology chapter 7 question answers


Q. 1. Compare and contrast formal and informal groups and ingroups and outgroups.

Ans. A group made up of two or more persons may be of any category, but all units must have a goal. Therefore, all the people involved in the group have the same motivations and goals. Group members are interdependent.

That is self-satisfaction, self-esteem, identity of self, exchange of knowledge, the performance of work, etc. are associated with any type of group. The groups can be of any type, small, permanent, temporary, socio-religious, voluntary, or self-dependent. The roles to be performed by the members of any group are predetermined.

Formal and informal groups – performed by the members of the group. The roles are clearly declared. The formation of a formal group is based on some specific rules or methods and the members have definite roles. It consists of a set of standards that help in establishing the system. A university is an example of a formal group. Informal groups, on the other hand, are not formed based on rules or regulations and members have close relationships.

Therefore, structural differences between formal and informal groups are important. Engages in the discharge of predetermined roles, subject to formal group rules. Size, mutual relations, functions, objectives etc. are pre-declared. These are often considered secondary groups. In an informal group, on the other hand, tasks are not strictly imposed on the individuals. These are often stable, close-knit, performative, small groups.

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Ingroup and outgroup ‘Ingroup’ refers to one’s own group and ‘outgroup’ refers to another group. The word ‘they’ is used for the members of the ingroup. By using the words we or they, one classifies people as equal or different. It has been found that individuals in an ingroup are generally perceived to have similarities, are viewed favourably and have desirable characteristics and is perceived to be compared to members of the ingroup.

Therefore, the basic basis of the difference between in-group and out-group is the thinking of the members towards the group. In situations related to religion, residential, age group, sex difference, business etc., a person’s behaviour works to benefit himself.

The perception of one’s alienness reveals the difference between the groups. Causes behavioural disorders in caste, religion, regional, party, creed etc. groupsAre. hospitality, helping the needy, both internally and externallyThe differences between the groups automatically disappear.

Q. 2. Are you a member of any group? What is it that motivated you to join this group? Discuss it. 

Ans. To get self-satisfaction by fulfilling the objectives related to public welfare, the inspiration to join the group named ‘Prahari’ was given by its goal, the attitude of the members, the courage and the program related to the proper use of resources. A group named ‘Prahari’ has made it its goal to help the needy.

The goal, role, rules, attitude, passion, self-confidence etc. of the members of the group named Prahar are all in fulfilling the needs of the downtrodden people of the society. Visually appears to be successful.

The feeling of mutual love, trust and cooperation among the members is directly visible. There does not seem to be any threat to self-esteem in the use of one’s abilities, knowledge, experience and behaviour. The behaviour and belief established, supported and promoted by the members of the group does not contradict any commonly accepted rule.

group-directed tasksCompleting it only increases prestige. Unity, commitment, passion, cooperation and intimacy among the members of the group together promote cohesion.

People’s urge to solve problems as much as possible makes it popular. Rationality in the execution of work, collection of information and application of resources by the members of the group help in getting beneficial results.

There is also a system of giving praise, rewards and incentives to the members of the group, which shows the desirable development of their potential. The members of the group named Prahar are determined, knowledgeable, experienced, diligent, hardworking and resourceful.

His role is popular. They work according to the prescribed plan. Every member is dedicated to the public interest. Patient members are able to boost the morale of those affected by giving them reassurance.

It is important to note that every person is a member of some society or group. Therefore, he is expected to behave according to the norms of his society or group and internalize the decision of the group. Behaving according to group norms or creating similar beliefs is called ‘conformity’.

Or, according to the expectations of the society in which the person lives.To behave according to one’s circumstancesThat’s called conformity.

Like taking care of traffic signals while driving, worship washing hands and feet before entering the place; following school normsEtcetera.

Therefore, the reason for the motivation to join the group called Prahar is- (i) a small number of members (ii) members being knowledgeable, capable and passionate, (iii) self-satisfaction, self-esteem, effective role, adopting a sense of mutual love and trust. (iv) Taking care of the interest, aptitude, choice, skill etc. of the members (v) Construction work, execution work, evaluation work etc. to duly complete and so on.

Q. 3. How is Tuckman’s stage model helpful in understanding group formation?

Ans. The basis of group formation is contact and interaction between individuals. The group generally passes through various stages of formation, conflict, perpetuation, execution and expulsion/de-assimilation. Tuckman has suggested that groups pass through five developmental sequences. These five sequences are creation or shaping, upheaval or storm, pattern or human creation, execution and completion.

1. When the members of the group meet for the first time, the relationship to achieve the goal of the group there is a lot of uncertainty. People try to get to know each other and assess whether they would be a good fit for the group. There is excitement as well as fear here. This stage is called the forming stage.

2. Often this stage is followed by a stage of inter-group conflict, which is called the storming stage. In this stage, there is a conflict between group members about how to achieve group goals, who is going to control the group and its resources, and who is going to perform what tasks.

3. The stage of norm-making is known as norming. During this period the members of the group develop norms related to group behaviour. 4. The fourth stage is of performing. By this stage, the structure of the group has been developed and the members of the group internalize it.

5. When the work of the group is completed in the termination stage, then the group can be dissolved. Could In this way Tuckman’s status model has proved successful in correctly identifying the members joining the group and in explaining the usefulness of the processes related to group structure. By discussing the emotional states of group formation, Tuckman described the group builder as conflict is freed.

Q. 4. How do groups influence our behaviour?

Ans. The group, which is perceived as powerful, is able to influence our behaviours. The effect of a group can be explained by two different natures-

(1) A person performing a task alone in the presence of others (social facilitation) and

(2) any act of an individual with other individuals as part of a larger group but to perform (social loafing).

One of the earliest observations about social behaviour was that only appearance affects the performance of a specific task. Social Facilitation(social facilitation). Norman Triplett in 1897observed that people perform better in the presence of others than when they are in the presence of the same actor. Executing alone.

Better performance occurs in the presence of others because the individual is experiencing emotional arousal that enables the individual to respond more quickly or intensely.

A person’s behaviour is improved by praise, encouragement, and reward whereas criticism, punishment reproach make his behaviour flawed. Simple or familiar tasks are performed flawlessly in the presence of additional people. While the execution of a complex task tends to be flawed because the doer is intimidated by the criticism of the group.

Due to observation or competitive spirit, the tendency to work together is useful and is considered beneficial. So it is true that social facilitation research suggests that the presence of others produces emotional arousal and this motivates the individual to enhance his performance.

Q.5. How can social narcissism be reduced in groups? Consider any two incidents of social narcissism in your school. how did you remove it?

Ans. familiarity—a person’s association with others as part of a larger group performing a task is called social self-reliance. the truth is that alone An individual works with less effort in a group as compared to performing. this transit


very short answer-type questions


Q, 1. What is a group?

Ans. That organization of two or more persons is called a group, which is related to each other for some common work or goal.

Q. 2. What can be the most important factor in group formation?

Ans. The most important factors in group formation are common goals and interpersonal relationships. That is, we are the being of the spirit.

Q.3. What is group cohesion?

Ans. Sansvit reflects the feeling of ‘we’. It reflects the mutual affective structure among the members of the group, thereby revealing the deep or weak attachment between the members. Let’s go

Q.4. What is the meaning of attractiveness?

Ans. Attractiveness determines group cohesion in which members are attracted to each other, to group activities and to the group considering it as a means of meeting needs.

Q.5. What is the difference between the primary and secondary groups?

Ans. The main difference between primary groups and secondary groups is family, emotional or affective. It is about the closeness of relations. In the primary group, our feeling is relatively intense, in relation to physical proximity and small in size.

Q.6. Give one example of each of your own and other groups.

Ans. One’s own family or one’s own school is the ‘own group’ while the other’s family or school here is a ‘super-group’. Doctors have their own group ‘Nij Group’ whereas for them teachersThe group is a ‘super-group’.

Q.7. What is social facilitation?

Ans. achieved in the individual’s performance in a situation of working together with others

Facilitation or ease of execution is called the facilitation effect.

Q.8. What is social labour called?

Years, the passive presence of some people in a group while doing some work is called ‘Shramavanyan’.

Q.9. What is meant by conformity?

Ans. The tendency to develop attitudes or behaviour similar to others is called conformity.

Q. 10. Why does one want to conform?

Ans. Group Pressure The pressure of group standards, the desire to gain approval from others, and the fear of being rejected by the group cause the individual to conform.

Q.11. Explain the difference between cooperation and competition.

Ans. When the behavior of an individual is beneficial or beneficial to the whole group, it is called cooperative behavior. But when behaviour is of maximum benefit for a specific group or individual or when one is victorious and others suffer frustration by being defeated, then it is called competitive behaviour.

Q. 12. What are the factors helpful in group formation?

Ans. Proximity, similarity, common target group integration and attractiveness etc. group formation there are contributory factors.

Q. 13. What is the benefit of social interaction?

Ans. Helping to understand and know others and self through social interaction meets.

Q.14. What is meant by the term ‘group’?

Ans. The term ‘group’ means an arrangement of two or more persons.

Q. 15. According to Coole, the group has been divided into how many classes?

Ans. Two.

Q. 16. Who classified the contingency group and functional group?

Ans. McDougall.

Q. 17. The idea of ​​classification of primary and secondary or secondary groups who was the backer?

Ans. Coole.

Q. 18. Who was in favour of elongated and flat types of groups?

Ans. Yes. Face it.

Q. 19. Who were the supporters of the approach of self-group and out-group?

Ans. Allbirds.

Q. 20. Why do the members of the group remain active collectively?

Ans. Every group has a definite goal for the fulfilment of which the members collectively remain active.


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Define group.

Ans. Several definitions of the group have been given. In those definitions, Sherif & Sherif have given a commonly accepted definition of a group. According to him, “A group is a social unit of a number of persons who are related to each other by their definite position and role and who have ideals or beliefs by which at least the behaviour of the members is governed. meaningful or important to the group.

The following important points emerge from this definition:

(i) A group is a small unit of society consisting of more than one member.

(ii) Mutual relations are established among the members of the group.

(iii) The group has its own goal.

(iv) End actions take place among the members of the group.

(v) The group has its own ideal.

Q. 2. Explain the characteristics of a group.

Years.

(i) The first characteristic of a group is that the number of members in the group is more than one.it occurs. A minimum of two and a maximum of whatever may be the number of members in the group.

(ii) Another characteristic of a group is that there are interactions between the members of the group.

(iii) The group is objective oriented. forming a group to achieve some goalIt happens.

(iv) Each group has its own autonomous structure. The composition of the group includes the size of the group, the roles of the members, interpersonal relationships, etc.

(v) One characteristic of the group is that the group is of both permanent and temporary consequences.

(vi) One of the characteristics of the group is that there is a mutual acquaintance among the members in the group. May or may not.

(vii) One of the characteristics of a group is that each group has its own ideal. It is and has its own pattern.

(viii) The characteristic of a group is that it should be dynamic. of dynamic consequenceCause group changes.

Q. 3. What do you understand by primary group?

Ans. The primary group refers to a group in which the relationship between the individuals is very intimate, the members keep meeting each other face to face and reconciliation is seen more in them. In this sense, the first place in the primary group comes from the family.

The relationship between siblings, parents, grandparents and uncles and aunts is close in the family. Family members meet frequently and consider each other as their own. love children. cooperate with each other. serve each other.

Therefore, the family is the primary group from where children begin their socialization process and imbibe social behaviours, values, ideals and rituals. Apart from the family, the primary group also includes the neighbourhood, playmates and children’s groups, etc.

Here the relation of these groups is face-to-face. These groups also have an impact on the socialization of children. Thus, the primary group is the base for the origin and development of social behaviour.

Q.4. Highlight the characteristics of the primary group.

Ans. (i) The first characteristic of a primary group is that the relationship between individuals is face-to-face.

(ii) The size of the primary group is small. It has less number of members.

(iii) The quality of closeness is found in the primary group. members together lovingly live

(iv) Primary group is relatively stable as compared to other groups. For example, the family remains permanent even after its disintegration.

(v) The primary group has a common objective.

(vi) The mutual relations of the members of the primary group are formed automatically. this relationship is spiritual. This relationship is not made by pressure or condition.

(vii) In the primary group the relationship of the individual is on a personal level.

(viii) A characteristic of the primary group is also that its membersThere is faith in power. Together they achieve the goal.

(ix) The primary group establishes social values.

Q.5. Define the secondary group.

Ans. A secondary group or phylum group is called that type of group in which the member’s face-to-face relationship is not established. Formal relations are established in such a group. In the formation of such a group, the number of members is more.

Intimate and close contact between the members is not observed. In the view of Ogburn & Nimkoff, “Groups that provide experiences that lack intimacy are called secondary or secondary groups.

Cooley also affirms the same idea of ​​a secondary group. In other words, “The groups that provide experiences lacking in intimacy are called secondary groups.”

Q.6. Explain the secondary group.

Ans. (i) The first characteristic of a secondary group is that there is no face-to-face contact between the members of the secondary group.

(ii) The second characteristic of a group is that it is large in size. The number of members is unlimited.

(iii) The area or extension of this group is large. as a political group may be part of an international group, not just a province or country.

(iv) There is a lack of intimacy in such a group.

(v) It is purposeful, the members join the group for their own safety, profit and political gain. become a member of.

(vi) Such groups are formed deliberately for the purpose.

(vii) In such a group informal relations are observed among the members.

(viii) There is a lack of accountability in such a group.

(ix) Secondary groups are of temporary consequence, some groups are formed and formed to serve the purpose. Later they get scattered. (x) Behavior in the secondary group is governed by rules.

Q.7. Write a note on the composition of the group.

Ans. Among the elements which are effective in the structure of the group, the following are the main ones – Size of the group – The size of the group determines the structure of the group. The group is small as well as large.

Individual’s place in the group – Individuals influence others in the group through their thoughts and behaviours. Influences and is himself influenced by others. Mutual influence of personality, belief, motivation and prejudice is seen in the group. Groups are formed from individuals. Hence the individual is important to the group. Group Relations: Subgroup relations are seen in the group. longitudinal in group and parallel relations are elements of its structure.

The mutual relations of various social organizations and groups also determine the structure of the group. does. Beliefs of social, political and religious groups in a country influence and maintain their relationship with each other.

Q.8. Write a note on the group work.

Ans. The following are the functions of the group-

(i) Satisfies the needs of the group members. Some groups fulfil the primary needs (such as hunger, thirst, shelter, and clothing) while some fulfil the secondary needs.

(ii) The group fulfils the sense of the dominance of its leader. The members consider the leader as father-incomparable and honour him with prestige.

(iii) The group creates needs for itself. With the creation of these new needs, the relationship of the members with the group is maintained.

 (iv) Promotes brotherhood and belongingness among group members. members to themselves feel part of and identifies with the group.

(v) The task of the group is to determine the value of life for the member groups.

(vi) Sets group goals, contributes to socialization, and cultural continuityUpholds, serves as a role model and instils a sense of security and confidence among the members.

Q.9. What do you understand by Formal and Informal Groups?

Ans. There is a difference in the formality of formation in formal and informal groups. The formal group is formed according to a particular rule or law. The role of its members is also fixed. There are clear rules about its size, relationships, functions, objectives, etc.

Whose strict adherence is mandatory for each member of the group. Examples of formal groups are trade unions, industrial organizations, public undertakings, universities, commissions, clubs, in-service associations, etc.

Formal groups are often secondary groups. Formal groups of the job or military are secondary groups.

In informal groups, the tasks are not strictly imposed and the roles of the members are not clearly defined. There is no rule for its construction or formation. The closeness and mutual brotherhood of its members flourish in a spiritual way.

For example, family and sports groups are good examples of informal groups. The members of such groups have more feelings of closeness and cooperation. They are made easily and soulfully.

The members have more ‘we feeling’ and are more stable than informal groups. The size of informal groups is usually small because of the small number of members in these groups.

Q. 10. What are In group and Out group?

Ans. Own group is also known as ‘inter group’ or ‘we group’ and other group is also known as ‘ex group’ or ‘his group’. Individuals often think of their social world in terms of ‘our’ and ‘their’. On this basis, the individual perceives others either as members of his (and) group or as members of his (par) i.e. another group.

The basis of this type of thinking is often racial differences, religious differences, differences in residential areas, differences in age categories, gender differences, and occupation There are many types of characteristics like differences in occupation etc.

The categorization of individuals into the categories of ‘own’ or ‘other’ leads to conflicting feelings and beliefs towards ‘own’ and ‘out-group’ members and corresponding inter-actional patterns. Is.

Often the members of the ‘in group’ behave mutually friendly and desirable and praise each other. Let’s see from the point of view of. On the contrary, the members of their own group have negative feelings towards the members of the ‘outgroup’.

In-group members tend to be more trusting and good at their own group, while prejudices against the ‘outgroup’ develop. For example, students from one school look at you from another school in a different light and consider themselves superior to others.

A group that is an ‘own group’ in one culture or subculture may be an ‘outgroup’ in another culture or subculture. For example, a litterateur considers the group of litterateurs as ‘own’ while the group of artists is an ‘other’ group. Similarly, the artist considers the group of litterateurs as the ‘other group’ and the group of artists as the ‘own group’.

This tendency to understand ‘own’ and ‘other’ groups is often found in every professional group, and organization on a regional or provincial basis. In this way, the perception of ‘own’ and ‘other’ groups affects the social life of a person and also becomes an important reason for social wealth.


long answer type questions


Q. 1. What do you understand by group? Explain its features.

Ans. Several definitions of the group have been given. In those definitions, Sherif & Sherif have given a generally accepted definition of a group.

According to him, “A group is a social unit of a number of persons who are related to each other by their definite position and role and who have ideals or beliefs by which at least the behaviour of the members is governed. meaningful or important to the group.

The following important points emerge from this definition:

(i) A group is a small unit of society consisting of more than one member.

(ii) Mutual relations are established among the members of the group.

(iii) The group has its own goal.

(iv) There are interactions between the members of the group.

(v) The group has its own ideal. Characteristics- As far as the characteristics of the group are concerned,

The following are the main features-

(i) The first characteristic of a group is that the number of members in the group is more than one. The number of members in the group can be at least two and maximum as it may be.

(ii) Another characteristic of a group is that there are interactions between the members of the group.

(iii) The group is objective oriented. Groups are formed to achieve one or the other goal.

(iv) Each group has its own autonomous structure. of the group in the composition of the group size, the role of members, mutual relations etc.

(v) A characteristic of the group is that the group is of both permanent and temporary consequence. It happens. The permanent group lasts for ages. Old members leave and new ones come. The temporary group expires after the goal is met.

(vi) One of the characteristics of the group is that there is a mutual acquaintance of the members in the group. I may or may not. The mutual introduction is not possible in large groups, but in small groups, the members are well acquainted with each other.

(vii) One of the characteristics of a group is that each group has its own ideal and its own paradigm. The behaviour of the members is guided by the same ideals.

(viii) The characteristic of a group is that it should be dynamic. Group changes due to dynamic consequences.

(ix) A characteristic of a group is also its strong unity. Due to unity the group remains united and does not break up.

(x) The quality of the group is that the group has its own morale. group’sSuccess depends in large part on the morale of the group.

Q. 2. Give a brief description of the composition of the group. Or, describe the basic structural features of the group. 

Ans. Social psychology studies the actions of an individual in a collective situation. The study of groups is important in social psychology. The individual wants to belong to the group. When some persons are present at the same place at the same time with or without purpose, it is called a group.

The members of an organization are also called a group. These members have a common goal. In this way, due to the difference in the group situation, there is a difference in the behaviour of the members. Everyone tries to proselytize in the new circumstances as well.

As the composition of the group varies. By the way, the behaviour of the members of that group also varies. Regarding group structure, Sherif and Sherif have said that when different individuals cooperate almost permanently according to their position and role, then that situation of the group is called group structure.

Lindgren has said in this regard that no group can do useful work without some structure. The importance of composition in any group is high because it is not only a solution to the problem. Rather, he gets the decision of the group followed.

The size of the group, the place of the individual in the group, the formation of sub-groups etc. come under the composition of the group. The following things of the group are the main ones that determine the behaviour of the individual-

1. Size of the group The size of the group determines the actions of the individual. The smallest group is two people. For example, husband and wife, but as the size of the group increases, so does the complexity of the group. The same type of relationship is possible in a group of two people, but a group of three becomes a bit more complicated.

2. Individual’s role within the group—All the members of the group differ from each other in their personal, social and physical abilities, intelligence, art etc. To achieve the goal of the group, action-reaction takes place among the members.

“3. Group relation- In the composition of the group, the roles of the members under the group, the mutual relation of their members with the leader, the relation of the followers, etc. come. Every group has sub-groups. Each sub-group has An interpersonal relationship between determines the functioning of the group.

4. Relationship among social organizations – There are many types of social organizations in society. Every organization has its own ideals, values, culture and different standards according to which its members behave. There are many types of organizations religious, political, social etc. in India.

5. Member composition—This refers to the type of members in the composition of the group. Even if the number of members in a group remains the same, their functions differ due to differences in their personalities. Its impact on group behaviour is read differently. The effectiveness of a group depends on the effectiveness of its members. If all the people in a group are intelligent and educated, then that group will be more effective. It affects group organization and not its size.

Q.3. Describe the various functions of a group. Are.

Ans. The study of groups has been considered the starting point of social psychology because the interaction of the individual is studied in social psychology and the group is formed by the interaction only. Individuals form groups to satisfy their needs.

Through this, a person’s food, shelter and sexual desires are fulfilled. Apart from this, it is protected from external attacks. A person remains a member of various groups and receives various benefits from them. Leaves the membership of the group from which he does not get loss or profit.

The biological and social needs of the individual are fulfilled through the group. Therefore, the most important function of the group is to satisfy the needs of the members. The functions of the group can be mainly divided into the following parts-

1. Satisfaction of wants of the members Satisfying the needs of the members of the group is the main objective of any group. Some groups fulfil the basic needs of their members like food, clothing, shelter and security etc. These types of needs are satisfied by the primary group. The second group also caters to the multiple needs of the members. Through this needs like respect, prestige, relationships etc. are fulfilled. Such needs are met by authoritarian and democratic groups.

2. Hegemony is the satisfaction of the power-need group. The possessive needs of the person are also fulfilled through this medium. The desire to be better than others is found in all people, but this desire is more strong in leaders. These wishes of the leaders in the group are fulfilled. Leaders satisfy more needs than members in any group.

3. Satisfaction of Affiliation—Each person has his own place in the group. He wants to stay in the group. All individuals have a strong desire to belong to some person or group. This makes the person feel secure. The biggest punishment for any individual is to be stripped of his group affiliation. Such examples are seen in the village.

4. Achievement of group goals The members of any group also have a goal of their own. Despite the differences among the members of the group, most of the members are engaged in achieving the goal set by the group. For example, the goal of the members of the primary group may be the welfare of the family or the advancement of the family.

5. Creation of New Wants A member of the group creates new wants after the need is satisfied. Krech and Crutchfield have written in this regard, “Man’s needs do not remain constant, but as man changes, his needs also grow, change and develop. Due to the influence of the group, new experiences arise among the members. In the beginning the individual with his group

Q.4. Distinguish between primary and secondary or secondary groups.

Ans. The following differences between the primary and secondary groups are major primary groups: –

(i) Primary group is the smallest unit of society. It is small in size and has less number of members.

(ii) The primary group is formed emotionally. Like family.

(iii) The shortage of members in the primary group cannot be made up for.

(iv) The relationship between the members of the primary group is face-to-face.

(v) Membership of the group in the primary group is acquired automatically. After birth, a person becomes a member of the family.

(vi) In the primary group the individual becomes the leader of the group on the basis of age. like family father, uncle or elder brother.

(vii) The process of socialization goes on in the primary group.

(viii) In the primary group, the mutual relations of the members are cordial. love, cooperation and development of empathy.

(ix) Primary groups are universal. For example, having a family-like group in all countries.

(x) Primary group does not have a definite objective.

(xi) The members of the primary group are permanent.

(xii) The origin of the primary group is from primitive times. The group is relatively temporary.

Q.5. Discuss conformity.

Ans. Conformity Every individual is a member of a society or group. Therefore, he is expected to behave according to the norms of his society or group and internalize the decision of the group.

Behaving according to the standard of the group or creating similar beliefs is called ‘conformity’. Many examples of conformity are seen in our daily life, such as students attending school in the prescribed ‘uniform’, following the timetable, following the rules of the game in the playground, following social conventions, Wearing traditional clothes on special occasions etc. are examples of conformity.

It means that according to the expectations of the society in which a person lives, i.e. keeping in mind how one should behave in what situation, it is called conformity.

Like- taking care of traffic signals while driving, washing hands and feet before entering the place of worship, following school norms etc. In the light of these examples and the expectations of social or group norms, ‘conformity’ can be defined in this way – ‘Conformity is called the social effect due to which the individual conforms to his group.

Changes one’s own behaviour and beliefs to conform to other people.” Conformity is brought about by a number of social factors. Social pressure is an important factor among such factors. Willingly, the group internalises the decision but sometimes the group does not want it. Because of this, group decisions have to be internalized.


FAQs

Q. What is compliance?

Ans. Compliance is a type of social influence under which one person makes a direct request to another person.

Q. What is obedience?

Ans. When people obey orders or commands of others to do something that is called obedience. short answer type questions


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