NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 9 Developing Psychological Skills Easy PDF

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 9 Developing Psychological Skills Easy PDF

Class12th 
Chapter Name Developing Psychological Skills
Chapter numberChapter 9
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPsychology
Medium English
Study MaterialsImportant question to answer
Download PDF Developing Psychological Skills pdf

Developing Psychological Skills Summary


The term skill can be defined as proficiency, efficiency or dexterity. Which can be acquired or developed through the training experience. The Chester’s Dictionary defines it as “the quality of subjection by which something is done or caused to be done by others.”

are essential for professional psychologists. The task force recommended three sets of skills: assessment of individual differences, behavioural modification, skills and counselling and directing skills. The basic skills or competencies that psychologists have identified and which are necessary to be an effective psychologist can be divided into three categories-

(a) general skills, (b) observational skills, and

(c) specific skills.

Psychologists, whether practising or practising in the field, spend most of their time carefully listening, paying attention, and observing. They use all their senses to see, hear, smell, feel or touch. Thus the psychologist is like a device that absorbs all the information from its environment. The relevant specific skills and competencies can be classified as-

(i) Communication Skills: reading active listening

(ii) Psychological test body language or nonverbal skills

(iii) Interviewing skills

(iv) Counseling skills: That feeling positive respect authenticity

objectivity when using psychological tests, scientific it is necessary to be aware of scientific orientation and standardized interpretation. To grow as a psychologist, it is necessary that there is competence in the field of counseling and guidance.

These points make it clear that being an effective psychologist, both as a researcher and a practitioner, requires professional training. The knowledge of tools, methods and principles greatly affects the efficiency of the psychologist.

Characteristics of a good psychologist- Competence, scientific temper, responsibility, respect for the rights and dignity of people, concern for the welfare of others, interpersonal sensitivity, ability to observe, openness to new ideas, knowledge of psychological facts, skill, motivation And values ​​play an important role in the success of a psychologist.

The consultation process proceeds in three stages—(i) initial openness, (ii) in-depth exploration and (iii) taking action. Some of the main characteristics that a person should have in order to be a successful psychologist are competence, dedication, professional and psychological responsibility, and rights and responsibilities to the people. Some unwanted signals, such as gestures, body language, hand movements, etc. can also be used in dialogue.


Class 12 Psychology Chapter 9 Questions and Answers


Q. 1. What are the competencies required to be an effective psychologist?

Ans. The basic skills or competencies that psychologists have identified and which are necessary to be an effective psychologist can be divided into three categories-

(a)General skills, (b) observational skills, and (c)specific skills.

These skills are basically of general consequence and are needed by all types of psychologists, regardless of their area of ​​specialization. These skills are essential for all business psychologists.

These skills include both personal and intellectual skills. intellectual and personal skills

1. Interpersonal skills – the ability to listen and empathize with others’ culture sense of respect for and interest in, values, attitudes, goals and desires and fearsOpenness to understanding and a positive spirit of receiving feedback, etc. These skills are expressed verbally or non-verbally.

2. Cognitive Skills Ability to problem solve, critical thinking and systematic reasoning, intellectual curiosity and flexibility.

3. Emotional skills – emotional control and balance, tolerance to interpersonal conflict, tolerance to uncertainties and ambiguities.

4. Personality/Attitude Willingness to help others Openness to new ideas Honesty/Integrity Values ​​Ethical behaviour Personal courage.

5. Expressive skills Ability to communicate your thoughts, feelings, and information in oral, non-verbal and written form.

6. Reflective or reflective skills – the ability to understand and examine one’s own motivations, attitudes and behaviours, sensitivity to one’s own and other’s behaviours.

7. Personal Skills – Personal organization, health, time management and proper clothing or country. Psychologists, whether doing research or practicing in the field, spend most of their time doing carefully listening, paying attention, and observing.

They use all their senses to see, hear, smell, feel or touch. Thus the psychologist is like a device that absorbs all the information from its environment. The broader meaning of communication is – it is a relationship between two or more persons in which they are involved in the sharing of meaning that leads to the sending and receiving of messages. There remains a similarity.

Speech – An important component of communication is the use of language to speak (speech). Symbols are used in the language in which meanings are tied. To be effective, it is necessary that the communicator knows how to use the language correctly because the use of language should be clear and precise.

Communication takes place within a context. Hence the reference base of the other also needs to be kept in mind. This means that the sender should be aware of the context in which the message is being sent. Also, the share of interpretation of that context is necessary. If not, then your vocabulary level and choice of words have to be brought to the level of the listener. Remember, culture-specific or region-specific slang and wordplay can sometimes hinder the effectiveness of communication.

To grow as a psychologist, it is necessary that there is competence in the field of counseling and guidance. That is, it is necessary to have competence, integrity, professional and scientific responsibility, respect for the rights and dignity of people, etc.

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Q. 2. Which general skills are essential for all psychologists?

Ans. These skills are basically of general consequence and are required in all types of psychologists regardless of their area of ​​expertise. These skills are all vocation essential for psychologists. These skills include both personal and intellectual skills. The main forms of intellectual and personal skills are as follows-

1. Interpersonal Skills

2. Cognitive Skills

3. Affective Skills

4. Personality/Attitude

5. Expressive Skills

6. Reflective or reflective skills

7. Personal skills.

Q. 3. Define communication. Which component of the communication process is the mostis important? Justify your answer with relevant examples.

Ans. Definition—Communication is a conscious or unconscious, intentional or unintentional process in which feelings and thoughts are sent, received and received in the form of verbal or non-verbal messages. cracked up to be.

The broader meaning of communication is that it is a relationship between two or more persons in which they are involved in the sharing of meaning so that there is equality in the sending and receiving of the message.

Important Components: Speech (Speech) An important component of communication is speaking using language (speech). Symbols are used in the language in which meanings are tied. To be effective, it is essential that the communicator knows how to use language properly, because the use of language must be clear and precise. Communication takes place within a context.

Hence the reference base of the other also needs to be kept in mind. This means that the sender should be aware of the context in which the message is being sent. Also, the share of interpretation of that context is necessary. If not, then your vocabulary level and choice of words have to be brought to the level of the listener.

Remember, culture-specific or region-specific slang and jargon sometimes hinder the effectiveness of communication. Listening- Listening is an important skill that we use every day.

It is also important to know what are the steps to be an efficient communicator.is required? Information about the barriers that arise in the process of communication is helpful in the development of communication skills. All the problems related to this are related to three main areas-composition of the message, voiceEase of Control and Reimbursement Let us now learn some of the ways through which these problems can be overcome.

1. Designing the message – The message should be carefully constructed so that it is received

and reaches the doers (or source group) without any disturbance. For this, you can pay attention to the following guidelines-

(i) Know about the person who is the target of your communication. In order to bring your sources closer to you, you need to know the background and level of understanding of the source group. Needed. This will help you understand how to receive messages and respond to them. Efforts should be made to increase and develop faith.

(ii) inform or converse with the audience about what they expect do. If you state the purpose, the outline of the message is created, with which the communicator and the listener understand the same meaning.

(iii) The message should be structured in such a way as to make it memorable. The use of specific and concrete language is beneficial. Words used in this way can evoke physical images, which are very useful.

(iv) Information that does not directly contribute to the purpose of the communication should be discarded. By doing this, the audience can concentrate. (v) Relation of new information to existing ideas should be conveyed to the audience.

(vi) The important points in the message should be elaborated and summarized. After this, you use words and simple language.

2. Control of tone – messages that fail to deliver results Can’t reach For this purpose you should do the following

(i) Try to eliminate possible sources of obstructions.

(ii) Use such communication medium which does not create hindrance with the message.

(iii) Select a method that is capable of attracting the attention of the audience.If the message is written, it should be emotive. if you are presenting orally, try to remove physical barriers. CommunicationsThere should be proper lighting in the area. If the sound is spread over a long distance, then makes communication more effective.

3. Ease of Feedback — Effective communication requires that listeners have the opportunity to provide feedback. While formulating the message, it should be clear as to how much reimbursement is required. Compensation can often be made more useful but this situation reduces the communicator’s control. compensation by planning how and

When it can be internalized, the receptivity and openness of the communicator is also important.

Q.4. Describe the set of competencies that must be kept in mind while administering a psychological test.

Ans. While using psychological tests, it is necessary to be mindful of objectivity, scientific orientation and standardized interpretation.

For example, in industries and business, in organizational and personnel functions, where selection for specific posts is to be done through specialized tests, it is essential. That the actual performance record or assessment be taken as the benchmark to establish the validity of the test. Suppose the personnel department of an organization wants to know control andandEase of Tripurti Now let us learn some of the ways through which these problems can be overcome.

Designing the message – The message should be carefully constructed so that it is received and reaches the doers (or source group) without any disturbance. For this, you can pay attention to the following guidelines-

(i) Know about the person who is the target of your communication. In order to bring your sources closer to you, you need to know the background and level of understanding of the source group. Needed. This will help you understand how to receive messages and respond to them. Efforts should be made to increase and develop faith.

(ii) inform or converse with the audience what they expect do. If you state the purpose, the outline of the message is created, with which the communicator and the listener understand the same meaning.

(iii) The message should be structured in such a way as to make it memorable. The use of specific and concrete language is beneficial. Words used in this way can evoke physical images, which are very useful.

(iv) Information that does not directly contribute to the purpose of the communication should be discarded. By doing this, the audience can concentrate. (v) Relation of new information to existing ideas should be conveyed to the audience.

(vi) The important points in the message should be elaborated and summarized. After this, you use words and simple language.


VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. What is meant by interpersonal sensitivity?

Ans. To understand or focus on human behavior in the socio-cultural context of the individual Mental readiness to pay attention is called interpersonal sensitivity.

Q. 2. What is counseling?

Ans. Counseling is the process of interactive relationships between the counselor and the beneficiary, in which efforts are made to bring changes in the behavioral and emotional problems of the beneficiary.

Q.3. The state of in-depth research should be emotionally stressful. Can – how? –

Ans. In the in-depth exploration stage, since the beneficiary has to face the inappropriateness of his/her habitual behaviours, this stage is emotionally stressful.

Q. 4. What does a counselor do in the initial stage of counseling?

Ans. In the primary phase of counselling, the counsellor creates a specific treatment situation based on trust and a working relationship.

Q.5. What is called empathy?

Ans. Empathy means understanding the experiences of others as one’s own.It means looking at oneself in the mirror of others.

Q.6. What are the points to be kept in mind when one refers a beneficiary to another during counselling?

Ans. While referring, it is important to note that the referral specialist is a well-versedAnd has efficient qualifications and is not infamous in the field of business.

Q.7. What should be the qualities of a responsible psychological examiner?

Ans. A responsible psychologist is well-informed about the test and follows the instructions of the test accurately and objectively. Also, tested able to control situations.

Q.8. How does facial expression play an important role in communication transmission?

Ans. Facial expressions are actually body language, which are the primary sites for the expression of a person’s emotions, feelings, thoughts, etc., which convey both specific and general messages.

Q.9. What is communication?

Ans. The process of transmitting meaning from one person to another in the form of communication is called communication in which the sender who receives the communication receives the meaning exactly as it is.

Q. 10. What is the role of language style in communication?

Ans. The effectiveness of communication depends on the language style of communication.

Q. 11. What are the tools used in communication technology?

Ans. In communication technology word processors, laser printers, fax machines, TV, e-mail etc. equipment are used.

Q. 12. What is the importance of the interviewer in a traditional interview? 

Ans. In the traditional interview, the interviewer plays the role of a collaborator in doing purposeful work, exchanging information, solving problems and creating a good sense of self, which paves the way for the success of the interview.

Q, 13. State the main characteristics of an efficient interviewer.

Ans. A skilled interviewer is skilled, experienced, and able to build a comfortable and effective relationship with the interviewee.

Q. 14. Why is preliminary preparation important for the interview?

Ans. About 50% of the decisions are made in the initial 60 seconds of the interview itself. It happens. Therefore, preliminary preparation for the interview is an important determinant of success or failure.

Q. 15. In which field do occupational psychologists work?

Ans. Professional psychologists work in the ups and downs of real life. They are and use the problems of different areas of life.

Q. 16. Where does the meaning of verbal and non-verbal behavior lie?

Ans. The meaning of verbal or nonverbal behavior lies in its socio-cultural context.It happens.

Q.17. What are the characteristics of a good psychologist?

Ans. The main characteristics expected in a good psychologist are competence, scientific temper, sense of responsibility, respect for the rights and dignity of people, sense of welfare of others, interpersonal sensitivity, openness to new ideas and ability to observe.

Q. 18. What is important to be an effective psychologist?

Ans. To be an effective psychologist, the elements of psychology—skills, motivation, and Theoretical and practical knowledge related to values ​​are important.

Q. 19. What are the three stages of the counseling process? 

Ans. There are three stages in the counselling process –

(i) initial anticipation, (ii) in-depth investigation and (iii) commitment to action.

Q. 20. What subjects are necessary for the counsellor?

Ans. A counsellor should have ethical qualities such as confidentiality, professional openness, professionalShould have knowledge about relationships and the direction and conclusion of the consultation.


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Who is an effective psychologist?

Ans. To be an effective psychologist, a person needs to have the right combination of knowledge, skills, motivation and values. As a researcher, the psychologist contributes to the increase of knowledge in a particular way.

Professional psychologists, such as counselors, therapists, school psychologists, child psychologists, personnel managers, human relations, and counselors, use their knowledge and skills to serve individuals and organizations.

Psychologists need special training and experience to perform these roles. In the present context, attention is required to be paid to the general or fundamental aspects involved in the process of becoming a psychologist.

Q. 2. What is counseling?

Ans. Counselling is an important psychological assistance process. This process is bilateral. In which one party is willing to receive help and the other party is willing to give help i.e. advice in the capacity of consulting expert. Thus counselling is a help-based relationship between two parties.

A helper is a trained person who has the ability to provide counselling and also manages the necessary conditions to facilitate the process of receiving and giving help. Thus, counselling is an interactive process based on a mutual relationship between the ‘counsellor and the beneficiary’ (counselee).

As a result of this interactive process, the beneficiary’s visible behaviours (such as work behaviour, coping skills, decision-making abilities, relationship skills, beliefs, the way he thinks about himself and others, etc.) and emotional suffering. change in quantity. To be an efficient and effective counsellor, seek the help of a competent and experienced counsellor. Vocational training in guidance is necessary.

Q, 3. What benefits does the beneficiary get from the counseling? 

Ans. Counselling gives the following benefits to the beneficiary-

(i) Adoption of problems means that the beneficiaries themselves are able to understand the contribution of your level. Such people also come for a consultation, Those who consider others or environmental elements responsible for their problems. the problemsFinding the causes of depression in oneself can be considered as the first step in trying to solve them.

(ii) Developing understanding of the problems- Once the beneficiary knows his responsibilities in the context of his problems, then some understanding or understanding about his problem automatically starts developing in him. This gives them a clear idea of ​​how to behave appropriately to control real problems.

(iii) Acquisition of new behaviours and activities — Development in the understanding of problematic issues requires the beneficiary to acquire knowledge of effective ways of behaving in problematic situations. To avoid repeated futile efforts, the person must develop new behaviours, interactions and responses to the problematic situation and others.

(iv) Developing Effective Relationships – Many of the people who seek help from a counsellor do not have effective or satisfying relationships. In order for such people’s relationships with people to develop meaningfully, they need to be supported by family, friends, colleagues and their community.

It is necessary to get social support from the people The relationship between the client and the counselor during counseling is the first step in developing meaningful relationships with others.

Q.4. What are the main steps in the interview process?

Ans. Every interview has three phases – preliminary preparation, question and answer session and closing. A brief description of these stages is as follows-

1. Preliminary Preparation- Even though people spend very little time in this phase of the interview, in reality, it is the most important phase of the interview. Psychologists are of the view that in an interview, about 50 per cent of the decisions are taken in the first 60 seconds and then 25 per cent in the next 15 minutes. If your performance is not good at the very beginning of the interview, then it becomes very difficult to crack the interview.

2. Question and Answer Session – A major part of the interview takes place in this phase. In this, the interviewer asks questions and the interviewee has to answer these questions. While answering it is not necessary that the answer should be in ‘yes’ or ‘no’ only. After listening to the question, one should stop and think for a few moments, then an answer should be given.

3. Conclusion – Like the beginning of the interview, its conclusion is also important. In the last few minutes, you should reflect on how you did in the interview and try to rectify any adverse impression that may have been created in the mind of the interviewer.

Whenever the interviewer is paying attention to your verbal or non-verbal cues at the end of the interview, you should try to explain yourself. In an effort to conclude, the interviewer may ask you if you have anything else to say or ask. Or may ask for a summary of the conversation, and behave appropriately immediately upon meeting. But don’t be in a hurry to go while doing this Show At the end, do not forget to thank the interviewer for giving you an opportunity to speak.

 Q.5. Briefly describe communication skills.

Ans. It is believed that ‘the meaning of life is to communicate’. That means it is very necessary to have dialogue in order to live. Life without communication is actually like death.

Communication is an art that makes life easier. Because it solves many problems of life. Communication is the pillar of social life without which social life cannot be imagined.

More than 80% of a person’s entire life span is spent in communication with other people. This communication takes place through the process of sending and receiving messages from others. Communication is done by expressing orally, in symbolic (non-verbal) form, by writing or by listening through various mediums.

Success and success in life depend a lot on the skill of communication. Inefficient or ineffective communication hinders success in life. Communication is essential in every sphere of life, such as family, workplace, friendship, politics, business, playground, travel etc.

Communication is the process of transfer of meaning from one person to another, but this meaning of communication is limited. The meaning of communication is more than just conveying. When a meaning is conveyed to another through communication, then that meaning is conveyed to others.It is also important to be understood correctly by the

Q, 6. What do you understand by empathy?

Ans. Empathy is an important aspect of the counseling process. This indicates the sensitivity of the counsellor to the problem of the beneficiary. Empathy means having similar feelings. It includes both ‘Perception’ and ‘Communication’.

When the counselor listens to the beneficiary, the perception element is important and communication is involved when the counselor says something to the beneficiary so that the beneficiary feels that his words have been understood in the right perspective. Knowledge of the cultural environment of the beneficiary is beneficial for the effective use of ’empathy’. The study would be beneficial in order to better understand empathy.


long answer type questions


Q.1. What are the characteristics of an effective psychologist?

Ans. The following are the main characteristics of an effective psychologist-

(i) Competence: The psychologist is able to serve according to the education, training or work experience he has received or can use the same techniques in the service work. Therefore, as a psychologist, you have to maintain a high standard of work and at the same time recognize the limits of your competence and level of efficiency.

(ii) Scientific Mindset—As you know that any scientific work is based on an objective understanding of testable and useful knowledge to the people. Therefore, for this, it is necessary for the psychologist to maintain a sense of objectivity and passion in his work. He should remain neutral, free from bias, honest and fair in his approach to his work.

(iii) Sense of responsibility – the responsibility of maintaining high professional standards on psychologists there is responsibility. They have to take full responsibility for their actions and appropriate methods have to be adopted according to the needs of the groups.

At the same time theyAt the same time one has to be aware of one’s duties towards the community and the society in which one lives.Are. As an occupational therapy psychologist, you should be concerned with your patients or your work.

The interests of others who may be benefited have to be looked after.

(iv) Respect for the rights and dignity of people The psychologist must respect the fundamental rights, dignity and potential of the people with whom he interacts. As a psychologist, you have to respect the rights of participants and beneficiaries to privacy, confidentiality, self-determination and autonomy. Psychologists must be aware of cultural and individual differences and try to remove the effects of biases due to these.

(v) Consideration of the welfare of others – It is the duty of psychologists to contribute to the welfare of those with whom they are professionally associated. For example, they have to look after the welfare of their patients, clients, colleagues, employees or students. Psychologists need to help people during or after their professional activities. They should not be misled or exploited. They should share egalitarian values.

(vi) Interpersonal sensitivity Human behaviour often occurs in a social context and it is the cultural background that gives meaning to behaviour. In this way, the meaning of any verbal or non-verbal behaviour lies in its socio-cultural perspective. He should be sensitive to the interactions between people.

(vii) Openness to new ideas- You must have realized that there are many theoretical perspectives in psychology. The psychologist should internalize this diversity of views and one should not be too insistent on thoughts, attitudes but attitudes. him new ideas must be open to.

(viii) Ability to observe- To deal effectively with people the psychologist should be a good observer or observer. The psychologist must note and identify all the behaviors or events that occur in a given situation. Only a skilled supervisor can properly identify the problems and suggest their solutions. may try. 

Q, 2. What are the main elements of counselling?

Ans. Counselling is a relationship based on giving help between two parties in which one is willing to take help and the other is willing to give help. In these, the helper is trained and empowered to do so and works in an environment that is conducive to giving or receiving help.

Thus, counseling is an interactive process based on the relationship between the counselor and the client (beneficiary), which leads to changes in the overt behaviors of the beneficiary such as work behavior, coping skills, decision-making skills, relationship-building skills, beliefs, etc. —There is a change in the way of thinking and the level of emotional distress in relation to self, others and the world. To be a counselor, it is necessary to receive professional training under the direction of a competent and experienced counselor.

There are many provincial concepts about counselling among people. People make the mistake of considering many related activities, such as giving information, giving advice, interviewing, selecting qualified people for various tasks, etc., as counselling. All these sound like advice, but in reality, they are not advice.

In real life, counselling is given through systematic intervention in the life of a person seeking help. The following are the main elements of counselling-

(i) It is a voluntary process in which a counsellor acts according to the experiences, thoughts and behaviours of a client (beneficiary).

(ii) In this, the beneficiary’s own perception and experiences get self-creation.

(iii) The confidentiality and privacy of the individuals are maintained in the counselling situation.

(iv) no one shall resort to coercive methods for obtaining information from the Consultant Beneficiary; does not use

(v) The counselor focuses his attention on the specific problems of the client.

(vi) Both the counsellor and the beneficiary exchange verbal and non-verbal messages during counselling. Therefore, it is necessary to be sensitive or aware of the consequences of the messages available in counselling.

Q.3. Briefly describe the case study.

Ans. ‘Case study’ is very useful for a detailed study of the aspects related to the entire life history of a person. In this method, the individual who is selected for study is called a ‘case’.

The causal sources of the past life affecting the behaviour or personality of that selected person are traced. In the biographical study method, a detailed study of his past life is done to observe the ‘case’.Details are prepared.

In the detailed description, there is a maximum description of the major features related to all the circumstances or aspects of the life of the said case, which are the facts related to the person’s past and present life circumstances, struggles, frustrations etc. and on the basis of which the future is predicted. Is.

These estimates are often subjective, so they are quite different from information based on objective questionnaires or tests or direct observation.

To avoid errors arising from subjectivity, researchers often use a self-report schedule, audio or video recording, etc.or visual recordings) etc.

Biography study is useful in the sense that it reveals the sources of a person’s behavioural beliefs and presuppositions. By this method, an opportunity is obtained about a rare person or event which is capable of overturning even long-held beliefs and is very valuable for research work.

There are also some limitations of the biography study, such as the various interpretations of the findings obtained from such studies are possible. Therefore it is difficult to reach a definite conclusion. This may also contaminate the perspective of the researcher. Anyway, it is not appropriate to reach generalized conclusions from the conclusions obtained on the basis of the study of anyone’s ‘case’.

Q.4. What are the stages of the counseling process?

Ans. Stages of the Counseling Process The process of counselling is guided by the theoretical orientation of the counsellor. Now here will be described the stages that are common in most counselling techniques. The reality is that a counsellor is trained in a specific counselling technique from a senior experienced counsellor.

There are usually three stages in the counseling process. The process begins with the establishment of contact between the counselor and the beneficiary. The counselor then tries to understand the needs and desires of the beneficiary. Finally, the goals of counseling and the methods to achieve these goals are identified. The different stages of the counselling process are as follows-

(i) Initial Openness Initially the consultee and the beneficiary do not know each other, so the first task is to establish a comfortable relationship between the two. Whenever a client comes to a counsellor, he or she has two experiences: “I know I need help” and “I wish I didn’t have to come here.” The first task of a counsellor is to encourage them to come out openly.

(ii) Probing In-Depth – In this stage, the counsellor brings his views to the discussion about the client’s psychodynamics and coping behaviours. The counsellor tries to know the feedback of the beneficiary about the progressive and satisfactory success after a few sessions of counselling.

(iii) Taking action: This is the stage in which necessary decisions are taken. And action is taken. The beneficiary considers several courses of action and selects and uses some of them.

Q.5. What are the characteristics of an efficient counsellor?

Ans. Characteristics of an Effective Counselor Although both the client and the counsellor work together to achieve the desired outcome in the counselling process, it is the counsellor who is trained and has to ensure that the client gets the maximum benefit. In order to become an effective counsellor, it is necessary to develop the following characteristics in a person-

(i) A counsellor should have an understanding and awareness of his ‘self’. It means understanding your needs, feelings, personal strengths and limitations. This helps counsellors to understand themselves and to know exactly what they are doing, why they are doing it, what problems they are facing and which of these problems are related to the beneficiary.

(ii) The counselor should be in good mental health. He should not turn away from his personal problems. Counsellors who do not have good mental health, increase the anxiety among the beneficiaries willing to cooperate.

(iii) It is found that those individuals who are more sensitive, are more prone to problems. more able to cope. Such people as counsellors are able to understand the verbal and non-verbal messages of the beneficiary and can use different methods for each beneficiary. Sensitivity means that the counselor is aware of the client’s strengths, limits and coping styles.

(iv) Open-mindedness in the counsellors refers to pre-established ideas that have to be free. Open-minded counsellors know their beliefs or values, But they do not compel the beneficiaries to adopt any beliefs or values.

(v) Consultants adopt objectivity while dealing with their beneficiaries. For this, while solving the problems of the beneficiaries, the counsellor is careful about his one-sided assumptions. Related to this is another characteristic—suitability. A counsellor should be conscientious and should neither mislead nor mislead the beneficiary should do.

(vi) The counsellor should have respect for his beneficiary. He should consider the beneficiary as a worthy person and treat him with respect and pleasure.

(vii) The counsellor should have the ability to concentrate. It can be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal attention involves what—and how—is being said to the beneficiary. Allowing the beneficiaries to finish their talk is also a form of attention. While listening to the beneficiary, keep saying ‘good’, ‘so that’s it’, and ‘what happened after this?’ Attention is also shown by encouraging him with vocal cues like ‘ch…ch…’. The intensity of your voice depends on the situation and reactions of the beneficiary

It is also important to vary the sharpness and speed. initiation signals into nonverbal meditation, Nodding of the head as ‘yes’ or ‘no’, facial expressions (smiles, seriousness), body gestures and distance are included. Beneficiary and Introspection should be done according to the characteristics of the situation.

(viii) Empathy involves sensitivity to the problems of the beneficiary and understanding his mode of action. Perception and communication also play an important role in this. On the other hand, through communication, the counsellor says something so that the beneficiary feels that his/her views and experiences have been understood properly. cross-cultural knowledge is important to use empathy effectively.

Q.6. What are the main components of test administration?

Ans. The following are the main components of test administration-

(i) Role of the test The psychologist responsible for the test, who is called the examiner, is expected to follow the instructions of the test accurately. He should have a thorough knowledge of the standard instructions for the test to be used. Careful control of the test conditions is essential.

Close supervision should not be used without close supervision unless the method of testing and scoring is fully validated, validated or planned for its self-administration. Before the test is administered the person to be tested—called the test taker—should be given full information about the circumstances under which the test results are relevant.

Interpretation of test scores requires information about the test, the test taker, and the test situation (eg, short-term emotional/physical state). This is important because psychological tests are used in some practical cases (such as hiring or promotion) to obtain useful information for decision-making.

 The user of the test and the examiner may be different persons. Sharing test-related information well in advance of test administration helps to remove any secrecy that may arise during the test procedure.

(ii) Security of the test: The tester must scrupulously maintain the security of the test by performing the legal and deemed (if any) consequential responsibilities. They should not attempt to modify, modify or adapt any published test or any part thereof without the prior permission and knowledge of the publisher.

(iii) Preparation of Test Administration – An examiner should make some advanced preparations for the test. This is necessary because consistency throughout the procedure helps in the interpretation of test scores. Therefore, he/she should remember the instructions properly and should be familiar with the details regarding the test procedure. It is a good idea to have a few test sessions for demonstration or practice before the actual test administration.

(iv) Beginning of the test At the time of test administration, it is necessary to make a comfortable relationship. Due to this, the attention of the examinees remains completely focused on the test. They are encouraged to give their best effort in the test. Creating a suitable comfortable relationship helps to free the examinee from anxiety or fear and motivates him.

(v) Testing Procedure – This includes seating arrangements, distribution of answer sheets and test booklets, following instructions related to the test, ensuring that all test takers have understood the instructions properly, following the timings and reducing the number of incidents during the test. The facts relating to the recording of specific events are included.

(vi) The scoring of the test may be done manually or by machine. errors that may have crept into the scores when scored by hand; For example, errors related to the method of counting answers, following instructions and giving marks should be avoided. Electronic devices are widely used for accurate and quick scoring of tests.

(vii) Interpretation of test scores – It is important and necessary that the test scores are interpreted correctly and the perspective of the test, the test taker and the test situation are understood properly. It is essential for the tester to understand that test results are affected by a variety of factors; For example, the physical and emotional state of the test taker during the test period, errors occurring during the test administration or scoring, and validity, reliability, and authenticity can be affected.


FAQs


Q. What is the interview?

Ans. The interview is a face-to-face process.

Q. How many stages are there in the interview?

Ans. There are three stages of the interview—(i) preliminary preparation, (ii) question and answer session and (iii) closing stages.


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