NCERT the financial expert summary Class 12 English Kaleidoscope Fiction Easy Notes & PDF

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The financial expert summary Class 12: R.K. Narayan is regarded as one of the greatest Indian writers in English. His family originally belonged to Rasipuram in the district of Salem but had shifted to Madras (Chennai) long before his birth. 

He was born in Madras (Chennai) in 1906. After his birth in Mysore, the family shifted to that place, which remained Narayan’s home ever since. Narayan lived upto the ripe age of ninety five, and died in 2001.

R.K. Narayan was not a good student but he could do his graduation at the age of twenty four. Much against the wishes of his father, he started writing short stories and novels in English and soon achieved considerable success. 

R.K. Narayan was a profile writer. He has written novels, stories, sketches, essays memories and legends. His novels include Swami and Friend (1935), The Bachelor of Arts (1937). 

The Dark Room (1938), The English Teacher (1945), Mr Sampath (1949), The Financial Expert (1952), Waiting for the Mahatma (1955), The Guide (1958), The Man Eater of Malgudi (1962). 

The Vendor of Sweets (1967), etc. His stories have been published under the titles: Malgudi Days (1941), Dadud and other Stories (1943), Cyclone and other Stories (1947). 

taw ley Road (56), in The Gods, Demons and other Stories (1937), and (1965), A Horse and Two Goats (1970) and Under the Banyan Tree and other Stories. 

Next Sunday (1960), Reluctant Guru, A Writer’s Nightmare and The World of the Story Teller are collections of his sketches and essays. 

My Days and My Dateless Diary (1960) includes his memories and travel accounts. He has also retold legends of The Ramayana (1973) and R.K. Narayan was greatly honoured for his work. 

He received Sahitya Akadami Award in 1960 for his novel; The Guide. Government of India awarded him Padma Bhushan in 1964. 

The University of Leeds and the University of Delhi conferred on him Honorary degrees of Doctor of Literature. He visited USA at the invitation of Rockfeller Foundation in 1956. 

British Council included him in the Writers and Their Work series, a rare honour given to any Indian so far. B.B.C. has broadcast many of his stories and sketches.

His novels and stories are true to life. Naryan writes in a language of simplicity, but he succeeds admirably in building the proper atmosphere and rousing necessary emotions for the enjoyment of his fictional work. 

The present novel The Financial Expert’ gives us a message that one should never hanker after money. Of course, it is a valuable asset but it is not a precondition for a happy life.

NCERT the financial expert summary Class 12 English Kaleidoscope Fiction Easy Notes & PDF

Chapter TypeFiction
Chapter Namethe financial expert
Author-by R. K. Narayan
SubjectEnglish Elective  (Kaleidoscope)
Medium English
Study MaterialsVery important question to answer
Download PDFCLICK HERE- the financial expert PDF


The novel has five parts, dealing with particular phases in the life of hero Margayya. The first part portrays Margayya’s career as a small time money- lender doing his business under a banyan tree in front of the Central Co- operative Mortgage Bank in Malgudi. The meeting of Margayya with Dr. Pal, makes and mars Margayya’s life. gif maker 2023 05 24T104508.201

The Second Part tells about the meteoric rise of Margayya to Himalysan heights of glory and prestige after he gets a book on sexology written by Dr. Pal and publishes it with the generous co-operation of Mr. Madan Lal, the owner of the Gordon Printery.

“The third part deals with Margayya’s efforts to get his son Balu pass S.S.L.C. examination, failure helps Balu to disappear him from home. Margayya, however, succeeds in recovering his son.

The fourth part deals with Balu’s marriage with Brinda, the daughter of a rich tea-estate owner of Mempi. Margayya launches an attractive deposit- cum-interest scheme. 

The scheme creates ripples in the financial world, emptying many well-established financial institutions. Margayya is at the peak of financial and social glory.

The fifth part deals with Margayya’s fall from the height of glory after his bloody encounter with Dr. Pal at the residence of his son, Balu. Margayya has to refund all the deposits with him and he is left a desolate bankrupt. Ali his property is confiscated and he remains a pauper. The novel, thus delineates the meteoric rise and fall of an extraordinary financial wizard.

the financial expert summary in English

People used to call him ‘Margayya’. Nobody knew what his real name was except his parents. He was named by the ancestral villagers after the enchanting God Krishna. 

Everybody thought that the name ‘Margayya’ was given to him at his naming ceremony. He had himself forgotten his name and used to sign his name ‘Margayya’ even in legal documents, ‘Marga’ means the ‘Way’ and  ‘Ayya’ is an honourable suffix. 

Thus ‘Margayya’ meant the person who showed the way. Margayya showed way out to those who were in financial troubles. Even those who lived hundred miles away from Malgudi came to him for help. The proudest building in Malgudi is the Central Co-operative Mortgage Bank. 

In front of the bank there is a grassy compound. On the other side there is a banyan tree. Margayya runs his financial transactions under this area. 

In a semi-circle around Margayya sat the villagers, and by seeing their attitude and expression one could easily guess that they were his supplicants. Margayya was about 42. 

“The people gave respect to his commands. Margayya was a wizard to the villagers and he helped them in taking loans from the Co-operative Bank. 

His living depended upon helping the poor people in getting loans from the Co-operative Bank. A Grey coloured Tin Box:

He carried under his arms a small grey-coloured tin box. This small box contained his entire equipments, a bottle of ink, a pen, a blotter.

Geography भूगोल
Political science राजनीति विज्ञान
English SubjectResult
Hindi SubjectHistory answer keys

 a register, which, carried assortment of names and figures. The most important item, which the box carried, was the loan application forms of the Co-operative Bank.. 

The greatest asset in his life was the application form and most of his time was occupied in acquiring it. He had an agency of his own which provided him application forms.

 When a customer came, the first question Margayya asked was ‘Have you secured the application form l’ If the answer was in negative, Margayya asked him to go inside the Bank building and bring one form and

also try to bring one or two spare forms as well. 

It was not always possible to secure more than one form because the clerks refused to give them forms and collected fees. Margayya managed to give them forms. 

Margayya charged fees for filling in the details in the forms. In some other cases, help of Margayya was very much important.

The clerks harassed the villagers by their own method. A villager who wanted to know his account had to ask for it at the counter and invariably the actcuntant and clerks snapped back, 

“Where is your pass book?” A villager could not keep his hand on the pass book. If the pass book was out of sight then it was out of date too. 

Thus the villager was placed at the mercy of the clerk who said that he was not paid for his business only. They had to pay the clerk with a cash or other kind of offering.

In such circumstances, Margayya’s help proved invaluable, Margayya kept accounts of at least fifty members of the Bank. 

What its red-tape obstructed, he cleared up by his own effort. Most of the accounts of members of the Bank were carried in his head. He had to see the customer and he would immediately tell him if he had paid rupees of his previous loan, he could get the new loan of rupees three hundred within a week. 

The bank bye-law allows a new loan when fifty percent of the old loan is paid up. Margayya talked the villagers on those affairs which were of benefit to him otherwise he would not pay need to their questions.

SECTION 1 Helping the Public For Loan:

People in urgent need of money used to come to Margayya. He knew how to handle them and how to make the best of profits. If someone needed money urgently for his daughter’s marriage, and asked for monetary help, 

Margayya said, “Your daughter’s marriage would be forgotten by you after I do your service. You won’t need Margayya anymore”? This showed that Margayya adopted different schemes to earn money on high rates from the customers.

One day a villager called Kanada, came walking from his village fifteen miles away. He owned about twenty acres of land and a house and cattle, but all of it was wasted upon in mortgages. 

He was a gambler and drank heavily and he always asked for money on the pretext of having to marry his daughter, of whom he had a good number. 

Margayya helped him to borrow as much as he wanted by saying: “The only course now left is for you to take a joint-loan, but the difficulty will be to get a partner for it. 

Margayya asked the villagers sitting by any of them could be that person’s partner: The villagers shook their heads in the negative.

Margayya did not want to lose the opportunity. Margayya had to talk privately with Mallanna. 

All the villagers pretended that they were not hearing or paying any heed to what they were talking but all their attention was concentrated on their whispers. 

Margayya said to Mallanna that he was the only man who could help Kanada by helping him in taking loan. Margayya said to Mallanna that he would lose nothing but would get a little gain as interest. 

They could pay seventy five rupees and clear half of their loan and apply for a fresh one. As they did not want a loan for themselves they could take a loan to help Kanada in marrying his daughter. 

Kanada would pay them seven and a half percent. They would pay only four and half percent. Loan to Kanadathrough Mallanna:

The result of all this talk was that Mallanna agreed to the proposal. Margayya grew busy, filling up a loan application form with all the details of the Mallanna’s heritage etc .

He read it out aloud, seized hold of Mallanna’s left thumb, pressed it on a small ink pad he carried in his box and pressed it again on the application form and endorsed it. 

He took out of the box seventy-five rupees in cash and handed them to Mallanna, and asked him to credit this to his account; and then present that application.

Margayya worked very hard under the shade of the tree. He advanced loan (on interest) and then passed on to someone in need for a higher interest and thus his ‘business worked. 

Margayya was the centre of all the complex transactions, and made all the parties concerned to pay him for his services. When the evening sun hit him, he pulled down the lid of his box and locked it up, and his gathering understood that the financial wizard was closing his office for the day.

SECTION 2 Business under a Banyan Tree: 

Reaching home, Margayya put his box under the bench in the front room of his house. His little son, Balu came running out of the kitchen and shouted; Appa ! ‘What have you brought, today ? Margayya hoisted him up on his shoulder: ‘Well, tomorrow, I will buy, a small engine. 

This was almost a daily routine and ritual. The boy revelled in visions of miniature articles-a tiny engine, tiny cows, tiny table, tiny everything of the maximum size of a mustard seed. Margayya did not want to waste his hard earned money.

No. 14 P. Vinayak Street was a famous land-mark. Margayya’s father was the first man to settle in that area. after their father’s death, a partition of the house was made because the brothers and their wives could not live together. 

As there was a single well in the backyard and the well fell in Margayya’s share, Margayya wished that his brother and his family should perish for want of water. But public opinion prevented Margayya from his right and nothing was

done for it. His wife came back and heard the shrieks of her son, she scolded Margayya for negligence. She asked Margayya why he could not look after the child even  for a few moments. 

Margayya felt embarrased, like a man caught shirking a duty. He told his wife curtly, ‘Why do you shout so much, as if a great calamity had be fallen his household. 

After the business work, Margayya wanted to bath. He searched for his brass bowl but found it no where. Troubled Balu:

In between Balu got one of his fingers burnt and he started weeping bitterly? In the end some ointment was administered over his finger.

The child was promised to have a big pipperment. There prevailed peace in the house again. At night to his wife told Margayya that she could not have a single moment’s rest due to mischiefs of Balu. 

Margayya did not like that his son should be so talked about. Next day Balu created, thousands troubles for them.

The boy refused to move ahead without pipperment. He refused food and the new shirt, refused to walk, and insisted on being carried about by his father.

Margayya was engaged all the morning in nursing his finger and playing him with pipperments. His wife did not like his giving the boy so many pepperments.

Margayya did not get enough time to open his tin box and refresh his memory by pouring over the pages of his red-bound account book. He became late and reached the cooperative Bank in the noon.

SECTION-3 Arrival of Arul Dass

Sitting under the shade of the banyan tree as usual, Margayya looked up as a shadow fell on his note-book. He was Arul Das, the head peon of the Co- operative Bank. 

He informed Margayya that he had been summoned by the secretary. Margayya became angry and firsty wanted to tell him that he was not a paid servant of the secretary.

After a thought he viewed that it would insult the secretary so he did not titter a word. Soon he was told by the peon that the secretary was a rich man. He was not a simple fellow, he got Rs. five hundred per month. 

Every person could not reach to search an upper post. At this Margayya felt that he was a poor man and that the world treated him with contempt because he had no money. 

He said to Arul Dass that his case was different, You may not see a hundred rupees even after a hundred years of service, but I think I shall do so very soon and who knows, if your secretary seeks any improvement of his position, he can come to me.’ At this Arul Dass laughed and turned to go.

Margayya failed to control over himself since he felt that he had been insulted before his customers. Then he said to the parting peon Arul Dass: ‘

Tell your secretary that if he is a secretary, I’m really the proprietor of a bank, and that he can come here and meet me if he has any business-‘ 

Arul Dass asked him if the should repeat those very words, ‘Absolutely,’ Margayya said ‘And another thing, if you find yourself thrown out of there, you can come to me for a job. 

I like you, you seems to be hard-working loyal fellow.’ Further parleys were cut off because a couple of villagers came round for consultation and started forming a semi-circle in front of Margayya’. Arul then left him.


Peasants and other people of the locality, the share holders came to Margayya because he knew their joys and sorrows and their troubles and difficulties. 

After working for the whole day, he prepared to close his box in the evening. He decided to revenge. He felt insulted and sore. What right had he or anyone to insult or browbeat him? 

He would teach this Arul Dass a lesson … At that moment he heard a step approaching and saw a man standing in a

brown suit. Arul Dass was also seen standing behind him. 

He realised that the smart and well-dressed fellow must be the secretary. Looking at him he felt himself to be such a contrast with his brown dhoti, torn shirt, and the absurd little tuft under the black cap. 

Then Margayya darted closing his box silently realized that he should have exercised a greater restraint in his speech. God knew what Arul Dass might have reported. He was filled with a kind of fear. But this smart fellow. ‘How did you come by these? These are our application forms.’

Margayya asked the secretary to return his papers or else he should call the police. At this the secretary told him that he himself was going to call the police. He would get him arrested if he continued to come there any more. 

The secretary further told him that he had reports about his activities. The secretary then handed over the blank forms to Arul Dass abruptly turned round arid walked back to the porch of the building, where his car was waiting.

SECTION 5 Troubled Margayya

Margayya bundled up his belongings and started homeward. He is troubled at heart. He felt that people were laughing at him for wearing white rimmed spectecles. So he put his spectecle in his pocket.

 He began to think in the way that with his box under his arm he looked like a barber. Had he looked like the secretary, he would not have dared to snatch the papers from his box. 

He was fit only to look like a wayside barber and was fit for the company of those rustics wrapped in blankets. He was throughly vexed with himself and his lot. His mind was occupied with his miserableness. 

He felt ashamed of his box and wanted to fling it away, but his sense of possession would not let him, At the western end of Market Road he saw the V.N. 

Stores but he thought that the owner standing at the door might put hand into Margayya’s pocket and snatch the glasses or compel him to give him a shave. He side-stepped into Kabir Lane.

He hurried off and threw the box on the bench in his home. His wife was washing the child in the near Verandah. As the sound of his arrival the little fellow let out a yell of joy. 

His wife asked him what had made him to come back so early. He thought that his wife was indifferent and his son untidy. In resentment he replied that he was the owner of his sweet will, he would retum whenever he liked. His son neared him and he felt he wore dirty shirt. 

He asked his wife to put his son into a cleaner shirt but she showed her inability to do so because the child had only four shirts and three of them had been spoiled by him that day.

At night more shirts for his son. Margayya told his wife about his rude behaviour. He decided to purchase shirt. He told her that money was everything in the world. A person who had money, could do all.

His wife told him that he should have exercised greater case for Arul Dass as well as the secretary since he was a wealthy person.

 In the presence of his wife he felt that he too could earn as much he liked. All the despair and inferiority that he had been feeling was gradually leaving him A person who has no money is spurned even by his wife and she would talk differently. So he decided to say good bye to his box and torn dhoti. He would become so rich that even the secretary would have to call him ‘Master’. 

His wife would have no more torn mats and dirty, greasy sarees. His son would have a cycle, he would have a suit and go to a Convent School in a car. His neighbours would have to wonder and burst their hearts with envy. He would have to finish with those villagers.

SECTION 6A Changed Margayya

Next morning, he became like one possessed. He was agitated as if the had made a startling discovery. He could not yet afford to keep away from the place where he worked. 

He went there as usual, but he had taken care to tidy himself up as much as possible. He wore a lace-edged dhoti which he normally kept folded in his box.

 It was of fine texture, but much yellowed because it was the one he had received in gift at the time of his wedding. He also put on a new shirt which he had got stitched two years ago but he had not had the heart to wear always reserving it for some future occasion.

His wife was somewhat taken aback at the change in his style and behaviour. She treated him with the utmost consideration when she served him his frugal meal. 

Instead of taking the box, he now carried only a few papers in his hand. He thought it looked better. He walked with the feeling that new existence was opening before him. He asked his wife to preserve the dirty dhoti for Arul Dass as he could come to receive it.

His clients were somewhat surprised to see him in his new dress. He did not sit under the tree, remained standing. It was only in the standing pose that he carried on his business. 

His clients remarked humorously that he was dressed in the manner of a bridegroom. Arul Dass came there spying but was snubbed by Margayya who told him to take a dhoti and shirt from his house in the evening if he needed them. 

Dass told him that he had come to see the car of the secretary. Hearing Margayya, Arul Dass was overjoyed and told him to run his business happily. The wicked blackguard would do him no harm.


Answer the following questions in a bout 150 words each. 

Q.1. Write a character-sketch of Margayya.

Ans. Margayya had been named after the enchanting god krishna by his parents but the people did not know it and called him Margayya and thought it to be his real name. ‘Marga’ meant the way and the “Ayya’ denoted the ma who showed the way. 

Margayya and his elder brother and his wife, Meenakshi have a male child Balu, Margayya in led to believe that money is as essential in life as food and air. He is blindly obsessed with money. 

Margayya runs a wayside counter opposite the Co-operative Bank in Malgudi. He writed loan application forms on behalf of illiterate and ignorant villagers who come to seek loans from the bank. He charges a modest fee for expediting application forms of the villagers. 

So the bank secretary orders him to leave the place. Margayya leaves this business and enters into an agreement with Makhan Lal, A book ‘Bed Life’ is Printed on partnership but changes his business. Then he launches an attractive deposit scheme and accepts millions of rupees as deposits on interest at the rate of 20% annual interest. This is strange. The banks give only 3% annual interest. 

Financial management consumes his time and energy and Margayya neglects his wife and child. Balu converts into a spoilt child and he runs away from the house. 

He causes a great loss of money to his father and ruining his money-lending business. Margayya engages. Mr. Murti to guide Balu at home, he fails in his Matriculation examination. 

He squanders money in smoking, sleeping and drinking. Margayya spoils his relation with Dr. Pal and his money pending business comes to a stand still. 

In a way Margayya is responsible for spoiling his son at all levels. We admit that Margayya knows how to mint money. He is an expert financial manger. But he fails miserably as father and husband

He doesn’t know how to bring up his child. He site on a mountain of wealth but life slips from underneath him throwing hism into hell. 

Q.2. Discuss the role of Dr. Pal in the Financial Expert. 

Or, Describe Dr. Pal’s role in the life of Margayya and his family. 

Or, How does Dr. Pal make and mar Margayya’s fortune in the Financial Expert?

Or, Attempt a character-sketch of Dr. Pal in The Financial Expert.

Or, What impression do you form of Dr. Pal from his first meeting with Margayya? Is he really responsible for Margayya’s ruin? 

Or, Who, do you think, is responsible for the ruin of Margayya-Dr. Pal or Balu? Give a reasoned answer.

Ans. Dr. Pal plays a significant role in the life of Margayya and his family. Infact, he is responsible for making and marrying Margayya’s fortune. 

Dr. Pal meets Margayya near the pond where the latter has gone to collect a red lotus. 

He helps Margayya pluck a red lotus from the middle of the pond. He is a man of about thirty, lank, tall, having long hair and sunken eyes. He has a very youthful and imposing appearance. 

He informs Margayya that he is associated with Silver Way, a Tamil newspaper brought out from Madras.

Margayya is charmed by the personality of Dr. Pal and accompanies him o his hut. Dr. Pal tells Margayya that he is a sociologist. He is writing a book On sexology entitled ‘Bed Life’. 

He tells Margayya that all the problems in life are caused by the ignorance of the people regarding sexual matters, in writing

this book, his aim is to make people understand the significance of sexual matters for domestic harmony. Margayya is overwhelmed with his knowledge. But now Dr. Pal has completed his book. 

He knows that he can make lakhs of rupees in one go by publishing the book. He gladly gives the book to Margayya for only twenty five rupees. Margayya gets into fifty-fifty partnership with a printer Madan Lal and Margayya. 

The book is published earns a lot of money through the sales of the book and within a short time he becomes a very rich man.

Then Margayya starts his banking business, with the help of Dr. Pal as his agent. 

At his advice the rich merchants of Malgudi deposit all their money with Margayya. Margayya mints millions of rupees from his deposit-cum-interest scheme.

Dr. Pal, transforms his life into a pleasant chapter, plays a corrupting role in the life of Margayya. He exercises a very bad influence on Balu. 

When Balu settles in his new house with his wife Brinda, Dr. Pal becomes a regular visitor. Then he starts taking Balu outside to a house of ill-repute where there are cheap theatre girls. They eat, drink, gamble and enjoy in the company of those girls. 

Dr. Pal instigates Balu to demand his share of the ancestral property from his father. Margayya visits his son’s house. Finding B. J, Dr. Pal and three girls, Margayya loses his temper. He drag’s Dr. Pal out of he car and beats him with sandal. 

Dr. Pal lodges an F.I.R. with the police. Next day, he spreads rumour among Margayya’s clients that their money is not safe with him. The clients take back all their money making Margayya bankrupt. Thus, Dr. Pal brings about Margayya’s ruin.

Q.3. Attempt a character-sketch of Meenakshi in the novel “The Financial Expert.’

Or, Meenakshi is a typical Indian housewife-loving, faithful, submissive and practical. Discuss.

Or, How would you rate Meenakshi as a traditional Indian housewife? 

Ans. Meenakshi, the wife of Margayya, is a lovable character. She is a typical Indian housewife in a middle class family. She represents the loving, faithful, submissive and practical middle class women of India. Her home is all the world to her. 

Her sole duty is to look after her son and her husband. Although her son Balu is a bundle of mischief, giving her untold inconveniences, she bears with him with the characteracally motherly fortitude,

Meenakshi is a loving mother. She loves her son deeply. 

One day when she has gone to nearby shop to buy something, her husband is at home with Balu. Balu burns his finger by his mischief by touching a burning lamp and lets out a shriek. 

She comes running into the house and blames her husband for the calamity. The other instance is when Balu disappear from the house. She sheds tears constantly, eats very little and asks her husband to go out in search of the son.

It is she who forces her husband to go to Madras and find him. Meenakshi is a devoted and faithful wife. 

Her husbands often scolds her but even then she remains calm and silent. 

She suffers humiliation at her husband’s hand, but she tolerates everything. Even when Margayya has enough money he does not employ any servant, and Meenakshi continues to do all the household work herself.

Meenakshi is meek, submissive and self-sacrificing in nature. She is so tolerant that she even surrenders before her aggressive and domineering husband. 

She does not argue with him even when she knows that her husband is in the wrong. When Balu is married to Brinda, she does not like Margayya’s idea of putting the son and his wife up in a separate house at Lawley Road. Despite the pain she undergoes due to this, she does not assert and suffers silenty,

Meenakshi is a practical woman. She knows that money is important in life but it is not everything. She is satisfied with what she is given and does not crave for more. Like her husband, she does not have lust for money. 

Meenakshi does not regard money as the most important thing in the world. The sensible and practical aspects of her character are clearly manifesto in her advice to her

husband when Margayya speaks rudely to the peon, Arul Doss. In short, meenakshi is a typical homely, Indian housewife. Her field of activity is confined to the four walls of her house. 

Silent suffering is her lot in life and she bears this suffering without any complaint. She is an ideal Indian housewife. 

Q.4. Discuss the character of Margayya with reference to 

(a) his greed for money. 

(b) his vanity and

(c) his piety.

Ans. Margayya is the central character of the novel. Everything the novel revolves round him. 

He is the financial expert; the ‘financial wizard’. Margayya thinks money to be the most important thing in the world. So he is always thinking of making more and more money.

(a) His greed for money: There is nothing wrong in carning money but when it becomes the sole aim in life ignoring every other aspect of life, it overcomes greed and avarice. Margayya also becomes greedy and full of avarice. 

(b) His vanity: Margayya’s financial success makes him vain, proud and arrogant. Earlier when he sat under the banyan tree as a small-time banker, he suffered from inferiority complex. He always thought of ways and means to bring down the secretary of the Co-operative Bank and Arul Dass, the head peon. But now, as a rich man, He develops a superiority complex. 

(c) His Piety: Margayya is mad after money. His only aim in life seems to be to earn and accumulate money. For this purpose, he undertakes a rigorous worship of Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity. At last, the goddess smiles on him and he becomes rich, but he loses his humanity.

Q.5. Justify the title of R.K. Narayan’s novel The Financial Expert.

Ans. R.K. Narayan’s novel ‘The Financial Expert’ deals with the theme of universal passion for money. Margayya, the hero of the novel, is obsessed with the idea of accumulating wealth by hook or by crook. He rises from a very humble position to a big banking magnet. 

a financial The title ‘The Financial Expert’ refers to Margayya who is really expert in his capabilities and ambitions.

A study of Margayya’s character brings out convincingly the aptness of the title. When the novel opens, we are tole that Margayya is a forty two year old man. His real name is ‘Krishna’ but it has long been forgotten. 

Now people call him Margayya. Margayya means one who show the way’. Margayya shows the way to the poor and needy villagers to get unlimited loans from the Central Co-operative Bank. 

He is always surrounded by people seeking loans and other types of financial guidance. He keeps himself at the centre of all these complex transactions and claims for his services a share of profit from all parties concerned. Like a master magician, he caste a spell on all those who approach him.

Q.6. Attempt a character-sketch of Balu.

Or, Balu progresses from ‘charming childhood’ to ‘spoilt frustrated

manhood’ in the novel ‘The Financial Expert’. Discuss. Or, Who is responsible for spoiling Balu in his childhood? Why does he run away from home?

Or, Comment on the upbringing of Balu. Do you think Margayya and his

wife have carried out their parental role satisfactorily?

Ans. Balu is the only child of his parents, Margayya and Meenakshi. He is born after twelve years of their marriage, he is the lonely child. But his father is always busy with his financial transactions. 

He has neither time nor intention to come back home in time to spend a few moments of leisure with his son. His mother is busy with the domestic chores and has hardly any time for him. 

Thus, Bulu grows neglected and isolate in his early childhood. This has an adverse impact on his later growth. Balu turns into a stubborn and obstinate child because of the utter neglect by his parents. 

He runs away with his father’s valuable accounts book and throws it into the gutter and stands there smiling He reaps the childish joy by teasing his parents.

Q.7. Write a note on Margayya attempts at educating his son. 

Or, Describe Margayya’s efforts to educate his son. Why does he fail?

Or, Describe all the efforts that Margayya make to give his son a good education. 

Or, What special efforts does Margayya make to give his son a good education?

Ans. When a book named Domestic Hormony was published, Margayya’s days changed entirely. 

He became rich. In the meantime Balu has become six years old. Margayya was very keen about the education of his son. He wanted his son to excel in every field after completing his education. 

So he took him to the Town’s Elementary School and admitted him there. Margayya made it a grand show. He took the young boy in a decorated motor car with pipes and drums through the Market Road: 

Margayya walked in front of the car. He had also invited a few citizens on the road to go up with him as well.

Next day they celebrate schooling ceremony and as such the family of his brother too graced the occasion. Within fifteen days of the schooling ceremony of his son, Margayya

hears reports that Balu is being canned almost every day. At the end of the term Balu returns home with his progress card marked zero. Margayya decides to take charge of the school and becomes its secretary.

Now Balu has a special standing in the school, for Margayya is School’s Secretary. Teachers salute before him while he passes beside them. But when the boy does not study well they have to cane him. 

Although, Margayya gets angry, he never interferes in their work as he wants his son to get higher education. He wants that he should go to America or Europe to take up higher education. 

He provided all the facilities to the boy for studying. He provides him a separate room as well as tutors for study. He even puts on a framed picture of Goddess Saraswati in his study room. 

He even advises Balu’s teacher to thrash the boy if the does not study well. Hence he makes every possible effort to get the boy good education but Balu could only reach upto

matriculation somehow or the other. He fails to pass the S.S.L.C. examination. Thus, all efforts of Margayya to educate his son in smoke. 

Q.8. Describe the various phases of Margayya’s rise and fall. 

Or, “Obsession with money brings about the downfall of Margayya”. Do you agree? Give a reasonable answer.

Or, Explain how Margayya contributes to his own ruin. 

Or, The Financial Expert is the story of the rise and fall of Margayya. Discuss. Or, How does Margayya become rich? What leads to his ruin?

Ans. The Financial Expert’ is the story of the rise and fall of Margayya. It is his obsession with money that takes him to the pinnacle of wealth and ultimately bringe his downfall. The story of his rise and fall is in five phases.

In the firs phase, Margayya acts as the financial adviser to the peasants. He transacts his business under a banyan tree in front of the Malgudi Central Co-operative Mortgage Bank. 

There is always a semi-circle of peasants sitting round him, and by their attitude and expression one might easily guess that they are suppliants. 

Margayya is to them a wizard who enables to draw unlimited loans from the co-operative Bank, In the second phase, Margayya becomes the prosperous published of the

book ‘Domestic Harmony’ in collaboration with the printer, Mr. Lal. But he hates this business. He goes to the priest, shows him his horoscope and tells him to worship Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth for forty days. Margayya goes to the pond of the red lotuses. 

He meets Dr. Pal, a journalist, correspondent and author. His book ‘Bed Life’ is printed in the press of Madan Lal, on a fifty partnership basis. 

He earns a lot of money through the sales of the book and within a short period he becomes well-known for his riches. In the third phase, Margayya becomes ‘Financial adviser’ and money lender to the peasants, With his own offices in Market Road. 


Answer the following questions in about 50-60 words each:

Q. 1. Write a few sentence on Brinda, the wife of Balu. 

Ans. Brinda is Balu’s young wife. She belongs to a rich family of landed aristocracy. Brinda is a harassed persecuted and tortured young lady duly married to a bullhead Balu. She is made to live separate immediately after her marriage. Brinda has not tasted love and affection of her father-in-law and mother- in-law. 

She is a fish out of water. Balu prosperous with his father’s cash dole falls to wine, wealth and women. In the end Brinda discloses to her father-in-law Balu’s misadventures. She is scared when she discloses all Balu’s unpleasant activities. She is a suffering wife like her mother-in-law.

Q.2. What details do you get about Margayya’s ancestry.

Ans. Margayya’s family now is considered to be of good caste but really he belonged to a very low caste. There was a time when his father’s grandfather and his brothers were corpes-bearers. 

They were the handlers of dead animals. Whenever an animal died, they were called for to carry the corpse. Then gradually they acquired a piece of land and became agriculturists. Margayya

even now fears lest this stigme on his family should come out. In Malgudi, Margayya now lives in Vinayak Street at house No. 14D and has amassed a good fortune. Margayya and his brother share their ancestral house. It is a simple home, situated on the fringe of the cremation ground. 

Q.3. Describe the relationship between the family of Margayya and that of his brother.

Ans. The family of Margayya and that of his brother live in their ancestral house in Vinayak Street. After the death of their father, both the two brothers got separation. 

The house was partitioned from the street to the backyard and other things left by their father were divided among them. But the backyard of the same house with its single wall. It fell to Margayya’s share. 

He wanted to close it but the public prevented. People insisted that the wall should remain common property. They did not have find relations but their terms come to have amicable relations when schooling ceremony of Balu was arranged. 

Q.4. Margayya’s is torn to shreds. Detail the relevant facts.

Ans. Margayya was working as a writer of applications for people who came to the Bank for getting loans. One day Arul Doss, the head peon of the bank, comes to Margayya to tell him that the Bank Secretary has called him to his office. 

This makes Margayya angry and replies suddenly that the secretary should come to see him. Meanwhile the Secretary appears on the scene wearing impressive clothes. He looks very smart with a hat on his head. The Secretary questions him from where he has got so many loan forms.

 This upsets Margayya. The Secretary tells Margayya that he is in the illegal possession of bank documents, but Margayya tells him that these documents belongs to the shareholders who are his customers. At this the Secretary orders Arul Doss to remove all the loan application forms. 

He snatches some of his forms and tells that reports have come to me of your activities. If you are seen here again, you will find yourself in prison. Margayya is now torn to shreds. It is a crushing defeat for him.

Q.5. How was a suitable match for Balu treaced? 

Ans. Balu has grown up but he wastes time and money on betel leaves and

indulges in smoking. Balu has spoiled his health and his eyes have started shrinking. Margayya does not know what to do with this child. At last, he plans to marry him off so that his life becomes regular and he starts behaving in a responsible manner.

There are hundreds of marriage proposals for Balu but Margayya does not find them suitable according to his status. Margayya’s chief assistant. 

Sastri examines all the marriage proposals. He hankers for a status alliance. In reality Margayya is proud of his status. He ultimately selects Brinda, the daughter of a rich tea estate owner of Mempi. 

An astrologer who gets only one rupee declares the horoscope not good. The second astrologer declares their union most useful when he gets seventy-five rupees. At this critical moment, it is Dr. Pal who gets him a favourable astrologer.

Q.6. Who is Madan Lal and how does he helps Margayya in his business?

 Ans. Madan Lal is a businessman from Bombay settled in Malgudi. He seems to be an honest businessman with the work of printing. 

He gives due welcome to Margayya who comes to him to talk about the publication of Dr. Pal’s book on sexology. He looks at the manuscript most patiently before committing anything.

Madan Lal is very hospitable towards his clients and he invites Margayya to have a lunch with him in the restaurant. Margayya enjoys jalebies’ and other delicacies. Marg-yya is highly impressed by his hospitality.

After seeing the entire manuscript Madan Lal declares to seek the opinion of his lawyer. Who finds the book all right. Margayya doesn’t come forward to spend anything on the production of the book. 

Even then, Madan Lal agrees to pay Margayya a share in the profits. The title of the book is changed to “Domesstic Harmony”. The book proves to be a roaring success. Margayya earns a lot from the sale of this book.

Q.7. Describe the role of Arul Doss in the play. 

Ans. Arul Doss is the head peon of the Co-operative Bank at Malgudi. He is always on the look out for some victims. Margayya calls him the worst blackguard under the sun.

Arul Doss in instrumental in getting Margayya destabilized from his place of work. He instigates the Secretary to punish Margayya. It is he who comes and threatens Margayya. 

Arul Doss reports to the Secretary how Margayya has insulted him and other bank employees. He irritated Margayya first and then brings the Secretary to do the rest. He collects all the forms the tin box of Margayya under the instructions of the Secretary. 

Q. 8. How can you say that Murti, the School teacher is a helpless cost person? 

Ans. Murti is an arithmetic and English teacher at the school where Balu

studies. He has earned a reputation of being a great teacher and strictdisciplinarian. 

Baul’s father engages Murti as a tutor to teach his son at home and instructs him to use the came fearlessly. Murti is wise enough to understand the intention of Margayya.

He gets ten rupees a month for the home tuition in addition to twenty five rupees a month from the school job. He is cautious enough not to use his cane. Balu may poison his father’s ears and he may lose both the jobs.

Murti always tries to keep Balu in good humour. He give him gifts of pencils, rubbers, sweets and solves all his sums. Murti is a helpless teacher like his colleagues at the school. Balu is naughty and delinquent child. Murti soon discovers that the father is also disinterested in Balu’s studies. He performs his duty as a formality without his heart in it.

Q.9. Write down the duties entrusted to with Sastri, the Accoutant of Margayya

Ans. Sastri, a retired government servant, is Margayya’s accountant. He is honest, sincere and consistent in his assignment. Margayya is a hard task master and does not want even a minute of office time to be wasted in courtesies and greetings. 

When Sastri greets him, he retorts, “I do not want all this formality of a greeting. If you want to please me, do your work and get on with it without wasting your time.” He has a very difficult and tight schedule time table in the office. 

He is to write down the mortgages that are left with him by the villagers who come round for financial assistance.

He gets fifty rupees a month. He does not ask his master to raise his salary for fear of losing his job. Sastri suffers with his master till end. Sastri does not leave him in the church. 

Some of the clients, when Margayya become a pauper, people pounce upon Sastri. They break his glasses, tear his turban and hand him over to the police. Sastri suffers for his master without a word of complaint. 

Q. 10. Why did the secretary of the cooperative bank become against Margayya?

Ans. Margayya transacts his traditional business under the shade of a banyan tree in front of the Cooperative Bank. 

The Secretary of the bank is provoked by his peon of working. He first sends his peon to call Margayya in the bank premises. Margayya answers back rather rudely. 

He refuses to be cowed and bossed by anybody. The Secretary comes in person and interrogates Margayya. He charges Margayya with illegally possessing loan application forms with him and asks him to behaves like an educated man. 

On the other hand he snatches his forms. He through Doss and warns Margayya to put in jail if he is found working in that place again. 

Q.11. How was Balu’s School Ceremony organised by Margayya?

Ans. When Balu was six years old, he was admitted to Two Elementary School. His admission to the school was a grand fan-fare. He was taken to the school in a decorated motor with pipes and drums through the Markes Road. 

The traffic was help up for half an hour when Balu’s a admission procession was passing. Margayya, his elder brother and some rich dignitaries of the city were walking in front of the car.

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