Note Making Class 12 Format, Solve Examples, Summary Writing PDF

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If are you a student of class 12th and you are looking for important notes on the subject of English (Note Making Class 12) then this website is for you.

This website tells you the question and answers which are very important for the exam and for the last few years it gives you the same questions, by reading these questions you can get very good marks in your exam.

I myself have been a topper of class 12th and I know what type of questions are asked in class 12th exam. At present, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written the MCQs article here with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to get very good marks in history from this chapter in the exam.

Note Making Class 12 Format, Solve Examples, Summary Writing PDF

Class12th 
Chapter Note Making & Abstractions
BoardCBSE & All Others boards
Book NCERT
SubjectEnglish Elective  (Flamingo)
Medium English
Study Materialsunseen passage with answers pdf

Note Making Class 12 Format, Solve Examples, Summary Writing PDF

Note Making Class 12 Format, Solve Examples, Summary Writing PDF
Note Making Class 12 Format, Solve Examples, Summary Writing PDF

PASSAGE-1

Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions that follow it:

Information technology and library services are two faces of the same coin. In a village setup mostly the young and the old use libraries and the middle-aged make little use of these libraries. They need job-related information to date on their skills and knowledge. 

The library and information services play a dominant role in catering to the education, information, and recreational requirements of society. The library is an instrument of social change. All along, the concept of the library has been associated with literacy and books, and the librarian was considered the keeper of books. 

Concurrent with changes in society, the concept of the library has changed. It is the multimedia centre and a place for learning resources for the literate as well as the illiterate. Education is the key to individual achievement and national strength.

Integrated approach in starting at least a reading room in every hamlet is the need of the hour. Coordination between the Department of Education and Panchayati Raj in spreading the library movement is of paramount importance. 

The amalgamation of adult education programmes with library programmes also needs to be given greater thought. The School can function in a hamlet or a village serving the common needs of students and the public. The massive permanent building programmes for weaker sections in rural areas should earmark at least one house for every 1,000 houses or in every cluster for library purposes. 

The services of a retired teacher or a retired employee in that hamlet can be availed. A person residing in the same hamlet is more useful with inherent advantages than an outsider for library work as the library has to function in the evening hours and to be extended for TV and Internet operation also. Information technology, the Internet and e-commerce have great potential in catering to public needs. However, we have to be pragmatic in our approach in terms of electronic access to information in rural areas. 

Availability, affordability, accessibility, acceptability and sustainability of the service should also be kept in view. Once a common service place is identified, the IT-based services can conveniently be cushioned on. It is hoped that the State and Central governments will give top priority to this minimum facility.

(a) Read the above passage and make notes in points only using abbreviations wherever necessary. (minimum 4 abbreviations) 

Ans. Title:: Information Technology for Library Services

Notes:

1. LT. & Library Services Complementary 

(a) In Villages (i) young & old use libra; (ii) middle-aged avoid them

(b) Lib. & Info. Services can provide-

(i) education. (ii) info. (iii) recreational needs of people. 

2. Modern Concept of Library 

(a) Not confined with (i) literacy & books & (ii) the librarian 

(b) A mod. Library is-

(i) a must. media centre (ii) a place of learning. for literate & illits, 

3. Integrated Approach 

(a) A coordination between 

(1) Dept. of Edu. & (ii) Panchayati Raj

(b) Amalgamation of 

(i) adult Edut. programmes with (ii) lib. progress 

(c) In rural areas 

(i) a lib. build. for every thousand houses (i) utilising the services of retired teachers as libra.

(d) Lib. to function- 

(i) in evening hrs. (ii) extension for TV & Internet operation.

4. Pragmatic Approach in Rural Areas 

(a) I.T. is rural areas be based on-

(i) availability (ii) affordability (iii) accessibility (iv) acceptability

(b) Cent. & State Govts’ top priority to- 

(i) identification of suit. service places; (ii) providing. min. facilities.

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. Also, give suitable titles.

Ans. Abstraction/Summary– Information technology and library services are complementary. In rural areas, middle-aged persons make little use of libraries. Libraries provide job-related information. Education is a recreation for the people. The modern library is a multimedia centre. An integrated and pragmatic approach is needed to set up libraries for the rural masses. The services of a local retired teacher can be very handy and beneficial. 

The library can be extended for TV and Internet operations. Availability and accessibility are the major factors in choosing a suitable place. Proper coordination between the Central and state governments can produce gainful results.

class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science
EnglishHindi

PASSAGE-2

Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions that follow it:

The kingdom of books is as vast as the universe, for there is no corner of it that they have left unexplored. There is no dearth of books on any topic be it as simple as the composition of sodium nitrate or as intricate as the mechanism of a spacecraft rocketing towards Mrs. 

We make use of books for the dissemination of useful ideas, for popularising the fruits of our research in various fields of knowledge, and for spreading our progressive views on matters

which are of vital concern to our fellow beings. In fact, no single product of human labour has been as helpful to the advancement of civilisation as books which are written in all languages of the world and which are decoratively placed on bookshelves in our homes and tastefully displayed in bookstalls and libraries. 

If to Keats, works of ancient poets like Homer were realms of gold from which he derived much joy as well as inspiration, to the modern lover of books, the labours of all geniuses, including those of Keats, are mines of inestimable intellectual wealth which he goes on exploring for the sake of his mental and spiritual advancement.

There was a time some five centuries back when books, as we know them today, did not exist, and when there were few people who could read things written of stuff that certainly was not paper. 

At that time our ancestors used rocks, pillars and parchment with a view to recording and perpetuating their most important thoughts and achievements in the languages they then understood. Nowadays, the book-producing machinery gives to the work of every great scientific thinker, poet or philosopher the character of permanence, reproduces in attractive forms old and rare manuscripts and caters to the differing tastes of millions of people for whom book-reading is an extremely pleasant intellectual exercise. 

Moreover, the high percentage of literacy, the growth of libraries in towns and villages and the tendency of intellectuals to have their own private collection of useful books have given birth to a number of big publishing houses with branches in many parts of the world and Publications numbering thousands. 

In recent years paperbacks have begun to reveal their attraction to the reading public, and although they have not completely thrown neglected the hard-cover market, they have appeared to People who would not have thought of buying books not so very long ago. 

These paperbacks are generally reprints of popular fiction or of established classics or translations from foreign works which are in constant demand at all Dookstalls.

a) Read the above passage and make notes in points only using abbreviations wherever necessary. (minimum 4 abbreviations) 

Ans. Title: Wealth of Books Notes

1. Books Universal Source of Knowledge 

(a) Books have univ. appeal & range-

(i) books on science; (ii) space; (iii) literature; (iv) politics. 

2. Books Popularise Ideas & Knowledge.

(a) They encourage-

(i) research in various fields 

(ii) spread of prog. views 

(iii) advancement of civilization 

(iv) lang. & lit. 

(b) Books provide-

(1) intellectual wealth-

(i) intellectual wealth;

(ii) mental & spiritual growth. 

3. A Great Heritage-

(a) Books in the old times inscribed on- (i) rocks (ii) pillars (iii) parchments

(b) Modern Books have- (i) attractive forms (ii) character of permanence.

4. Growth of Literacy & Libs

(a) Higher % of a litre.

(b) Growth of libs, in villages & towns. 

(c) Private Collection & Read. Habits have-

(i) increased publishing business 

(ii) popularised cheap paperback edits. and fiction.

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. Also, give suitable titles.

Ans. Abstraction/Summary-Books have a universal appeal. There are books on every topic under the sun. Be it science, space literature, philosophy or any other discipline, you have books on all subjects. 

Books popular research work; spread progressive views and knowledge. They are available in all languages in shops and libraries. 

They are mines of intellectual wealth and mental and spiritual advancement. In old times ideas were inscribed on rocks and stones. These days book publishing is done on a gigantic scale for millions of readers. Literacy and cheap paperbacks have popularised fiction, classic and translations from foreign books.

PASSAGE-3

Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions the following it:

In democratic countries, any efforts to restrict the freedom of the Press are rightly condemned. However, this freedom can be easily abused. Stories about people often attract far more public attention than political events. 

Though we may enjoy reading about the lives of others, it is extremely doubtful whether we would equally enjoy reading about ourselves. Acting on the contention that facts are sacred, reporters can cause untold suffering to individuals by publishing details about their private lives. 

Newspapers exert such tremendous influence that they can not only bring about major changes to the lives of ordinary people but can even overthrow a government.

The story of a poor family that acquired fame and fortune overnight dramatically illustrates the power of the Press. The family lived in Aberdeen, a small town of 25,000 inhabitants in South Dakota. As the parents had five children, life was a perpetual struggle against poverty. 

They were expecting their sixth child and were faced with an even more pressing economic problem. If they had only one more child the fact would have passed unnoticed. They would have continued to struggle against economic odds and would have lived in obscurity. 

But they suddenly became the parents of quintuplets, four girls and a boy, an event that radically changed their lives. The day after the bin of the five children and aeroplane arrived in Aberdeen bringing sixty reporters and photographers. The news was of national importance, for the couple h become the parents of the only quintuplets in America.

The rise to fame was swift. Television cameras and newspapers carry the news to everyone in the country. Newspapers and magazines offered the

family huge sums for the exclusive right to publish their photographs. Gifts poured in not only from unknown people but from baby food and soap manufacturers who wished to advertise their products. The old farmhouse the family lived in was to be replaced by a new $100,000 home. 

Reporters kept pressing for interviews so lawyers had to be employed to act as the spokesmen of the family at press conferences. The event brought serious changes to the town itself. Plans were announced to build a huge new highway, as Aberdeen was now likely to attract thousands of tourists. Signposts erected on the outskirts discussed the possibility of erecting a ‘Quint museum’ to satisfy the curiosity of the public and to protect the family from inquisitive tourists. 

While the five babies were still quietly sleeping in oxygen tents in a hospital nursery, their parents were paying the price for fame. It would never again be possible for them to lead normal lives. 

They had become victims of commercialization, for their names had acquired a market value. The town itself received so much attention that almost every one of the inhabitants was affected to a greater or less degree. 

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Use a format you consider suitable. Supply a suitable title. 

Ans. (i) Title-Power of the Press Notes-

1. Freedom of Press-Inviolable in Democracy

(i) easily abused 

(ii) people more fascinating than politics

(iii) misreport. causes suffering; newspapers’ tremendous influence on private lives.

2. The Story of a Poor Family

(i) Illustrates Press’ power

(ii) lived in Aberdeen: five children, expecting the sixth

(iii) poverty and obscurity. 

(iv) Birth to only quintuplets in America; acquired fame and fortune.

3. Swift Rise to Fame

(i) TVs and newspapers, country-wide publicity.

(ii) offered huge sums, gifts from industrialists, and new homes to parents. 

(iii) events changed the town; a new highway was announced; signposts were erected.

4. Price for Fame

(i) parents leading abnormal lives 

(ii) victims of publicity and commercialisation.

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 

Ans. Abstraction/Summary-Freedom of the Press is inviolable in democracies. In other words, freedom of the Press is very vital and any attempt to restrict it is a condiment in a democratic country. 

The story of an Aberdeen family illustrates the power of the Press. The parents were struggling against poverty and obscurity. The birth of quintuplets brought them fame and fortune. 

Newspapers gave them huge sums for exclusive coverage. Industrialists flooded them with fits. Aberdeen itself underwent a sea change. The building of a new highway and a ‘quint-museum’ was announced. However, the parents became victims of publicity and commercialisation and were condemned to lead abnormal lives.

PASSAGE-4

Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions that follow it:

Whether work should be placed among the causes of happiness or among the causes of unhappiness may perhaps be regarded as a doubtful question There is certainly much work that is exceedingly irksome, and an excess of work is always very painful. However, work is not to most people less painful than idleness. 

There are in work all grades, from mere relief to tedium up to the profound delights, according to the nature of the work and the abilities of the worker. Most of the work that most people have to do is not in itself interesting, but even such work has certain great advantages. 

To begin with, it fills a good many hours of the day without the need of deciding what one shall do. Most people, when they are left free to fill their own time according to their own choice are at a loss to think of anything sufficiently pleasant to be worth doing. 

And whatever they decide on, they are troubled by the feeling that something else would have been pleasanter. To be able to fill leisure intelligently is the last product of civilization and present very few, people have reached this level Moreover the exercise of choice is in itself tiresome. Except for people with unusual initiative, it is positively agreeable to be told what to do at each hour of the day, provided the orders are not too unpleasant. 

Most of the idle rich suffer unspeakable boredom as the price of their freedom from drudgery. At times they may find relief by hunting big game in Africa or by flying around the world, but the number of such sensations is limited, especially after youth is past. Accordingly, the more intelligent rich men work nearly as hard as they are poor.

Work, therefore is desirable, first and foremost as a prevention of boredom. for the boredom that a man feels when he is doing something out of compulsion: though uninteresting work is as boring as having nothing to do With this advantage, of work another is associated, namely that it makes holidays much more delicious when they come. Provided a man does not have to work so hard as to impair his vigour, he is likely to find far more zest in his free item than an idle man could possibly find.

The second advantage of most paid work and some unpaid work is that it gives chances for success and opportunities for ambition. In most work success is measured by income and while our capitalistic society continues this is inevitable. 

However dull work may be, it becomes bearable, if it is a means of building a reputation. Continuity of purpose is one of the most essential ingredients of happiness and that comes chiefly through their work

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, in points only, using headings and subheadings. Also Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary (minimum 4). Supply an appropriate title to li. Use a suitable format.

Ans. Title: Work For Pleasure And Purpose

Notes

1. Overwork Causes Unhappiness

(a) Much work is-(i) tiring (ii) painful 

2. Work is Less Painful than Idleness

(a) Work gives both–(i) relief from boredom (ii) deep pleasure

(b) Nature of work & ability of worker decide- (i) Whether it is interesting (ii) or it is advantageous

(c) Work fills the day with purpose 

(d) Most people are confused about what they should do.

3. Filing, Leisure Intelly, Greatest Work of Civilization

(a) Choice of work not easy 

(b) Idle rich suffer boredom

(c) Find relief from boredom-(i) hunting. game (ii) flying. round the world 

(d) Intelligent rich work-(i) very hard (ii) like the poor.

4. Work Prevents Boredom 

(a) One feels bored when (i) doing work out of compelling. (ii) doing uninteresting, work

(b) Work makes holidays (i) more interesting. (c) A working, man finds (i) more zest in free time than an idler 5. Work gives Success & Fulfills Ambit. (a) Work, when paid (i), gives money (ii) makes econ. rich

(b) Work provides-(i) reputa (ii) contty. of purpose

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 

Ans. Attraction/Summary-Whether work gives happiness or not is a debatable question. Much work is tiring and excess work is always painful. Work gives relief from boredom. Sometimes work is not interesting but still, it is advantageous and better than idleness. Work fills the day with purposeful labour. Most people can’t decide what to do, how to do and when to do things. 

Most of the idle rich suffer boredom. At times may find relief in doing rich work hard like the poor. Work makes holidays and leisure more enjoyable. Paid work gives chances for success and wealth. Work builds up reputation and continuity of purpose in life. sensational things like hunting in Africa or flying around the world. Intelligent,

PASSAGE-5

Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions that follow it:

The Great Wall of China is said to be one structure built by man on Earth which would be visible to observers on the moon. It covers a distance of 1,500 miles as the crow flies. From the Liaotung Peninsula westward to the last fortress in Central Asia, It crosses the northern province of China.

In the eastern section, its height varies from 15-30 feet, and its width from about 25 feet at the bottom to 15 feet at the top, where there is a pathway wide enough for six horsemen to ride side by side protected by parapets. When the Wall was first built it had about 25,000 towers each 40 feet square and 40 feet

high projecting from it every few hundred yards, with holes from which the defenders could shoot at attackers. There are also many watchtowers on the enemy side, outside the wall on hilltops or passes. 

These and the towers of the Wall were used for signalling with smoke or flags by day and with fire by night. The great Emperor Shih Huang Ti joined three earlier frontier walls to form a great wall to act as a boundary between China and the north and keep

out the feared nomads of the Mongolian Steppes. The Wall was designed to strengthen the nation’s defences. Later it became in Ming times, a substitute

for a strong army and state. Construction was started in about 221 B.C. and the structure was practically complete when Shih Huang Ti died in 210 B.C. The man who did most in carrying out the Emperor’s plans was General Meng Tien, who in 221 B.C. led an expedition against Tartars and drove them back from the Yellow River into the Steppes, and set his men to work on building the Wall. 

They were later joined by thousands of convicts. Year in and year out, in icy winds and snowstorms in winter, and in dust storms in summer, the work went on, and so many men died that the Wall was sometimes called the longest cemetery in the world. The core of the Wall is earth and stone, faced with brick, and set in a stone foundation. 

In hilly places the design was altered: two parallel ditches were dug out of the rock, 25 feet apart, and great blocks of stone were laid in the trenches to a height of several feet. Along each side of these stones, baked bricks about two feet long were laid at right angles to the face of the Wall, joined together with a white mortar so hard that no nail could be driven into it.

Emperor Wu Ti (140-86 B.C.) resumed word on the Wall and extended it to its greatest length. The Emperors of the Ming Dynasty (A.D. 1386-1644) carried out more work on the Wall repairing its whole length and establishing new walls west of the Yellow River. The Wall which now exists mostly dates back to the Ming Dynasty, but many of the foundations are nearly 2000 years old.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Also use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary (minimum 4). Use a format you consider suitable. Supply an appropriate title for it. 

Ans. Title:- The Great Wall of China

Notes– 

1. The Great Wall of China-A Huge Structure

(a) 1,500 miles long- 

(1) from Liaotung Peninsula to Cent. Asia: (ii) crosses nr. province. 

(b) The east, section;

(i) ht. 15-30 ft; width 15-25 ft.; 

(1) wide enough for 6 horsemen; surrounded by parapets;

(i) 25,000 towers, holes to shoot; signals by smoke & fire. 

2. A Boundary between China and the North

(a) Emp. Huang Ti Joined three front, walls; 

(i) to keep out Mongolian hordes; strengthen defences;

(ii) a subset. for a strong army & state.

3. Long years of Construction 

(a) Const. started in 221 B.C.;

(i) Gen. Ming carried out most of the work. 

4. Solid Foundations of Stone & Brick

(a) Core of the wall;

(i) made up of earth & Stone; 

(ii) faced with brick. 

(b) Design altered in hills;

(i) Two parallel ditches 25ft. apart; 

(ii) blocks of stone laid in trenches;

(iii) baked brick joined with white mortar. 

5. Resumption & Extension Work

(a) Emp. Wu Ti resumed work & extended it. (b) Ming Dynasty carried out repairs;

(i) established new walls west of Yellow River. c) Foundations 2000 yrs. old.

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 

Ans. Abstraction/Summary The Great Wall of China is a huge structure. It is about 1,500 miles long spreading from Liaotung Peninsula to Central Asia. The average height is between 15-30 ft. and the width is between 15-25 ft. It is a boundary between China and the North. Emperor Huang Ti built it to keep out Mongolian hordes and strengthen defences. 

It acted as a substitute for a strong army in Ming times. General Ming carried out most of the remaining work. The core of the wall is joined together with a white mortar. Emperor Wu Ti resumed the construction and extended it to its logical destination.

PASSAGE-6

Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions that follow it:

The work Gandhiji had taken up was not only the achievement of political freedom and universal brotherhood and maximum freedom for all. This unfinished part of his experiment was perhaps even more difficult to achieve than the achievement of political freedom. 

In the political struggle, the fight was against a foreign power and all one could do was either join it or wish it a success and give it their moral support. In establishing the social order of his pattern there was a likely possibility of a conflict arising between groups and classes of our own people. 

Experience shows that man values his possessions even more than his life because in the former he sees the means of perpetuation and survival of his descendants even after his body is reduced to ashes. 

A new order cannot be established without radically changing the mind and attitudes of men towards property and at some stage or the other, the ‘haves’, have to yield place to the ‘have-nots’. 

We have seen in our time, attempts to achieve a kind of egalitarian society and the picture of it after it was achieved. But this was done by and large, through the use of physical force.

The root cause of class conflict is possessiveness or the acquisitive instinct. So long as the ideal that is to be achieved is one of securing maximum material satisfaction, possessiveness is neither suppressed nor eliminated but grows on

what it feeds. Nor does it cease to be such-it is possessiveness, still, whether it is confined to only a few or is shared by many.

If egalitarianism is to endure it has to be based not on the possession of the maximum material goods by few or by all but on voluntary, enlightened renunciation of those goods, which cannot be shared by others or can be enjoyed only at the expense of others. 

This calls for the substitution of spiritual values for purely material ones. The paradise of material satisfaction, which is sometime equated with progress these days neither spells peace nor progress. 

Mahatr Gandhi has shown us how the acquisitive instinct inherent in man could be transmuted by the adoption of the ideal of trusteeship by those who have f the benefit of all those who ‘have not’ so that, instead of leading to exploitation and conflict, it would become a means and incentive for the amelioration progress of society respectively.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Use a format you consider suitable. Supply a suitable 

Ans. title. Title-Gandhi’s Ideals And Works

Notes– 

1. Two Tasks of Gandhi

(a) Establishment of a new social order- 

(i) based on truth & non-violence; 

(ii) egalitarian society.

(b) To achieve political freedom.

2. Achievement of Political Freedom 

(a) An easier task; requires-

(i) Fight against a foreign power 

(ii) mass upsurge 

3. Establishment of a New Social Order-Quite Difficult 

(a) Involves conflict with (i) our own people; (ii) different groups.

(b) New order is possible only when- (i) minds & attitudes of the people change;

(ii) ‘have sacrificed their interests for ‘have-nots’.

4. Possessiveness-the Root Cause of All Evils 

(a) Materialism gives birth to possess.

(b) Egalitarian order can be achieved by-

(i) renunciation of self-interests; 

(ii) inculcating spiritualism. 

5. Gandhi’s Ideal of Trusteeship

(a) Benefit of ‘have nots’ (b) End of exploitation & conflicts

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words

Ans. Abstraction/Summary-The main task of Gandhi was to create an egalitarian society based on truth and non-violence. Political freedom was not an end in itself. However, the establishment of a new social order is quite a difficult task. It required constant conflicts with our own people and It requires a change in the attitudes and priorities of the people. 

Possessiveness Es the root cause of all evils. Renunciation of materialism for spiritual value groups and crush acquisitive instincts. Gandhiji’s theory of ‘trusteeship’ required all exploitations and conflicts. It demanded a sacrifice on the part of ‘haves’ and renunciation of their interests and benefits for ‘have-nots’.

PASSAGE-7

Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions that follow it:

The topic of thought is one area of Psychology and many observers have considered this aspect in connection with robots and computers; some of the old worries about artificial intelligence were closely linked to the question of whether computers could think. 

The first massive electronic computers, capable of rapid computation and little or no creative activity, were soon dubbed ‘electronic brains’. A reaction to this terminology quickly followed. To put them in their place, computers were called ‘high-speed idiots’ in an effort to protect human vanity. But not everyone realized the implications of the high-speed idiot tag. It has not been pointed out often enough that even the human idiot is one of the most intelligent life forms on earth. If the early computers were even that intelligent, it was already a remarkable state of affairs.

One consequence of speculation about the possibility of computer thought was that we were forced to examine with new care the idea of thought in general. It soon became clear that we were not sure what we meant by such terms as thought and thinking. 

We tend to assume that human beings think, some more than others, though we often call people thoughtless or unthinking. Dreams cause a problem, partly because they usually happen outside our control. They are obviously some type of mental experience; but, are they a type of thinking? 

And the question of non-human life forms adds further problems. Many of us would maintain that some of the higher animals-dogs, cats, apes and so on are capable of at least basic thought, but what about fish and insects?It is certainly true that higher mammals show complex brain activity when tested with the appropriate equipment. 

If thinking is demonstrated by evident electrical activity in the brain, then many animal species are capable of thought. Once we have formulated clear ideas on what thought in biological creatures is, it will be easier to discuss the thought in artefacts. And what is true of thought is also true of the many other mental processes. 

One of the immense benefits of Artificial Intelligence research is that we are being forced to scrutinize with new rigour, the working of the human mind.

It is already clear that machines have superior mental abilities to many life forms. No fern or oak tree can play chess as well as even the simplest digital computer nor can frogs weld car bodies as well as robots. 

The three-fingered mechanical manipulators are cleverer in some ways than the three-toed sloth. It seems that, viewed in terms of intellect, the computer should be set well above plants and most animals. 

Only the higher animals can, it seems, compete with computers with regard to intellect and even then with diminishing success (Examples of this are in the games of backgammon and chess.) Some of the world’s best players are now computers.–(adapted from Geoof Simons)

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, in points only, using recognizable abbreviations (minimum 4), wherever necessary. Supply an appropriate title for it.

Ans. Title: Computers’ Superior Mental Abilities Notes:

1. Computers Have Intelligence & Thinking

(a) Observers considered-(i) whether robot & computers. have brains 

(b) Comptrs. doubled ‘electronic brains’

(c) Comptrs. were called ‘high-speed idiots’.

2. The Possibility of Comptrs’ Thinking

(a) We aren’t sure about thought & thinking. (b) Human beings think but are thoughtless sometimes

(c) Dreams are mental experiences-a thinking.

(d) Many higher animals think. 

(e) Comptrs. have artificial intelligence.

3. Machines have Superior Abilities 

(a) Simple Digit. Computers play chess but not ferns or oaks

(b) Computers, can weld car bodies but not frogs

(c) Mechncl. manipulators are cleverer than a sloth

(d) Computrs. have more intell. than animals.

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 

Ans. Abstraction/Summary-Many observers have considered if computers can think. Computers can compute but do little creativity. Computers can compute but do little creativity. Computers were dubbed as ‘electronic brains’ and human pride made them call ‘highspeed idiots’. But even ‘the human idiot’ is the most intelligent life form on earth. 

We don’t know much about thought and thinking. Human beings think. Dreams are a kind of mental experience. Some of the higher animals-dogs and apes are capable of basic thought. Machines have superior mental abilities to many life forms. The simplest computers can play chess; Ferns and Oaks can’t. 

Robots can weld car bodies; frogs can’t. Computers have more intelligence than animals and plants. Computers can defeat even the best players in the world. Indeed computers are the best players in the world at the present time.

PASSAGE-1

Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions that follow it:

Occasional self-medication has always been part of normal living. The making and selling of drugs has a long history and is closely linked, like the medical practice itself, with the belief, in magic. 

Only during the last hundred years or so has the development of scientific techniques made it possible for some of the causes of symptoms to be understood, so that more accurate diagnosis has become possible. 

The doctor is now able to follow up the correct diagnosis of many illnesses with specific treatment of their causes. In many illnesses of which the causes remain unknown, he is still limited, like me unqualified prescriber, to the treatment of symptoms. 

The doctor is trained only when to attack the cause, This is to decide when to treat symptoms the essential difference between medical prescribing and self-medication. 

The advance of technology has brought about much progress in some fields of medicine, including the development of scientific drug therapy. In many countries, public health organisation is improving and people’s nutritional standards have risen. Parallel with such beneficial trends are two which have adverse effects. 

One is the use of high-pressure advertising by the pharmaceutical industry which has tended to influence both patients and doctors and has led to the overuse of drugs generally. The other is the emergence of the sedentary society with its faulty ways of life-lack exercise, overeating, unsuitable eating, insufficient sleep, excessive smoking and drinking. 

People with disorders arising from faulty habits such as these as well as from unhappy human relationships, often resort to self-medication and so add the taking of pharmaceuticals to the list. Advertisers go to great lengths to catch this market. Clever advertising, aimed at chronic suffers who will try anything because

doctors have not been able to cure them, can induce such faith in preparation, particularly if steeply priced, that will produce-by suggestion-a very real effect in some people. 

Advertisements are also aimed at people suffering from mild complaints such as simple colds and coughs which clear up by themselves

within a short time. These are the main reasons, why laxatives, indigestion remedies, painkillers, cough mixtures, tonics, vitamins and iron tablets, nose drops, ointments and many other preparations are found in quantity in many households. It is doubtful whether taking these ever improves a person’s health, It may even make it worse. 

Worse because the preparation may contain unsuitable ingredients; worse because the take may become dependent on them; worse because they might be taken in excess; worse because they may cause poisoning and worst of all because symptoms of some serious underlying cause may be asked and therefore medical help may not be sought. Self-diagnosis is a greater danger than self-medication.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, in points only, using headings and subheadings. Also Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary (minimum 4). Supply an appropriate title for it. Use a suitable format. 

Ans. Title: Self-Medication

Notes:

1. Self-Medication Quite Normal

(a) Making & selling of drugs-(i) has a long hit. (ii) links with magic 

(b) Last 100 yrs. have seen-

(i) development. of scient, techniques

(ii) causes of symptoms (iii) accurate diagnosis 

2. Specific Treatment Possible

(a) Specific treatment. of symptoms by doctors (b) Medical Prescribing by Dr.

(c) Self-Medication without Drs.

3. Advanced Technology & Progress in Medicine 

(a) Advanced techno. has-(i) brought developt. of drug therapy

(ii) risen nutritional standards (b) High-pressure adytg, has influenced (i) doctors (ii) patients (ii) overuse of drugs 

(e) Sedentary life & Faulty ways 

(i) lack of exercise (ii) overeating

(iii) insufficient sleep (iv) excessive smoking & drinking. 

4. Clever Advtg. 

(a) aims at chronic patients

(b) induces faith in self-medication. (c) aims at people with colds & coughs

5. Excessive use of Medicines & Advtg. 

(a) Excessive use of medicines like (1) laxatives (ii) painkillers (iii) tables & noes drops (iv) ointments (b) Advtg. leads to over-use of drugs (1) Overuse doesn’t improve heal

(c) Self-diagnosis more dangerous than self-medication. (b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 

Ans. Abstraction/Summary Occasional self-medication is quite a normal thing. Making and selling of drugs in an old business. 

New scientific techniques have helped to understand the causes of symptoms correctly an accurate diagnosis has become possible Medical prescribing and sel medication are two different things. 

The advancement of technology medicines and drug therapy has raised the living standard of the people and their nutritional standards. High-pressure advertising has influenced doctors as well as patients. 

A sedentary life has created many disorders. So people often resort to self-medication. Clever advertising aims at both chronic a well as mild patients. 

There is a tendency to over-using drugs. Their use in excess leads to worse results. It has been proved that self-diagnosis is more dangerous than self-medication.

(ii) unsuitable ingredients (iii) causes poisoning

PASSAGE-9

Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions that follow it. 

Newspapers not only give us information about the odd happenings which may interest human beings and may also claim the emotional and intellectual involvement in that problem but also something more than that In fact with the passage of time newspapers has grown into not only a diversion for the breakfast table but also an essential source of knowledge and the most important medium of making the people democratic in their outlook and thinking. 

In the earlier stages of its growth, the press was just to give information to the people and to keep them alive to the changes in the country and the world at large. But as all media of education are used or misused for one o another purpose so is the case with the newspapers. 

Long ago Burke called the press the Fourth Estate and we can conveniently call it the fourth important organ of the democratic states the others being executive, legislature and judiciary. If the press is independent and the report is objective, which is out course impossible, it can keep the minds of the people open to all impressions. 

But nowadays there are subtle suggestions in the news, and there are very clever distortions here and there. So the primary purpose of newspapers nowadays is to colour the opinions of the people. 

They provide the public with ready-made opinions and baked ideas. The people also accept these things happily because the common man has neither the intelligence nor the time to verify the validity of the news or to gather the correct opinion from other sources. 

Otherwise, also it is the weakness of even educated people that they believe a printed word more readily than a word from the mouth. So most people quote newspapers in order to support their contentions. 

Once the ideas are propagated it is very difficult, because of the lack of resources, to sift the truth from falsehood. Consequently, people become victims of propaganda without being conscious of this process.

A free press can definitely consolidate the forces of democracy and can easily negatively influence pulls and pressures which have been dragging the citizens away from democratic thinking. If the news is reported objectively and the problems are analysed with no bias, it is definitely possible to make people think correctly.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Also, use recognizable short forms wherever necessary (minimum 4). Supply an appropriate title to it. 

Ans. Title: Independent and Objective Press

Notes

1. Emotional & Intellectual Involvement of Press 

(a) Newspapers are 

(i) not only diverse. for breakfast

(ii) essential. source of knowledge.

(b) Newspaper most impact. medium of- 

(1) making people democratic in thinking. & outlook

(ii) Keeping alive changes

2. Press the Fourth Estate

(a) Press is (i) the fourth organ of the state (b) Press should be (i) indepen. (ii) object. (iii) Open to all impressions.

3. Distortions of Facts & Opinions

(a) Press indulges in-

(i) subtle distortions (ii) colouring. opinions (iii) serving ready-made news

(b) Common man has-(i) neither intelligence (ii) nor the time to verify news 

4. People Trust Printed Words

(a) People’s weakness is-(i) believing a printed word readily (ii) quoting newspapers

(b) People become-(i) victims of false propaganda (ii) can’t distinguish truth from falsehood. 

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.

Ans. Abstraction/Summary-Newspapers give news as well as emotional and intellectual material. Newspapers are not only a diversion at breakfast but an essential source of knowledge and a medium for democratising their outlook and views. Burke called the press the Fourth Estate. An independent and objective press can keep the minds open. 

Nowadays facts 36 are distorted, opinions are coloured and ready-made opinions and baked ide are served. Common men have neither intelligence nor time to verify t validity of the news/ People have more faith in printed words. 

Once the idea is propagated, the people become victims of false propaganda. Thus, the news is reported objectively and the problems are truly analysed, it possible to make people think in the correct way. 

PASSAGE-10

Read carefully the following passage and answer the questions the following it:

To a greater or less degree, all the civilised communities of the modern world are made up of a small class of rulers, corrupted by too much power and of a large class of subjects corrupted by too much passive and irresponsible obedience, Participation in a social order of this kind makes it very difficult for individuals to achieve that non-attachment in the midst of activity, which is the distinguishing mark of the ideally excellent human being and where there is not at least a considerable degree of non-attachment in activity, the ideal society of the prophets cannot be realised. 

A desirable social order is one that delivers us from avoidable evils. A bad social order is one that leads u into temptation which, if matters were more sensibly arranged, would never rise. Our present business is to discover what large-scale changes are best calculated to deliver us from the evils of too much power and of too much passive and irresponsible obedience,

In the modern world, the great obstacle to all desirable change is war. The cardinal, the indispensable reform, therefore, is a reform in the present policy of national communities in regard to one another. Today all nations conduct their foreign policy on militaristic principles. 

Some are more explicitly, more noisily and vulgarly militaristic than others, but all, even those that call themselves democratic and pacific, consistently act upon the principles o militarism. It is hardly conceivable that any desirable reform in this direction should be initiated by those who now hold political power. The movement reform must therefore come from private individuals. 

It is the business of these private individuals to persuade the majority of their fellows that the policy of pacifism is preferable to that of militarism. When and only when they have succeeded, it will be possible to change those militaristic national policies, which make the outbreak of another war all but inevitable and which by doing this, hole up the whole process of desirable change.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, in points only, using recognizable abbreviations (minimum 4), where necessary. Supply an appropriate title for it. 

Ans. Title: Having a Desirable Social Order

Notes

1. Rulers Corrupted. by Power; Subjects by Passive Obedience (a) Modern world consists of (i) small class of rulers corrupted. by power (ii) Passive obedt, subject

(b) Participt. for individuals, in such social order-(1) becomes difficult (i) non-attachment not possible

(c) Non-attachment mark of ideal human. life.

(d) Without non-attachment (i) ideal society not possible

(e) A desirable social order-

(i) delivers from evils (ii) keeps us away from tempts. (1) Our main aim is to free us (1) from too much power

(ii) from passive obedience 

2. War-Great Obstacle in Desirable Changes

(a) There should be basic change in (i) internet, relations. (b) Nations’ foreign policy-(i) on militaristic principles

(ii) Some noisily & vulgarly militaristic

(iii) others pretend to be pacific but militarist in nature 

3. No Desirable Reform Possible by Politicians 

(a) Movement of reform-(i) must come from individuals.

(ii) Pvt. individuals. to persuade the majority 4. Pacifism Better than Militarism

(a) National policies-(i) should be changed. (b) Militaristic. policies-(i) lead to war (ii) hold up desirable changes. 

B) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.

Ans. Abstraction/Summary-Modern civilised societies are made up of a small group of rulers and the general masses. Rulers are corrupted by too much power. The masses are corrupted by passive obedience. Non-attachment is the sign of an ideal social order. 

A good social order frees us from social ils and temptations. Too much power and too much patience are avoidable ils. Ware is the greatest obstacle to all desirable changes. Most nations day base their policies on militarism. Politicians will never take initiative.

individuals should take the lead to make pacifism a very strong national policy.

cifism is far better than militarism. War holds up the whole process of reforms and desirable changes.

PASSAGE-11

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: 

How you can best improve your English depends on where you live and ticularly on whether or not you live in an English-speaking community. I hear English spoken every day and mix it freely with English-speaking Ople, which is, on the whole, an advantage. 

On the other hand, it is often fusing to have the whole language, poured over you at once, Ideally, a -by-step course should accompany or lead up to this experience. It will help a great deal if you can easily get the sort of English books in which are interested.

Reading a lot is essential. It is stupid not to venture outside the examination books’ or the textbooks you have chosen for intensive study. Read my books in English as you can, not as a duty but for pleasure. 

Do not use the most difficult books you find, with the idea of listing and learning as many new words as possible-choose what is likely to interest you and be in advance that it is not too hard. You should not have to be constantly ing up new words in the dictionary, for that deadens interest and checks learning. 

Look up a word here and there, but as general policy try to push ahead, guessing what words mean from the context. It is extensive and n intensive reading that normally helps you to get interested in extra-reading and thereby improves your English. 

You should enjoy the feeling that extensive reading gives of having some command of the language. As you read you wi become more and more familiar with words and sentence patterns you already know, understanding them better and better as you meet them in more and differ only slightly from others.

more contexts, some of which may Some people say that we cannot learn to speak a language better with the help of a book. To believe this is to believe that spoken language and written language are quite different things. 

This is not so. There is a very great deal in common between the two. In learning the patterns and vocabulary of the written form, we are learning to a considerable extent those of the spoke from too. We are, in fact, learning the language and not merely one form o the language. 

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum 4) and format you consider suitable. Supply an appropriate title for it. 

Ans. Title: Improving Your English

Notes:

1. Environment & Society-Very Important Factors

(a) Living in Eng. a speaking community- 

(B) helps in free mixing (ii) helps in learning. Eng.

(b) One learns lang. easily by (i) learning, step by step;

(ii) read. interesting Eng. books

 2. Extensive Reading Essential

(a) Besides text-books-

(i) read a lot; (ii) read for pleasure; (iii) avoid difficult books; (iv) push ahead without consulting dict, too often.

(b) Extensive read. helps- (i) in having some command of lang.; (ii) getting familiar with more words.

3. Spoken & Written Lang. Not Different 

(a) A great deal common between the two

(b) Learning pattern & vocabulary-(1) helps in spoken & writt. from; 

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words

Ans. Abstraction/Summary-Improvement of your English depends on the society you live in. Mixing freely with English-speaking people is advantageous. One can learn a language only step by step. Reading interesting English books can help a lot. Extensive reading is more important than intensive reading. 

Read besides set books and textbooks. Choosing easy and enjoyable books makes the task easier. Don’t constantly look up new words in the dictionary. Push ahead as it helps in extra reading and improving your English. Some people think that the written and spoken forms of language are quite different things. It is a fallacy.




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