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Ncert Political Science Class 12 Important Questions and Answers

SubjectPolitical Science
Medium English
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Ncert Political Science Class 12 Important Questions and Answers 

Ncert Political Science Class 12 Important Questions and Answers

1. In which year was the Baghdad Pact signed? (In which year was the Baghdad Pact signed?)

(1) 1965

(2) 1975

(3) 1955

(4) 1959 

Ans . (3)

2. When was the Berlin Wall built? (When was the Wall of Berlin built?)

(1) 1960

(2) 1965

(3) 1962

(4) 1961 

Ans . (2)

3. Which country opposed the American leadership in NATO? (Which country had opposed American dominance in NATO?)

(1) France

(2) Italy (Haly) 

(3) Britain

(4) West Germany

Ans . (1)

4. How many countries participated in the first Non-Aligned Conference? (How many countries participated in first Non-Aligned Summit?)

(1) 54

(2) 25

(3) 75

(4) 116 

Ans . (2)

5. In which year did the Cuban Missile Crisis occur? (In which year did Cuba Missile Crisis emerge?)

(1) 1964

(2) 1971

(3) 1950

(4) 1962 

Ans . (4)

6. When did the Bolshevik Revolution take place? (When was the Bolshevik revolution held?)

(1) 1914

(2) 1917

(3) 1911

(4) 1989 

Ans . (2)

7. When did the Soviet Union disintegrate? (When was the Soviet Union disintegrated?)

(1) 1991

(2) 1990

(3) 1993

(4) 1989 

Ans . (1)

8. In which year was the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty signed? (In which year was the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) signed?)

(1) 2005 

(2) 1972 

(3) 2008 

(4) 1968 

Ans . (4) 

9. Who introduced Glasnost and Perestroika? (Who propounded the Glasnost and the Perestroika?).

(1) Lenin

(2) Gorbachev

(3) Stalin

(4) Yelitsin 

Ans . (2)

10. How many federal republics were there in the Soviet Union? (How many Federal Republics were in Soviet Union?)

(1) 8

(2) 10 

(3) 12

(4) 15

Ans . (4)

11. Which country emerged as a superpower after the disintegration of the Soviet Union? (Which country emerged as a super power after the disintegration of Soviet Union?)

(1) United States of America

(2) Germany

(3) Britain

(4) France

Ans. (I)

12. Who was the last President of the Soviet Union? (Who was the last president of Soviet Union?)

(1) Boris Yeltsin 

(2) Khrushchev

(3) Mikhail Gorbachev

(4) Brezhnev

Ans . (3)

13. Which terrorist organization attacked America in September 2001? 

(1) I.S. S

(2) Al-Qaeda

(3) Hizbul Mujahideen

(4) none of these

Ans . (2)

14. Which country had captured Kuwait? (Which state had occupied Kuwait?)

(1) Iran

(2) Iraq

(3) Pakistan

(4) Afghanistan

(4) Kirwanit

Ans . (1)

15. When did India conduct its first nuclear test? (When was India experimented its Nuclear Test?)

(1) 2005

(2) 1976

(3) 1950

(4) 1974 

Ans . (4)

16. Saddam Hussein was the ruler of which of the following countries? (Saddam Hussein was the ruler of which of the following countries?)

(1) Ira (Iraq)

(2) Afghanistan

(3) Iran,

17. Which country has gifted internet facility to the world? (Facility of internet to the world is the gift of which country?)

(1) India

(2) America

(3) China

(4) Japan 

Ans . (2) 

18. Which nation of the world spends a large part of its budget on defense research and development? (Which country of the world spends a huge part of its budget in military research and development)

(1) Britain

(2) India

(3) China

(4) America 

Ans . (4)

19. Which of the following countries was a republic of the Soviet Union? (Which of the following countries were the republics of Soviet Union 7)

(1) Ukraine

(2) Belarus 

(3) Turkmenistan 

(4) All of these 

Ans . (4)

20. When was the European Union established? (When was the European Union established?)

(1) 1968 

(2) 1957

(3) 1992

(4) 1967 

Ans . (3)

21. Following is the member of ASEAN?) Who among the following is a member of ASEAN? 

(1) India

(2) Indonesia

(3) China

(4) Pakistan 

Ans . (2)

22. When did communist China emerge? (When did the rise of communist China take place?)

(1) 1957 

(2) 1939 

(3) 1949

(4) 1849 

Ans . (3)

23. When was ASEAN established? (When is

ASEAN established ?) 

(1) 1985

(2) 1967 

(3) 1989 

(4) 1991 

Ans . (2)

24. When did India adopt the ‘Look East Policy’? (When did India adopt the ‘Look East Policy?’)

(1) 1991 

(2) 1967 

(3) 1985 

(4) 1981 

Ans . (1)

25. Who was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India? (Who was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India?)

(1) Chandra Shekhar

(2) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

(3) Lal Krishna Advani

(4) Chaudhary Charan Singh 

Ans . (2)

26. Who was the last native princely state to join the Indian Union after independence? (Which one of the following was the last Princely State to be integrated with Indian Union after independence?)

(1) Jammu and Kashmir

(2) Bikaner

(3) (Hyderabad) 

(4) (Junagarh) 

Ans . (3)

27. When was the State Reorganization Commission established? (In which year was State Reorganization Commission established?)

(1) 1957

(2) 1955

(3) 1953

(4) 1956 

Ans . (3)

28. Which party dominated Indian politics between 1952 and 1967? (Which political party in India had dominance in Indian politics from 1952 to 1967?)

(1) Janata Dal

(2) Bharatiya Janata Party

(3) Janata Party

(4) Congress 

Ans . (4)

29. On which ideology is our planning system based? (On which concept is our planning syntem based?)

(1) Liberalism

(2) Communism

(3) Democratic Socialism

(4) Gandhism

Ans . (3)

30. Which commission was formed after abolishing the Planning Commission? (Which commission is started after the end of Planning Commission?)

(1) NITI Aayog

(2) Finance Commission

(3) State Finance Commission

(4) None of these

Ans . (1)

31. In which schedule of the Constitution are the 22 languages ​​of India mentioned? (Which schedule of the Constitution mentions 22 Indian languages?)

(1) 7th Schedule

(2) 8th Schedule

(3) 6th Schedule

(4) 11th Schedule

Ans . (2)

32. By whom was the Second Five Year Plan prepared? (Who drafted the Second Five Year Plan?)

(of 1. N. Raj (K.N.Raj) 

(2) Amartya Sen

(3) P. C. Mahalanobis.

(4) J. C. J. C. Kumarappa 

Ans . (3)

33. In which five-year plan ‘Garibi Hatao’ was given priority?

(1) Sixth Plan 1980-85 

(2) First Plan 1951-56

(3) Third Plan 1961-66

(4) Fifth Plan 1974-79

Ans . (4)

64. In which year was ‘Kamaraj Yojana’ proposed? (‘Kamraj Plan’ was proposed in the year)


(2) 1960


(4) 1961 

Answer. (3)

35. Who was the first Education Minister of independent India? (Who was the first Education Minister of independent India?)

(1) B. R. Ambedkar (B. R. Ambedkar)

(2) Maulana Azad

(3) Govind Ballabh Pant

(4) Dr. Zakir Hussain

Answer. (2)

36. ‘Panchsheel Agreement was signed between which two countries? (“Panchsheel Agreement’ was signed between which of the following two countries?)

(1) India and Pakistan

(2) India and America

(3) India and Russia

(4) India and China

Answer. (4)

37. Who was the first non-Congress Prime Minister of India? (Who was the first non-Congress Prime Minister of India?)

(1) Morarji Desai

(2) Deve Gowda

(3) Choudhary Charan Singh

(4) Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Answer. (1)

38. On the basis of which language was the state of Andhra Pradesh formed in 1953? (On the basis of which language was the state of Andhra Pradesh created in 1953?)

(1) Tamil

(2) Kannada

(3) Telugu

(4) Malayalaam

Answer. (3)

39. Who is the father of Green Revolution in India?

(1) U. R. Rao (UR. Rao)

(2) M.S. M.S. Swaminathan

(3) Verghese Kurien

(4) V.G. Deshmukh (V. G. Deshmukh)

Answer. (2)

40. Which Indian political party is known as an ‘umbrella organisation’? (Which Indian Political party is known as ‘Umbrella Organization’?)

(1) Communist Party of India

(2) Bharatiya Janata Party

(3) Congress Party

(4) Bahujan Samaj Party

Answer. (3)

‎GROUP – A Section- ‘A’

(Very short answer type questions)

1. Name the four member countries of SAARC. (Write the names of four member countries of SAARC.)

Ans. The names of the four member countries of SAARC are as follows-

(i) India

(ii) Pakistan

(iii) Bangladesh

(iv) Nepal

2. What is ‘Amnesty International’? (What is the ‘Amnesty International’?)

Ans. Amnesty International is a voluntary organization that has campaigned to protect human rights all over the world. This organization prepares and publishes reports related to human rights. His report brings shame to many governments because it discusses their abuses.

3. Tell two objectives of the United Nations. (Point out two objectives of the United Nations Organisation.)

Ans. Following are the two objectives of the United Nations:

(i) Establishment of international peace and security

(ii) To increase relations and cooperation between different nations.

4. Name the revolution started by Jayaprakash Narayan. Who was the Prime Minister of India at that time? 

Ans. The name of the revolution started by Jayaprakash Narayan was Total Revolution. The Prime Minister of India at that time was Indira Gandhi.

5. Who led the Narmada Bachao Andolan? (Wholed the Narmada Bachao Andolan?)

Ans. Narmada rescue movement was led by Medha Patekar. 

6. What is liberalization? (What is Liberalisation?)

Ans. Liberalization means removing restrictions from the economy and making it more competitive. For example, as a result of the new economic policy, more facilities have been provided to the private sectors. This has provided more freedom to the private sector in conducting industrial activities. Under this, the private sector is exempted from all those rules and restrictions which hinder their development.

7. In which year and in which state of India did the anti-toddy movement start? 

Ans. Anti-toddy movement started in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh in 1992 AD.

GROUP B Section – ‘B’ (Short Northern) 

18. Describe the Tashkent Agreement. (Describe the Tashkent) 

Ans. After the 1965 war between India and Pakistan, a treaty was signed in Tashkent city of Russia which is called Tashkent Agreement. This understanding was achieved through the mediation of the Soviet Union. This agreement was signed by the Prime Minister of India Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri and the President of Pakistan Ayub Khan and on January 11, 1966, Lal Bahadur Shastri died due to heart failure. 

The main points of this agreement are as follows-

(i) Both countries will resolve their disputes peacefully, keeping faith in the Charter of the United Nations.

(ii) Both the countries will not interfere in anyone’s internal affairs and will stop propaganda.

(iii) Both countries will abide by the terms of the ceasefire. By February 5, 1956, their forces would return to the position of August 5, 1965.

(iv) Both countries will release the prisoners of war. (v) Both the countries will improve their relations.

9. What are the duties of the Secretary General of the United Nations? 

Ans. The Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a term of 5 Ans . He is the head of the Secretariat and the Secretary-General of all organs of the United Nations. From this position he has to do many tasks, some of the major tasks are as follows-

(i) He appoints the employees of the United Nations and makes rules regarding their salaries, allowances, leave etc.

(ii) He exercises control over his subordinate employees.

(ii) He prepares the income and expenditure of the United Nations. (iv) He has to present his annual report to the General Assembly.

10. What are the benefits of globalization? 

Ans. The benefits of globalization are as follows-

1. Supporters of the processes of economic globalization say that it increases prosperity and due to openness, the prosperity of more population increases. Get an opportunity to do better.

2. This leads to business development. As a result, every country has to find its own 3. Supporters of globalization say that economic globalization is inevitable and to block it would be to stop the flow of history.

4. Supporters are of the view that globalization has presented challenges that should be faced wisely.

5. In fact, due to different needs of different countries and citizens, mutual dependence is increasing. In such a situation globalization becomes necessary.

11. ‘What do you understand by Privy Purse? (What do you mean by ‘Privy Purse’?)

Ans. Background and meaning of Priya Purse- When the British left India and the country became independent, there were about 565 princely states or princely states. Before the merger of the princely states into the Indian Union, the government had given an assurance that the then ruling family of the princely states would have the right to keep a certain amount of private property. Besides, some special allowances will also be given to them by the government. Both these things (i.e. the personal wealth and allowances of the ruler) will be decided on the basis of the extent, revenue and capacity of the state to be merged. This system was called ‘Privy Purse’.

Criticism of Privy Purses: At the time of merger of the princely states, there was not much criticism of this special facility given to the kings and emperors. At that time the main goal of unity and integrity of the country was important.

However, these hereditary privileges did not match the principles of equality and socio-economic justice enshrined in the Indian Constitution. Nehru had expressed his dissatisfaction with this system many times.

1967 General Elections and Privy Purses After the 1967 elections, Indira Gandhi supported the demand for abolition of ‘Privy Purses’. He had his opinion.

That the government should end the system of ‘priors’. Morarji Desai considered the abolition of privy purses to be morally wrong. He said that

This would amount to ‘betrayal of the princely states’. Indira Government and Supreme Court’s viewpoint and abolition of Privy Purse: The government tried to amend the Constitution in 1970 to abolish the system of Privy Purse, but it could not get approval in the Rajya Sabha. After this the government issued an ordinance, but it was struck down by the Supreme Court. 

Indira Gandhi made it a big issue in the 1971 elections and she got a lot of public support on this issue. After the landslide victory in 1971, the Constitution was amended and thus the legal obstacles to the abolition of privy purses were removed.

12. Explain the politics of ‘Poverty Removal’. 

Ans. India’s most successful Prime Minister Indira Gandhi launched the politics of poverty alleviation. By adopting the policy of eradicating poverty, she earned the sympathy of the public and with this, she became the messiah of the poor and the downtrodden. 

The result of this policy was that the public appreciated him and handed over the reins of the country to him for a long time. Indira Gandhi opened her political career by adopting the politics of poverty alleviation and emerged as a famous Prime Minister. By adopting this politics he made his name famous across the country. As well as

She was also successful in creating her image at the international level. By adopting this politics, he created a distinct identity for himself in Indian politics.

As a result he ruled Indian politics for a long time.

13. In which state did the Dalit Panthers movement start? What were its main demands?

Ans. The Dalit Punchers movement started in the Indian state of Maharashtra.

Its main demands were as follows-

(i) Casteism should be opposed.

(ii) Constitutional provisions should be implemented.

(iii) The atrocities on Dalit women should be stopped. (iv) Social discrimination should be eliminated.

(v) A strong organization of Dalits, industrial laborers and other weaker sections should be formed.

(vi) The interests of landless poor farmers should be protected. 

(vii) Political parties should be associated with Dalits.

(viii) Reservation policies and laws related to social justice should be implemented.

14. Discuss any one movement related to women empowerment.

Ans. The Taadi movement is a shining example of women empowerment. It started from village Har located in Kalinari Mandal of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. The women here raised their voice against the increasing prevalence of toddy addiction among the men in the village. Under this movement, women raised many other important issues along with the bad effects of being under the influence of saree and alcohol on men and families. 

The women of the village gathered together and raised their voice to the sellers of toddy and liquor and later informed their demands and their condition to the police administration and the government, as a result of which the government had to take strict steps in this direction. The main demand of these agitators was to impose a complete ban on the sale of toddy and liquor. This movement got a lot of publicity with the help of the press. This movement is only for women

It was not limited to these issues related to poverty but all other problems of the society were also included in this movement. As a result, this movement also increased people’s awareness of social problems. Due to this, issues like gender equality, economic, social and psychological exploitation of women, violence against women became a priority for the government.

GROUP C Section-C

(Long answer type questions)

15. Describe the organization and functions of the Security Council. (Describe the structure and functions of the Security Council.) 

Ans. The Security Council is the most important and powerful organ of the United Nations. This is the organ which has the responsibility of maintaining world peace as the main objective of the United Nations and accordingly it has been given powers. When the United Nations was established, the number of its members at that time was 5+6=11 i.e. 5 permanent members and 6 temporary members. 

In 1965, the number of temporary members was increased to 10. These ten members are elected by the General Assembly for two Ans . Among these ten members, to ensure regional representation, 5 members are elected from Asian African countries, 2 members from American countries and one member from other states. There is also a provision that no country can be elected as its member for the second consecutive time. India has been elected as its member several times. 

The functions of the Security Council are as follows-

1. It is responsible for establishing peace in the world and can consider any matter which poses a threat to world peace. 

2. It considers any complaint sent by any country and decides the case or dispute.

3. The Security Council can also take military action to implement its resolutions or decisions. The decision to take military action against Iraq was taken by the Security Council. 

4. It also appoints the judges of the International Court in collaboration with the General Assembly.

16. Describe the role of India in the development of Bhutan. (Describe the role of India in the development of Bhutan.)

Ans. In 1949 AD, a treaty was signed between the government of independent India and Bhutan, by which both the countries assured to ensure permanent peace and friendship and India also promised not to interfere in the internal affairs of Bhutan. . This treaty is also called Darjeeling Treaty. After some time, sections 2 and 6 of this treaty were amended.

According to the changing circumstances of time, India played an important role in the development of Bhutan. The present Modi government has also made an important contribution to the development of Bhutan. In this regard, India has supported Bhutan in economic, political and cultural activities and technological development.

17. Due to what reasons mid-term elections had to be held in India in 1980? Explain. 

Ans. The state of emergency ended in 1977 and parliamentary elections were held in 1981. In this election, the major opposition parties against the Congress together formed the Janata Party, which had the blessings of Babu Jayaprakash Narayan and Acharya Kripalani. The major parties among them were Socialist Party, Bharatiya Jan Sangh, Congress Old and Bharatiya Lok Dal. Later Jagjivan Ram’s Congress for Democracy also joined the Janata Party. All these parties were opposition parties during the emergency and their prominent leaders were in jail. 

Janata Party got huge success in the main elections, but despite 351 seats, this government could run only for 18 months because there was a fight over the post of Prime Minister due to which Morarji Bhai Desai had to be made the Prime Minister. There were so many internal differences in the Janata Party that it could not function as a party and after 18 months the government fell and the Janata Party got divided into many parts.

After the fall of the Janata Party government, Chaudhary Charan Singh formed the government at the center with the external support of the Congress, but after four months, due to the withdrawal of support by the Congress, Chaudhary Charan Singh recommended the dissolution of the Lok Sabha and new elections, in which the then President Shri N. Sanjeeva Reddy accepted. Thus elections became necessary in 1980.

18. What is Chipko movement? Throw light on the achievements of this movement. 

Ans. In an extraordinary event of collective action to save trees in 1973, men and women of present-day Uttarakhand state came together in strong protest against commercial deforestation. The basic reason for this protest was that the government had given permission for deforestation. The village people adopted a new tactic to express their protest. These people surrounded the trees with their arms to save them from being cut. 

In the coming days, this protest transformed into India’s environmental movement and became world famous by the name of ‘Chipko Movement’. The main achievement of the Chipko movement was to stop the cutting of trees and plants in the forests. Besides, the environment had to be kept clean. Solving the problem of environmental pollution is also a major achievement of the Chipko movement.

19. How did the role of regional political parties increase in coalition politics? Give examples.

Ans. After 1980, the role of regional parties started increasing in India. Before this, despite the multi-party system, Congress remained dominant. There were some national parties but their position remained weak in front of Congress. Congress dominated during the period from 1950 to 1980. After the 1980s, due to various reasons, regionalism developed, on the basis of which regional parties were formed. The number of these regional parties continued to increase due to various reasons. In the 1990s, national parties became dwarf in front of regional parties.

In the 1990s, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Chandrashekhar Singh, H.D. When Deve Gowda and P.V. Narasimha Rao became Prime Ministers, they formed coalition governments. Congress formed the government at the center with the support of regional parties like Jharkhand Mukti Morcha. Similarly, in the south, AIADMK in Tamil Nadu, Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh, Akali Dal in Punjab, National Conference in Kashmir, Janata Dal United and Rashtriya Janata Dal in Bihar emerged as regional parties and formed coalition governments.

Thus, regional parties not only formed governments in their states but also played an important role in forming and running the government at the Centre. The importance of national parties decreased in coalition politics and in its place the usefulness of regional parties increased. The following issues were the ones which divided the society, on the basis of which there was a change in the political behavior of the people and the number of regional parties increased. These issues were-

(i) Reservation, (ii) Temple-Mosque dispute (Babri Masjid and Ram Mandir), (iii) Backward Class Politics, (iv) Women’s Politics, (v) Minority Politics, (vi) Tribal Politics, (vii) Dalits. Politics, (viii) Regionalism etc.

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