Practical Work in Geography Class 12 Solutions Chapter 1 Data – Its Source and Compilation

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So students, after reading this article, you will get very high marks in the exam from this chapter because all the exam-related questions are described in it, so read it completely.

I have been a 12th topper myself and I know what kind of questions are asked in the 12th exam. Presently, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written this article with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to score very good marks in Geography from this chapter in the exam.

Practical Work in Geography Class 12 Solutions Chapter 1 Data – Its Source and Compilation

Chapter No01
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameData – Its Source and Compilation
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available
Pdf downloadClick Here

Any numerical information is called data. These data give information about the temporal or regional distribution of an element with respect to other elements. That is why these data have special importance in geographical study because due to them geographical study becomes more objective and authentic. These data can be related to various geographical aspects, such as relief, climate, rocks, soil, flora, fauna, agriculture, animal husbandry, mining, industry, trade, traffic, population, urbanization, settlement etc.

Importance of Data in Geography

Data has special importance in geography because it is said that geography is dumb without diagrams and maps (Geography cannot speak without cartography). Diagrams and maps complete geographical studies and help in the analysis of various facts. Due to these the study becomes more scientific and objective and for this reason geography is now kept in the category of science. It is well known that data is at the core of the making of diagrams and maps. Construction of diagrams and maps without data

(ii) Interview – Under this, the observer (person or group of persons) makes contact with some persons of the study area and obtains information (data) by talking to them. It should be kept in mind that the person giving the answer should be serious and aware of the (B) unpublished sources of the area – (i) Government records, information only then correct and authentic information will be received from him. The observer should also give correct information about his purpose to the person so that he can answer the observer’s questions seriously.

(iii) Questionnaire- Under this, the desired information related to the study area is obtained. To do this, a questionnaire is prepared and sent to the aware and serious people of the area. Primary data is prepared from the conclusions obtained from their answers. The biggest advantage of this method is that the questionnaire can be sent even to remote areas. But its drawback is that where the level of literacy is low, this method is not useful. Because only educated people can answer the questionnaire.

(iv) Schedule (Information) – It is similar to the questionnaire but differs in the sense that in this the observer fills the answers himself, while the answerer fills the answers in the questionnaire. One of its advantages is that information can be obtained from both educated and illiterate people. Indian census is like this.

(v) Other Method – In addition to the above methods, data is obtained by adopting some other methods, such as the data related to the properties of soil and water of an area can be obtained directly by using soil kit and tap kit. Are. In this way, the regional agricultural scientists get the health related data of crops and vegetation. Similarly, the climatic data of the area can be obtained by the installation and dispatch of weather instruments in the area. At present, data is also obtained through artificial satellites.

(2) Secondary data is the data which is obtained from any source – published or unpublished. They are not collected by going to the field, but the data of their requirement is collected from the previously obtained data (primary data). Hence they are called secondary data. Secondary data is obtained from the following sources-

(A) Published sources – (i) Government publications, (ii) Government publications, (iii) International publications, (iv) Private publications, (v) Electronic media.

(ii) Semi-official records, (iii) Private records. Published Means (i) Government Publications- Center and State Ministries and Departments of States and Bulletins of Districts are the second means of information. Secondary data information is obtained from

(ii) Semi-official publications – These include publications and reports etc. of urban development authorities and municipal corporations and district councils of various towns and cities.

(iii) International Publications- Under these annuals, reports and monographs published by United Nations agencies, such as United States Agency, Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Health Organisation, Food and Agriculture Council etc. are included.

(iv) Private publication- In this category, newspapers and yearbooks published by private institutions and management are included.

(v) Electronic Media- In the present times electronic media internet has emerged as an important source of secondary data.

unpublished resources

(i) Government Documents This mainly includes unpublished reports, monographs and documents. These are prepared at various levels of government. Like the revenue account prepared by the Patwari of the village.

(ii) Semi-official documents Periodic reports and development plans prepared and unsecured by municipal corporations, district councils and public service departments are examples of semi-official documents.

(iii) Private documents come under this unpublished (reports and (records) of companies, trade unions, political and non-political organizations and residential welfare associations. The area of ​​primary data is wide, so they are known by sampling.

Statistics: Sources and Compilation


In general practice, whenever we do any work, take a decision or buy an item, there is a special importance of sample survey. Seeing the big thing, we decide the whole thing, delay or work form. Exactly the same technique is used in research and investigation of specific problems (analysis) or survey.

This is called Sampling Technique. For example, if we want to buy a bag of rice, wheat or sugar, then we will see a bag-like item from that bag, in the same way, by testing a drop of blood in the medical laboratory, the doctor draws the correct conclusion about the patient’s blood. Similarly, when you want to know about the general and specific behavior of a particular person, meet and stay with him for a short time after a gap of a few months, about his general mood, about his attitude towards problems. , the level of his character and personality can be ascertained. In this way knowingly or unknowingly we have been using sampling technique naturally in our day to day activities even in normal mood. Therefore, in general, it has played an important role in taking all kinds of decisions.

Whether the group set for study is small or big, all the units of the entire group are never studied, but we usually study random or random numbers, numbers or units determined by sampling in between. For example, there are 10,000 families living in a town. If we have to study 500 families out of them, then before such study, the questionnaire and table will be completely decided on the basis of which such survey is done.

Questionnaire should be made comprehensive, related to all aspects and multilevel in the interest of related problem study. Here, keeping in view the economic, social and functional conditions of different parts of the city, the spatial distribution of the families or their houses will first be decided area-wise or groups of 10-15-25-50 families from each ward. After that, the place of houses or business of each ward will be decided by random or random number method. Therefore, sampling is not only a decision or method, it is also a matter of regular experience, research and special study. That’s why it is called sampling technique

is more correct. In short, sampling is a method of obtaining complete knowledge required about a large number of groups or aggregates by observing a few units.

According to Sipson and Kafka, this type of thinking that thinking about general or all from some particular facts or forms is the characteristic of sampling method. For this reason, at present sampling technique can be considered as an important achievement of statistical science.

Sampling Investigation – It is very useful and beneficial in many ways. All decisions in this regard can be taken only after studying the formation, form and future of most of the cultural traits through sampling techniques, but such sampling should be distributed in a fixed chronological order. Similarly, sampling technique is useful even if units with complex, polymorphous characteristics etc. are included in the investigation.

Due to this, the result of survey and research is better in most of the cases. There are many benefits from this as well; For example, saving time and money, checking only selected numbers on a detailed basis, special suitability of this technique in the case of numbers with wide spread, etc. are important. While using this method, even in the absence of sampling, specialized and multilevel knowledge, experience and skill, meaningful decisions related to the sampled numbers cannot be taken.

More accurate testing in the field and more complex and comprehensive help. According to the classification given above, random sampling can be divided into the following two parts. The main reason for the errors coming can be confusing or hasty-

Here only random sampling is used – (Sampling) has been explained in detail.

The word random is used in statistics in a special sense. This method is more scientific and factual than other sampling methods because the number of sampling is determined by random method. Thus, random is not a characteristic of statistics or sampling in itself, but a method of sampling in itself. In random sampling, each unit or number of the related data (composite) remains equal chance of selection. According to Connor, “A random sample is a sample in which the number of

It happens or happens in such a way that every unit of the whole has an equal or known opportunity to be included.” In this sampling, which unit should be included, which one should be left out, the researcher does not decide on his own volition. Such selection is only dependent on chance. Therefore, there is no place for discrimination in this sampling because representative sampling is a scientific method of selection. Therefore, it is also called Unrestricted Sampling Method. It has been explained above that chance has a decisive hand in determining random sampling, so human decisions could not be effective on this, its full effort In such determination, it is done from the beginning. This method alone can bring precision and truthfulness in the determination of such sampling. Along with this, an important fact is that random sampling is also a model of the whole in a smaller form. Because even more so the measurements of the whole or in estimating the value correctly

Objective or Simple Random Sampling – In this the following methods are used for selection of numbers and units.

(i) By Drawing Chips or Lottery – When the number of the whole is finite, make a tablet of each of the number or units and put it in a circular vessel and shake it very well. (Pre-determined number) slips are drawn. For example, if there are 5,000 students in a college. Out of these, slips are to be drawn for a sampling study of 250 students. Here all the slips must be of same size and colour. These bullets will be turned upside down many times by rotating the pot very well, after that a child or a robot or a blindfolded person will be blindfolded one by one in the desired (here 250) number.

Yes, the pills will be taken out. The student whose name will appear after taking out the form through this method will be studied in detail in the sample.

(ii) By Rotating Drum – This is an electronic random number indicator – device. The numbers 0 to 9 are marked on ten round pieces of iron or wood in a drum. The drum spins louder each time. After that a round piece comes out. Write on it is assumed to be the unit number of the random number. After this, the number that comes out will be considered as ten and then hundreds etc., but every time the piece that comes out, after reading the number, it is again put in the cauldron or drum.

That is, every time the ball is rotated, it is mandatory to have ten round pieces in it. This machine has been specially used while extracting prize bonds, lottery prizes etc. Now the lottery numbers and their unit-tenths etc. numbers are automatically known by the above mentioned electronic method by computer or by special Sudoko system.

(iii) By Rotating Plates – There are two types of plate arrangements in this. In the first type, there is an equally spaced division from 0 to 9 on a circle itself. Along with this, a thorn also remains fixed. The plate is left by rotating vigorously, the place or number which will be in front of the needle or fork of the plate when the plate stops, the same number will be the unit of random number. In the same way, every time the chakra or plate is pumed, the necessary number of tens and hundreds etc. are obtained plates (6 or 7). Each plate has a number from 0 to 9 and a fork or fixed needle. All the plates can rotate rapidly without hindrance. now all

The plates are rotated together and when all the plates are stopped one by one, then the number of digits that appear in front of the fixed needle or the belt, they write down the number of digits required according to their place value (units, tens, hundreds etc.). The number of times we want to make a dev or random sample, we will rotate the machine.

Random numbers – When the expansion of the whole is huge or the determination of the divine number is to be done quickly and accurately, then the help of random number table is taken. Because only a small number of numbers can be extracted from the methods mentioned above and it takes a lot of time. If the rotation process is not done properly, then it can also affect the accuracy. For this reason now detailed tables of random numbers have been made available by various institutions and scholars. Such tables are now being used on a large scale. Any number of values can be obtained from these tables.


(1) Collection of Data – The first step in data analysis is the collection of data from various sources. It is worth noting that the more error-free the data, the better the results, so this work should be done very carefully. The data collected through primary and secondary methods are unrefined and raw, which are further increased by classification and tabulation. In the second system, something useful and beneficial is made to rotate in the device.

(2) Presentation of Data – Collection and presentation of data can be in the form of absolute, percentage or index list.

Points of Remember

Any numerical information is called data. Information and data obtained through various mediums are kept in two categories- (1) Primary data, (2) Secondary data.

When data are presented in their original form, they are called absolute data. Primary data is obtained by the following methods- (1) Personal observation, (2) Interview, (3) Questionnaire, (4) Schedule and (5) Other method.

Frequency distribution refers to the frequency or frequency associated with each class or item. When the middle points of the rectangle formed on each class interval of the frequency diagram are joined by a straight line. So it is called frequency polygon.

N c E r T. Corner (NCERT CORNER)

Question 1. Answer the following questions in 125 words. Aggregate method is most commonly used. From this


(i) Discussion of national and international agencies

is obtained by the following formula-

From where can secondary data be collected? (ii) What is the significance of the index? Take an example to explain the process of calculation of index number and show the transformation.

V = sum of current year’s production Eg, sum of base year’s production

Ans- (1) (a) Following are the important sources of secondary data collection in India – and on the basis of that the index number is calculated. The value of the base year is generally taken as 100. For example, Table 1 shows the production of coal in India and the change in the indices from 1970-71 to 2000-01, taking 1970-71 as the base year.

(a) Census of India published by the Office of the Registrar General of India (b) Report of the National Sample Survey

class 12th NotesMCQ
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Explain different methods of presentation of data.

There can be many methods of presenting the data like tabulation of data (in absolute terms, in percentage or ratio); graphical presentation, pictorial presentation or presentation using maps

Name two important sources of collecting data.

Two important sources of collecting data are primary data and secondary data.

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