Practical Work in Geography Class 12 Solutions Chapter 4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping

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If are you looking for questions and answers To the Practical Work in Geography Class 12 Solutions Chapter 4 then this website is for you.

So students, after reading this article, you will get very high marks in the exam from this chapter because all the exam-related questions are described in it, so read it completely.

I have been a 12th topper myself and I know what kind of questions are asked in the 12th exam. Presently, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written this article with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to score very good marks in Geography from this chapter in the exam.

Practical Work in Geography Class 12 Solutions Chapter 4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping

Class12th 
Chapter No04
PartII
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameUse of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectGeography
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available
Pdf downloadClick Here

Apart from work, he also does many things. That is why it is called a combination of super calculator, type writer and television. Presently developed state-of-the-art computer is an electronic system which works at a faster speed than the computer human brain of instructions.

Generates information by acting on data or targets under the control of a group (program). It is an electronic device that has the following capabilities:

computer applications

(APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER) (1) Accepting data provided by humans. Due to the diverse uses of the computer, there are many (2) applications for executing instructions by inputting, collecting or storing them. Now it is being used in all fields. Some of its uses are given below-

(3) Executing mathematical operations and logical operations. (4) According to human or user requirement

(1) Computers are used at home or for personal work in the following ways:

Delivering Results. At present, computer is playing an important role in every human life in the field of use of kitchen appliances such as microwave ovens. It is very intense. Works at speed. Its calculations are pure and correct. Computers can perform complex and repetitive tasks very well without making any mistakes. 

It has amazing ability to collect. The work done in this is preserved for the future and makes the data information available immediately when required. Computer is called computer in Hindi which means – calculating machine. but computer calculation

(i) In the kitchen – electronic processor and memory

(ii) Computerized car- In modern cars, all controls are operated by computer, such as door opening by recognizing the voice of the car owner, warning of proper amount of petrol, changing the surface of the car as desired, road and city map available. Getting etc.

(iii) Computerized house – Now houses are being made computerized, that is, they are being controlled by computers. CBSE Is. Being the owner of the house, they welcome the guests and water the lawn. They also automatically control the temperature.

(iv) Personal Robot Servant Robot is a mechanical human operated by computer that can be used for personal tasks. 

(v) Banking and Shopping at Home Electronic Fund Transfer System is such a facility of the bank that we can transact money from banks, transport agencies and shopkeepers from home. The computer installed in the house is connected to the telephone line, which is connected to the Internet.

(vi) Modern cottage industry- Nowadays computer has made information a salable and useful commodity. This has led to the rise of home based businesses.

(2) Computers in Education – Computers were installed in the 1940s and 1950s to perform fast calculations. John Kameny first entered this field in the 1960s, while he used the BASIC computer language. It has the following uses in the field of education – (i) Computer learning – Nowadays many computer subjects, such as computer science, computer information systems, computer operations, computer languages, Internet, e-commerce, e-business are studied. .

(ii) Computer as a teacher – Computer’s software is CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) which gives the computer the form of a teacher. C.M.I. (Computer Managed Instruction, OMI) provides facility to read books on computer.

(iii) Problem solving- Computer makes difficult problems easy in studies. The computer can rapidly use the logic of many people to solve a problem, so that the problem can be solved quickly.

(3) Computer in entertainment – (a) Games (b) Movies, (c) Music, (d) Art.

(4) Computer in science and medicine – (a) Science – Computer has major use in weather forecasting. To forecast the weather, data about current weather conditions is input into a computer, which the computer compares with past weather conditions. The process of weather forecasting continues for twenty-four hours. 

In this, the number of data remains a. That’s why supercomputers are used at the national level for this work. By boarding the astronauts in spaceships, we make them travel to space with the help of computers. Simulation is a technique in which a computer creates a mathematical model of a real object and then tests it. In this way, models of buildings, cars, aircrafts, observatories, spacecrafts are made and tested using simulation techniques. This process of simulation is called Computer Aided Designing or CAND.

(b) Medicine Computer has the following applications in the field of medicine-

(i) Computer Assisted Diagnosis – It is a facility in which hardware or software helps doctors in examining patients. The symptoms of the patient are inputted into the computer, then the software compares the diseases of this patient with the symptoms and diseases stored in the computer of the previous patients and detects the disease.

(ii) Computer Tomography – This is a facility in which CAT scanning is done. In this, X-rays, hardware and software combine to present three-dimensional images of the patient’s internal organs.

(iii) Computerized Life Support System It is a nursing aid which continuously monitors the diseases in critical condition and alerts the patient to life-threatening changes in heart rate, temperature and blood pressure.

(5) Information Technology: With the expansion of the computer field, a new technology has been born, which is called information technology. Its following applications are done by computer-

(a) Internet – Internet is an international network of computers. Computer networks around the world are connected to the Internet and we can get the desired information through computers from anywhere. There are search engines on the internet that locate websites to choose a topic. The website starts with www. Which means World Wide Web. Use of computer in data processing and mapping

(b) E. Business is done electronically in computer, hence modern business which is done with the help of computer or internet is called e-business or electronic business. This business comes under one subject e-commerce.

(6) Computer in Biometric Security System – This is a system in which physiological devices of the computer identify physical properties, such as fingerprints, etc.

computer system parts

There are two basic parts of a computer system-

(1) Hardware and (2) Software

1. Hardware The mechanical, electrical and electronic parts of a computer are called computer hardware, that is, such parts which can be felt by touching are called computer hardware. Its main units are as follows-

(i) Central Process Unit is the nervous system. It is the part where data and programs go. It has three units – Memory, Control Unit and Arithmetic Unit. It The part understands the received commands, data and program in its own language, processes them and sends the results to the Output Unit. Chip is a thin silicon leaf. Which holds a large network of electrical circuits. It is a block In which the tasks are edited. In these tasks, it is important to perform mathematical operations, to cooperate in the form of computer’s memory. In the computer system, various storage devices such as hard disk, floppy, compact disk, cartridge, etc. are used. Data and program instructions are stored. The storage capacity of these devices ranges from megabytes to gigabytes.

(ii) Visual Display Unit (VDU) – It is like a television in which a cathode-ray tube is attached. The entire program is read and displayed on it. graphs and maps

For applications with the large possible variation of color display and rapid changes in color patterns, a raster display system with ‘look up’ (LUT) tables was preferred.

(iii) Input Unit – By this unit the computer is asked to work. The most important of these is the keyboard. It is used to enter data and instructions into the computer. While opening the computer, a flash point appears on its screen, which is called Cursor. When a key is pressed on the keyboard, the character is displayed where the cursor is and the cursor moves one place.

(iv) Output Unit – In this part mainly two devices are used – monitor and printer, everything is visible to us on the monitor and is printed by the printer.

(v) Storage Unit – There are many storage units in the computer, such as hard disk, floppy, tape, magneto optical disk, compact disk (C. Unit CPU – this is a digital computer system D.) etc. .

(2) Software (Software) The group of programs prepared in the computer is called software. The method of giving instructions by humans to operate computer hardware is in the form of software. Software establishes interaction between human and computer.

A set of instructions to perform a certain task is called a program or software. It is a process of many steps to solve a problem, in which the method of solving the problem in the computer is expressed by instructions. 

(4) Map reproduction: With the help of a raster experiment printer in the computer, the color composite images prepared on the film are converted into numbers. To do this, color composites for each color on the film are used to create color hues, such as on paper or film space, magenta, yellow and black for digitized maps by a later printer. Theirs can

Points to Remember

  • The mechanical, electrical and electronic parts of a computer are called computer hardware, that is, such parts which can be felt by touching are called computer hardware. • The video-display unit is like a television which has a cathode-ray tube attached to it. The entire program is read and displayed on it.
  • Hard disk, floppy disk, magneto-optical disk, compact disk, cartridge etc. in computer
  • Collectors are attached which are used to store data and program instructions.
  • • Spatial data are those that represent geographical locations. Their features are points, polygons, lines etc. Non-spatial data are those that describe spatial data. These are also called trusts. Ground control points are known points on the ground. These can be seen on aerial photographs or satellite images. can be located accurately.

N. C.E.R. T. CORNER (NCERT CORNER)

Question 1. Answer the following questions in 125 words Description of non-spatial data-spatial data

Is there a difference? Explain with examples. 

(B) What are the three types of geographical data? which ones? The data that do this are called non-spatial data. 

(A) Spatial and non-spatial data. For example, if you have a map showing the location of your school, you can list the name of the school, the stream it offers, the schedule of students in each class, 

(C) The three major components of GIS can include information such as facilities such as libraries, laboratories, equipment, etc. In other words you are describing properties of spatial data. Thus spatial data are also known as attribute data (or else spatial data). Do not give in more than-

Answer – (A) Spatial data – Spatial data represent geographical space. Dots, lines and polygons are their features. Point data represents the locational characteristics of some geographical features such as schools, wells, tube wells, towns and villages displayed on the map. Similarly, lines depict linear features like roads, railway lines, rivers, canals, communication routes. Polygons are made of several interconnected lines enclosing a particular area and are used for administrative units (country, district, state and division); Used to display features such as land use types (agriculture fields, forest lands, ponds, lakes, etc.).

(B) Geographical data are available in analog (maps and aerial photographs) or digital form (scanned images). Various map software such as ArcGIS. Ice. ArcView, Geo Media Gram Itirisi, Geomatica etc. are commercially available. There are also some free downloadable software which can be downloaded with the help of internet.

(C) Geographical Information System has three major components- (i) Hardware – Hardware includes processing, storage, display and input and output subsystems.

(ii) Software modules for data entry, editing, maintenance, analysis, transformation, manipulation, data display and output.

(iii) Data-Information Base Management System Spatial data and related tabular data form the backbone of Geographical Information System. Current data can be obtained from the supplier. Digital maps form the basic data input of geographic information systems. A geographic information system integrates spatial data with other data sources and even uses an information base management system (DBMS).

A mapping software provides the functions of digitizing, error removal, scale conversion and observation, data coordination, map design, display and analysis of screen-scanned maps through spatial and attribute input.

A digital map consists of three files. The extensions of these files are shp, shx and dbf. dbf file is the d-base file that contains the attribute values ​​and is linked to the shx and shp. On the other hand shx makes it very simple by drawing and . shp files contain spatial (map) information. dbf file editing Can be done in excel.

Question 2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words-

(i) The wizard function in Excel enables you to How?

(ii) What are the advantages of using a computer over different methods of handling different parts of a computer? (iii) What are the advantages of using computers over manual methods of data processing and display?

(iv) What is a worksheet?

Ans- (i) The wizard function in excel enables us to create graphs. Excel has many built-in statistical and mathematical functions. Other functions are located in the ‘Insert’ menu.

(ii) The computer works at a faster speed in less time as compared to the manual method. It can perform simple arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division in less time. It can also solve complex mathematical formulas. It has the ability to store data. This increases work efficiency.

(iii) Compared to manual methods, the use of computer has the following advantages- 

(a) It actually increases the speed of computation and data processing. 

(b) It can deal with huge amount of data which is not normally possible by hand. 

(c) It makes the data easily amenable to validation, checking and corrections. 

(d) Computer comparative analysis on maps

(iv) M.S. Excel is also called worksheet or spreadsheet. A spreadsheet is a rectangular page that stores information. Spreadsheets are located in workbooks or Excel files. An Excel procedure sheet contains 16,384 rows. Which are numbered from 1 to 16,384 and have 256 pillars. Which are represented by the letters A to Z, AA to AZ, BA to BZ, IA to 12 by default.

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FAQs

What is a computer?

Answer:
A computer is an electronic device. It consists of various sub-systems like memory, microprocessor, input system, and output system. All these sub-systems work together to make it an integrated system.

What are the main component parts of a computer?

Answer: Any computer has two components:
(a) Hardware: The hardware configurations comprise of the storage, display, and input and output sub-systems.
(b) Software: These are the programs that are made up of electronic codes according to which a computer works.

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