NCERT Psychology Chapter 2 Self and Personality class 12 notes easy pdf

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NCERT Psychology Chapter 2 Self and Personality class 12 notes

Class12th 
Chapter NameSelf and Personality
Chapter numberChapter 2
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPsychology
Medium English
Study MaterialsVery important question to answer
Download PDFself and personality class 12 pdf

Self and Personality


Self and personality refer to the specific ways in which we define our existence. They also indicate the ways in which our experiences are organized and expressed in practice. The personal self is an orientation in which the individual is the main feel to be concerned about himself in some way.

The social self is manifested in relation to others in which cooperation, Aspects of life such as unity, connection, sacrifice, support or participation are emphasized.

As individuals, we are always making judgments or assessments about our worth and our worth. This value judgment of a person about himself is called self-esteem. Personality has been studied through various approaches. most prominent of these approaches are typological, psychodynamic, behavioural, cultural and humanistic approaches.

The archetypal approach attempts to describe personality on the basis of certain archetypes, In which a bunch of adjectives are stressed. Personality by Allport, Cattell and Eysenck advocated the typical approach of A.D. which offers an integrated view of an individual.

Freud developed the psychodynamic approach and our internal personality has been discussed in the form of continuous conflicts between forces. according to freudUnconscious conflict is embedded in the process of psychosexual development which occurs in oral, anal, sexual, and hibernation.

Post-Freudian theorists have emphasized the interpersonal forces and contemporary circumstances of the individual’s life. Jung, Fomm, Adler, Harney and Erikson have emphasized the role of ego and social forces in personality.

The behaviourist approach views personality as a person’s response to the environment understands. Behaviourists internalize response as a structural unit of personality that is manifested for the satisfaction of a specific need.

The cultural approach seeks to understand personality as an adaptation of individuals to the prevailing economic systems and the resulting cultural characteristics of a group of people. makes an effort The humanistic approach emphasizes the subjective experiences of individuals and their choices.

Rogers has emphasized the relationship between the ‘real self’ and the ‘ideal self’. When there is a symmetry between these two types of self, the person is fully functional. Maslow discussed personality as the interaction of the needs that motivate people.

needs in a hierarchy from lower-order (survival) needs can be tailored up to higher-order (developmental) requirements. Personality assessment refers to the process by which people are analyzed and evaluated in terms of certain psychological characteristics. The main goal is to predict human behavior with a high degree of accuracy. 

An individual’s personality can be assessed using observer-report techniques and self-report. The reports of the press include interviews, observations, assessments, nominations and case studies.

Rosh Malikshya or ink preoccupation test and plot moment test are widely used P techniques of personality. Self-report measurement of personality using clearly structured tests

Let’s try to evaluate.

The main informant of the psychodynamic approach is Craid, who has presented a description of personality formation and working style on the basis of the tendencies and mental properties of the unconscious mind on the basis of analysis.

While expressing disagreement with some of the postulates of Freud, the importance of the cultural and social environment has been emphasized. Similarly, behaviourists and humanists have also presented the explanation of personality on the basis of their respective theoretical viewpoints.

Sankhya Yoga is one of the main ideas of Indian thought. According to this, the three qualities of nature, Sattva, Raja and Tamas, are found in different quantities in each person in the whole world and according to the predominance of a particular quality, the dominant quality of the personality is determined. A good personality has all these three qualities. There are three personality traits which are divided into A, B, and C personality types.


self and personality class 12 notes Questions answer


Q. 1. What is Atma? How is the Indian concept of self different from the Western concept? Is the type different?

Ans. Self—The self or ‘self’ is the combined representation of beliefs and experiences about the self. In terms of psychology, the common or ‘self’ is an emotional human condition based on existence and experience.

Therefore, Aram can be considered an organized cognitive structure based on the experiences of one’s own existential yoga. Self can be understood in both subjective and objective terms.

Difference between the Indian concept of self and the Western concept – The Indian concept of self includes the physical, social, mental and spiritual aspects of man.

Therefore, the analysis of self in the Indian cultural context clarifies several important aspects which are different from those found in the Western cultural context.

An important difference between Indian and Western concepts is the fact that the boundary line is set between the self and the other. In the Western concept, this boundary line appears to be relatively stable and firm.

On the other hand, in the Indian concept, the boundary line between self and other is said to be of variable nature rather than fixed. Thus at once, the self of the individual appears to merge with the entire universe, incorporating everything else into itself.

But at other times the self appears to be completely alienated from the other and focused on the individual self (for example, our personal needs and goals). The Western concept seems to make a clear dichotomy between self and other man and nature and between the subjective and the objective.

Indian concept makes no such clear dichotomy. In Western culture, the self and the group have been internalized as two distinct entities with clearly defined boundary lines.

An individual maintains his individuality even though he is a member of a group. In Indian culture the self is not separated from the individual’s own group, rather the two co-exist in harmonious coexistence. another side, In western culture, a distance remains between the two.

This is the reason why many Western cultures are characterized as individualistic and many Asian cultures as collectivist.

Q. 2. What is meant by the delay of gratification? Why is it considered important for adult development?

Ans. Delay of gratification is directly related to self-control. Many situations in life require resistance to situational pressures and self-control. This is made possible by what we commonly know as ‘willpower’.

As human beings, we can control our behavior in whatever way we want. We often delay or postpone the satisfaction of some of our needs. Learning the behaviour of delaying or postponing the gratification of needs is called self-control.

Self-control plays an important role in achieving long-term goals. Indian cultural traditions provide us with some effective ways to develop self-control (for example, fasting in Vrat or Roja and having a sense of non-attachment to worldly things).

Many psychological techniques have been suggested for self-control. Observation of one’s own behaviour is a technique by which necessary information is obtained to change, refine or strengthen various aspects of the self.

Self-instruction is another important technique. We often instruct ourselves to do something and behave in the desired way. Such instructions are effective in self-regulation. Self-reinforcement is a third technique.

Under this, such behaviours are rewarded whose consequences are pleasant. For example, if you have performed well in your exam, you can go to see a movie with your friends. These techniques are used by people and have been found to be extremely effective in terms of self-regulation and self-control.

Organization of psychophysical system ) —— The most important aspect of this definition is that personality is a system in which the organization of both mental and physical qualities or systems is found. Therefore, the importance of both mental and physical qualities has been emphasized in this definition.

Q. 3. How do you define personality? What are the major approaches to the study of personality?

Ans. In daily life, we ​​use the word ‘personality’ to refer to the physical or outward appearance of a person we meet in a particular situation. So when we meet someone and find him ‘attractive’ we say that person’s personality is attractive and impressive.

This type of general view of personality is based on external images and often proves to be misleading. It is a very interesting fact that the origin of the word persona is from the Roman word Persona, which means the props used by the actors in the theatre.

Due to the mask in that environment, the audience is different from the person playing a particular role. expect certain behaviours.

In psychology, personality refers to the distinctive and relatively stable characteristics of a person that express behavioural patterns in different situations and over a time interval or period of time. People often show consistency in behaviour, thoughts and feeling in different situations and on different occasions.

For example, an honest person remains honest over a long period of time and under different circumstances. Understanding the uniqueness and similarity within individuals and between different individuals is a major challenge for psychologists. It is generally seen that in the same situation, there is a correlation, sequence and consistency in the behaviour of different individuals.

The term ‘personality’ is used to express these aspects of an individual. We should understand the difference between other terms related to personality which are often used in its place or as synonyms. In psychological terms, personality refers to the specific ways in which individuals respond to situations.

In short, personality can be explained by the following characteristics-

1. It includes both physical and psychological components.

2. Its manifestation as behaviour in a particular individual is sufficiently exclusive occurs.

3. Its main characteristics generally do not change with time.

4. It is dynamic in the sense that some of its characteristics may change due to internal or external situational demands. Thus personality is adaptive to situations.

Q. 4. What is the trait approach to personality? How is it different from the type approach?

Ans. Trait approach — The trait approach emphasizes specific psychological characteristics on the basis of which individuals differ in consistent and stable ways.

The characteristic approach is very similar to the common experience of our daily lives. For example, when we know that a person is social, that person will not only be cooperative, friendly and helpful but will also tend to display other social factors.

Thus, the trait approach attempts to identify the primary characteristics of people. A trait is considered to be a relatively stable and enduring quality on which a person differs from others.

In summary, it can be said that –

(i) The features are relatively stable over the time dimension,

(ii) They are generally consistent in different situations.

(iii) their power and their combination is found to differ from person to person due to which individual differences are found in personality.

Differences between Trait Approach and Type Approach- Psychologists have differentiated between types and traits.(Shotgun) has differentiated between the approaches. Type approach (type approach) observed of the individual. Attempts to understand human personality by examining some broad consequences of behavioural characteristics.

Each behavioural outcome indicates one of the types of personality under which individuals are placed on the basis of the similarity of behavioural characteristics of that outcome. In contrast, the trait approach emphasizes specific psychological properties on the basis of which individuals differ in consistent and stable ways. Are.

Q. 5. How has Freud explained the structure of personality?

Ans. According to Freud’s theory, the primary structural elements of personality are three—the id, the ego, and the superego. These elements are in the form of energy in the unconscious and can be inferred from the ways people behave. It is to be remembered that Id, Aham and Paraham are concepts and not actual metrical structures.

(a) Id – It is the source of the basic instinctive energy of the person. its relation to the person results from the immediate gratification of primitive needs, libido and aggressive impulses. This works on the pleasure principle, which holds that people seek pleasure and avoid pain.

(b) Ego – It develops from the id and it satisfies the basic instinctive needs of the individual on the ground of reality. This structure of personality is governed by the reality principle.

(c) Paraham — Paraham should be known as the ethical branch of mental functions. Paraham tells the id and ego whether the satisfaction of a particular desire is moral or not on a particular occasion.

Q.6. How is Harney’s explanation of depression different from Alfred Adler’s?

Ans. Alfred Adler: Life Style and Social Interest In the theory known as Individual Psychology, Adler believed that behaviour is purposeful and goal-directed. His idea was that we are all free to choose and create. have the ability to.

Our goals are sources of inspiration. These goals which provide security and help overcome an inferiority complex are very important. They thought that every person suffers from an inferiority complex or experience of inadequacy, which originates in childhood.

Karen Haney: The Basis of Personality Karen Haney said that differences between women and men are mostly the result of social factors and not because of any innate inferiority inherent in women. According to this, a person of each gender has such qualities that are admired by a person of the other gender and none of these should be seen as a superior or inferior person.

Mental disorders are not due to the blockage of mental energy but due to the deterioration of relationships in childhood. When a parent’s behaviour toward the child is indifferent, abusive, and uncertain, the child feels insecure, a feeling that Harney calls basic anxiety.

Q.7. What is the main proposition of the humanistic approach to personality? self-confidentlyWhat did Maslow mean?

Ans. Humanistic theories developed primarily in response to Freud’s theory. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow have particularly contributed to the development of the humanistic perspective on personality. The most important idea proposed by Rogers is that of a fully functioning individual. functioning person). He believes that satisfaction is necessary for the development of personality. Motivating force. people to the best of their abilities, potentialities and talentsTry to express yourself in a way.

Such children become selfish and dependent. Similarly, if children always hear scolding from their parents, they develop frustration and aggressive tendencies.

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VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. State the advantages of each of the five major types of factors.

Years.

(i) Openness to experiences

(ii) Extroversion

(iii) Agreeableness

(iv) Nerve heat

(v) Intraconscientiousness.

Q.2. In what two forms can the Self be understood?

Ans. (a) subjective and (b) objective.

Q.3. What is meant by self-regulation?

Ans. Self-regulation refers to organizing our own behaviour. and the ability to supervise or monitor. People who have the ability to change their behaviour according to the demands of the external environment are high in self-monitoring.

Q. 4. On what basis has Sheldon proposed personality types?

Ans. On the basis of body shape and self-esteem, Sheldon classified endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic forms. proposed personality types.

Q.5. what is the self?

Ans. Concepts widely used in self-psychology and daily life are one of the We call the self a cognitive system based on and organized by the experiences of our existence. can be viewed as a structure.

Q. 6. What is called the initial knowledge of self to the children?

Ans. Children get their initial knowledge of self from their parents, friends, teachers and other important persons.

Q.7. There are so many aspects of the soul. 

Ans. There are two aspects of the Self—(i) the knower who sees or hears and (ii) the one who (seen or known.)

Q.8. What is self-pride?

Ans. Our concept of the importance of self is called self-pride.


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Briefly explain the concept of self and personality.

Ans. The study of self and personality is an attempt to assess human beings. Man acquires the concept of self and nurtures his personality during his interactions with important people. The self as a structure develops an organized collection of beliefs and perceptions or a mental picture about itself.

As a process, it is a dialogue between the knower ‘I’ of the self and the known ‘mine’. We all spend a lot of time thinking about our own selves. We are engrossed in the experiences, perceptions and real or imagined thoughts related to ourselves. self literally all humanity is the centre of actions.

Q.2. What is the psychodynamic approach?

Ans. Psychodynamics is one of the most popular approaches to personality. It throws light on the changes, development and inner conflicts in the life of a person.

This approach is based on the contributions of Sigmund Freud. Freud was a physician and developed this theory in the course of his medical work.

Freud is famous for his innovative use of free association dream analysis and error analysis to uncover the inner workings of the mind. This theory views the human mind as having different levels of consciousness. We are aware of the current thoughts found in consciousness.

After consciousness comes semi-conscious which is not available immediately but can be achieved by effort. After semi-conscious, there is an unconscious about which we do not have any knowledge. Repressed desires and impulses remain present in it. Freud believed that the unconscious is a repository of instinctive motivators.

At the same time, it also stores those thoughts and desires which are invisible to conscious experience because of this mental conflicts arise. We are constantly engaged in finding appropriate and valid ways to express these unconscious impulses or in trying to prevent these impulses from being expressed.

Therefore, forgetfulness, wrong pronunciation, laughter, dreams etc. provide a way to reach the unconscious. The purpose of psychoanalytic theory is to bring repressed unconscious material into the conscious and thereby help us to live our lives in a more alert and organized way.

Q. 3. What do you understand by the mesomorphic type of personality?

Ans. Mesomorphy —— The bones of the body of this type of personality are strong and the muscles are quite muscular. Their physical constitution is curvy. Such people show a lot of courage in doing the work of risk and bravery. They also have the qualities of aggressiveness and assertiveness. His mental nature has been called somatotonic.

Q. 4. What do you understand by an endomorphic type of personality?

Ans. Endomorphy – This type of personality is similar to the picnic type described by Kreshmer. This type of personality is of thick and short stature. There is more fat in their stomach. Their physical formation looks circular. Such persons are comfortable, happy, and social and show more interest in food and drink due to self-esteem or temperament. Such people are brave in sleeping. This type of mental state is called viscerotonic.

Q.5. What do you understand by the ectomorphic type of personality?

Ans. Ectomorphy – the physical constitution of such a person is unique. It happens. They are of tall and lean stature. The development of the muscles of their body is not complete. Such people tend to be more shy, and hesitant, away from social interactions than self-consciousness or mental nature. Such persons are very sensitive and have complaints of sleeplessness. The mental nature of such a person is called cerebrotonia.

Q. 6. Give the meaning of personality.

Ans. Personality was defined by some on the basis of outward appearance and dress. But it was immediately declared as an unscientific approach. There is general agreement among modern psychologists that personality is a dynamic organization of psycho-physical systems within the individual.

Which helps the person to make unique adjustments in the environment. By the psycho-physiological system, it is meant that the personality includes both the mental or psychological side and the physical side. The personality traits, psychological side and glandular processes are examples of the physical side.

Personality is said to be a dynamic organization of both these types of systems because it also changes according to the situation and time. Perhaps this is the reason why a person is more honest and punctual in a certain situation, while in another situation the same person shows dishonesty and carelessness.

Q. 7. What do you understand by personality traits?

Ans. A character is a fundamental unit of personality. Personality trait refers to the tendency due to which it behaves almost uniformly in different situations. In other words, virtue refers to the tendency due to which a person behaves consistently in different situations.

For example, if a person shows the tendency of honesty in different circumstances, then it will be said that he has the virtue of honesty. Similarly, if a person has a tendency to show dominance over others in most of the circumstances then it would be said that he has dominance or dominance trait.

Q.8. Differentiate between introverted personality and extroverted personality.

Ans. Jung has given two types of personality-introvert and extrovert.(extroverted). An introverted personality is said to be such a personality in which the person’s self-esteem becomes reclusive and is of shy self-esteem. He runs away from social work and social irresponsibility is found in him.

People are of conservative nature and follow old customs or rules. Such a person is a successful poet, philosopher and writer. The quality of sociability is found more in a person with an extroverted personality.

Their interest is especially towards social work. They are usually happy. And they like meeting people more.


LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. What is personality? Describe the main personality traits. Or, give the definition of personality. Describe the virtues of personality.

Ans. The English version of personality is ‘personality’ which is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’. ‘Persona’ means the mask which is put on the face by the hero or heroine while performing the drama.

Keeping this literal meaning in mind, personality was defined on the basis of outward dress or appearance. People whose external dress or appearance is good, in their personality is also considered good. But, immediately declare it as an unscientific definition.

given. Later many definitions of personality came to the fore.

Some psychologists have called personality Some called it the sum of physical qualities and some said it was the sum of mental qualities. But, all these definitions could not become very popular because they lacked scientificity and objectivity. Later on, Mr W. Allport (G. W. Allport) gave a definition of personality that, while being quite comprehensive, was acceptable to most psychologists. The definition given to him is as follows – “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho-physiological systems that determine his unique adjustment to the environment.”

If we analyze this generally accepted definition, then the following three things come to the fore-

(i) Organization of psychophysical system – The most important aspect of this definition is that personality is a system in which the organization of both mental and physical properties or systems is found. Therefore, the importance of both mental and physical qualities has been emphasized in this definition.

(ii) Dynamic organization: The organization of qualities is dynamic rather than static. In other words, there are changes in the organization of physical and mental qualities of personality according to time and situation. This is the reason why a person attains a position. Before doing is punctual and honest. But, within a few months after coming to the post, the qualities of dishonesty, bigotry etc. develop in him.

(iii) Unique adjustment to environment This definition also highlights the importance of successful adjustment to the environment. Everyone behaves for successful adjustment to the environment, but they all behave differently or uniquely for successful adjustment.

Q, 2. Discuss some of the major biological determinants of personality.

Ans. Biological determinants refer to those factors, which are genetic. such factors are determined not by the environment, but by heredity. Their effect is indirectly read on personality development. They are of the following types-

(i) Body composition – Body composition means body build, length, frame, attractiveness etc. All these physical qualities are hereditary. Human children are humans, animal children and bird children are birds, regardless of the environment. Children of tall parents are often tall and children of short parents are short. Children of white parents are often white and children of black parents are often black.

(ii) Intelligence Intelligence is a biological factor, which indirectly affects personality development. falls from Children of intelligent parents are usually intelligent and children of dull parents are of dull intelligence. Sometimes it also happens that children inherit intellectual abilities from the ancestors of their parents. Due to this, their intelligence becomes less or more than the intelligence of their parents, this is confirmed by studies done on twins.

Q. 3. What do you understand by personality traits? Differentiate between introverted personality and extroverted personality.

Ans. A trait is a fundamental unit of personality. Personality trait refers to a tendency due to which a person behaves consistently or in a similar manner in different situations. For example, if a person does any work honestly in different circumstances, then it can be said that the person has the virtue of honesty. Thus, it is known from character traits that a person behaves in a consistent and admirable manner towards various stimuli present in the environment.

According to Allport, some of the main characteristics of virtue are as follows-

(i) Virtues are not imaginary but real and are found within the individual.

(ii) Morality directs the behaviour of a person.

(iii) Virtue cannot be seen, but its existence can be tested or measured.

(iv) Within the same person, there are many virtues that are not completely separate from each other, rather they overlap. For example, aggression and hostility are two different qualities, but they are all very related and mutual.

(v) The virtues are not stable. Rather, they vary with the situation.

Difference between introvert and extrovert personality: Jung has given two types of personality – introvert and extrovert. Individuals with introverted personalities are reclusive, shy, away from social activities, contemplative, and open to criticism. Very sensitive etc. are possessed of qualities. Such a person is a successful poet, philosopher etc. People with extroverted personalities are social, funny, carefree, aggressive, enthusiastic and risk-takers. Such a person is a successful leader,

Q. 4. Describe the socio-cultural determinants of personality.

Ans. Social environment or social determinants – Every person is born in some or the other society.

To be honest, a child is neither social nor antisocial at the time of birth. He lives in the society from birth to death and tries to learn or behave according to the rules, ideals, traditions and norms of the society.

In this way, these social rules, ideals, traditions and norms affect the development of personality. Here we will describe some such social factors which directly affect the development of personality-

(i) Family Family is like a small society for an individual. Children get a sense of society by staying in the family. They learn the family’s ways, of living, ideals etc. in the family itself. Perhaps this is the reason why the family is called the first school. The influence of such a teacher has a lot on personality development. The following three types of relationships in the family have more impact on personality development-

(a) Relationship between parents: The relationship between parents has a direct impact on the personality development of children. If the relationship between the parents is sweet, then it has a very favourable effect on the personality development of the children. Due to this children also become responsible, peace-loving, obedient and disciplined. On the other hand, when the relationship between the parents is bitter and they keep fighting with each other, then its effect is adverse on the children. They learn to behave discordantly. They become quarrelsome and aggressive in nature. The tendency of juvenile delinquency becomes intense in such children.

(b) Relationship between children and parents – If proper love, affection and recognition are given to the parents, then the personality formation and development of the children also takes place in a proper manner. Good social virtues develop in their personality. Some parents give excessive protection and love to their children, such children become self-centered and dependent. Similarly, if children always hear scolding from their parents, they develop frustration and aggressive tendencies.

(c) Sibling relationship of children — How is the relationship between children in the family, it also affects their personality development. If the relationship between brother-sister, sister-sister, and brother-brother is sweet and they show cooperation with each other, then the virtues of sociability, cooperation and altruism etc. develop in them. On the other hand, if children keep fighting with each other, then its effect is not good on personality development. Is. After fighting and quarreling, there is estrangement between them and they are pro of each other. They start getting jealous of each other. They become quarrelsome and aggressive.

(ii) Birth order and only child (Adler) has told on the basis of his study that the birth order of children also affects their personality.

depends on development. According to their studies, the firstborn child, that is, the eldest child, becomes possessive, self-centred and jealous in nature because of more love and affection. The feeling of inferiority is more developed in the last-born child i.e. the youngest child. He considers himself to be weak and dependent on others.

As a result, their personality does not develop properly. Middle-born children, ie floor children, have more sense of competition and competitors. Such children are of progressive and experimentalist thoughts. They develop a popular personality (readers should not forget that Adler himself was of middle age). The only child is given more pampering, protection, facilities etc. There is none.

Such children become authoritarian and have dependent self-esteem. They become excessively fond, stubborn and narrow-minded. Eventually, they become a problem child of the family. As a result, the personality of the children does not develop properly.

(iii) Neighborhood The people of the neighbourhood also have an impact on personality development. If the people of the neighbourhood are gentle, soft-spoken, cooperative and benevolent, then such virtues also develop in the children. On the other hand, if the people in the neighbourhood are dishonest, pranksters, gamblers, revellers, etc., then children also learn such behaviours. Such attitudes develop in them too and in this way, they become anti-social personalities.

(iv) School School also has an impact on personality development. school administration, The personality and attitude of teachers and the behavior of classmates have a direct impact on personality development.

Q.5. What are the main observational methods of personality assessment?

Ans. Knowing and understanding people and describing them is such a task in which everyone takes an interest. You will agree that in order to interact meaningfully with people, we need to understand them and predict what they will do. We use past experiences, observations, conversations and hearsay from others in our personal lives, however, these are influenced by prejudices, stereotypes, moods, needs and personal attitudes.

The formal analysis and measurement of personality is called personality assessment. The process of assessing and discriminating people on the basis of certain characteristics is called assessment. The goal of evaluation is to forecast with minimum error and maximum precision.

This is done for a variety of purposes. It is used in the study of variation in people, the relationship between variables, the study of developmental changes, diagnosis, establishment and counselling etc. Psychologists have measured personality in many ways.

These methods are observer reporting, projective techniques and Self-report measures. It should be noted that these approaches to assessment throw light on many aspects of personality as they are based on different theoretical positions. We should try to get information about them.

Observer Report – Observation of behaviour is helpful in determining personality in different types of environments. Interviews, observation, rating and nomination are some of the popular techniques which use observational data for personality assessment. Let us read about them in some detail.

Interviews and observation are often used to know the personality of a person. We all often interact with each other and observe the behavior of the person. As you have read in your Class XI textbook, interviews can be structured and unstructured. You must have seen your people giving interviews for jobs, school admissions or solving problems.


FAQs


Q.What is meant by identity?

Ans. Identity refers to seeing oneself as different based on one’s affiliation or disassociation with other people or other things.

Q. What is self-efficiency?

Ans. Self-efficacy is a related aspect of self-concept. It is a self-evaluation related to a person’s ability to produce a desired effect through his or her actions.

Q. Explain the knower and aspects of the Self with an example.

Ans. ‘I was thinking of myself’ is the knower side of the self while ‘I was seeing myself’ is the known side of the self.


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