Sample paper of history class 12 cbse 2023-24with PDF Download

WhatsApp Group (Join Now) Join Now
Telegram Group (Join Now) Join Now

sample paper of history class 12 cbse 2023-24, CBSE 12th Class History sample paper Solved with PDF Download, CBSE 12th Class History sample paper Solved

sample paper of history class 12 cbse 2023-24

Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper

Section A consists of 21 questions of 1 mark each

sample paper of history class 12 cbse 2023-24with PDF Download

1. Which of the following regions was called ‘Magan’ during the Harappan period?

(a) Meluhha

(b) Bahrain

(c) Oman

(d) Dilmun

2. Fill in the blanks.

During the 4th century BCE, the capital city of Magadha was shifted to


(a) Vaishali

(b) Lumbini

(c) Pataliputra

(d) Shravasti

3. Consider the following statements regarding the forms of marriage and choose the correct option.

I. Endogamy is the form of marriage within the same family unit living in the same locality.

II. Exogamy is the form of marriage outside the family unit.

III. Polyandry is the practice in which one man has several wives.

IV. Polygamy is the practice in which one women has several husbands.


(a) Only (i) is correct

(b) Only (i) and (ii) are correct

(c) Only (ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) Only (iii) and (iv) are correct

4. Terracotta Models of the plough ore found in and at 

(a) Banawali, Cholistan 

(b) Ropar, Cholistan

(c) Lothal, Chanhudaro

(d) Harappa, Ropar

5. Match the following.

List IList II
A. 1500-1000 BCE1. Early Vedic traditions
B. 1000-500 BCE2. Later Vedic traditions
C. 3rd century BCE3. First stupas
D. 6th century BCE4. Early Upanishads


(a) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4

(c) A-4, B-2, C-3, D-1

(b) A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1

(d) A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3

6. Identify the name of the person from the information given below.

• He was closely associated with the Mughal Court.

He was a Physician to Prince Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Emperor Shahjahan.

(a) Ibn Battuta

(c) Al-Biruni

(b) Francois Bernier

(d) Jean Baptiste Tavernier

7. The Non-Cooperation Movement was called off by Mahatma Gandhi after the incident of 

(a) Jallianwala Bagh

(c) Kakori Conspiracy

(b) Chauri-Chaura

(d) Lahore Conspiracy

8. Who among the following held the belief that the deliberations of Constituent Assembly were under clear influence of British imperialism? 

(a) BR Ambedkar

(c) NG Ranga

(b) KM Munshi

(d) Somnath Lahiri

9. Identify the Hindu God, that Vijayanagara kings claimed that they ruled on behalf of

(a) Lord Shiva

(b) Shri Virupaksha

(c) Shri Vitthala

(d) Shri Balaji

10. Which of the following statements is correct regarding Virashaiva? 

(a) It means ‘Heroes of Shiva’.

(b) They question the theory of birth.

(c) They question casticism and it’s pollution. 

(d) They believed in theory of death.

11. The Non-Cooperation onnementent Thincided by which ongoing event by Gandhiji?

(a) Civil Disobedience

(b) Dandi March

(c) Champaran Movement

(d) Khilafat Movement

12. Choose the incorrect option from the following statements with reference to the Vijayanagara Empire. 

(a) The Vijayanagara Empire was established in 1336 AD, on the Southern Bank of Krishna riven

(b) The Capital of the Vijayanagara Empire was Hampi.

(c) The founder of Vijayanagara Empire was Harihara and Bukka.

(d) Krishnadevaraya was regarded as the most prominent rulers of the Vijayanagara Empire

13. What was the reason for resignation of Congress Ministries in October 1935? 

(a) Failure of Cripps Mission.

(b) Appeasement policy of British towards Muslim league.

(c) Participation of India in World War II without the concurrence of the people. 

(d) Undue interference of Governors in day to day administration of province.

14. Read the following statements carefully and identify the stupa with the help of the given information. 

I. It is one of the oldest stone structures located in Madhya Pradesh.

II. It was originally commissioned by Emperor Ashoka.

(a) Sanchi Stupa

(c) Shanti Stupa

(b) Dhamek Stupa

(d) Kesaria Stupa

15. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R).

Assertion (A) The Sanchi Stupa is a monument made during ancient period and is still intact Reason (R) Shahjahan Begum and Sultan Jahan Begum provided money for it preservation.


(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correc explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

16. Identify the following image of a Buddhist deity and write its name.

(a) Padmapani

(b) Marichi

(c) Virupaksha

(d) Vajrapani

17. Vijayanagara Empire is remembered by which name in stories? 

(a) Krishna- Tungabhadra doab

(b) City of Victory

(c) Pampa Devi

(d) Hampi

18. According to Mackenzie, what was the use of Lotus Mahal? 

(a) It was a ritual place

(b) Royal queens residence

(c) Place where king met his advisors

(d) None of the above

19. Identify the name of the person from the information given below.

I. He was the most influential and revered of all the leaders who participated in the freedom struggle.

II. He had been invited on account of his work in South Africa rather than his status within India.

III. At the Second Round Table Conference, he opposed the demand for separate electorates for lower castes.

IV. He first forged the distinctive techniques of nonviolent protests known as Satyagraha

(a) Mahatma Gandhi

(b) Bipin Chandra Pal

(c) Pherozeshah Mehta

(d) BR Ambedkar

20. Why did Muslim league decided to Boycott the Constituent Assembly?

Choose the correct option from the following.

(a) They demand for Pakistan with a common Constitution.

(b) They demand for Pakistan with a separate Constitution.

(c) They saw emergence of new political representatives.

(d) They showed great Hindu-Muslim unity.

21. The Santhal rebellion occurred

(a) during 1855-56 in Rajmahal hills of Bengal province.

(b) during 1831-32 in Maikal hills of Central province.

(c) during 1865-70 in Western Ghats of Bombay province.

(d) None of the above

Section B consists of 6 questions of 3 marks

22. Citadel has well marked features that separate it from the other section of the Harappan Civilisation. Give a brief description of Citadel in the context of this observation. 

23. Explain how the zamindars and merchants were badly affected due to the British rule in India, according to the Azamgarh Proclamation of 25th August, 1857. 

24. What were the provisions of fiscal federalism agreed by the members of the Constitutional Assembly? 

25. What were the influences of Buddhism on Indian society? 


What was the role played by the land and riverine routes along with other communication during the Mauryan period? 

26. Mention the reasons as to why Magadha was the most powerful Mahajanapada in the 6th Century?

27. Briefly describe the Jajmani system.

Write a note on the contribution of Shahjahan Begum and her contribution towards Sanchi Stupa. 


Describe the different sources from which we can reconstruct the political career of Gandhiji and the history of the National Movement.

Section C consists of 3 questions of 8 marks each

28. How did Sutta Pitaka reconstruct the philosophy of Buddhism? Mention about Buddhist Tripitaka.


Write down the significance of Stupa in Buddhisn and critically examine why Sanchi Stupa survived while Amaravati did not.

29. How the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi changed the way of Indian politics?

30. Write in detail about the evidence given by Ibn Battuta in support of his statement that Delhi was a city full of exciting opportunities.


Describe the importance of Ibn Battuta’s account for understanding life in contemporary urban centres.

Section D consists of 3 Source based question

31. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.


In the late fifteenth century. Shankaradeva emerged as one of the leading proponents of Vaishnavism in Assam. His teachings, often known as the Bhagavati Dharma because they were based on the Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata Purana, focused on absolute surrender to the supreme deity, in this case of Vishnu.

He emphasised the need for naam kirtan, recitation of the names of the lord in sat sanga or congregations of pious devotees. He also encouraged the establishment of satra or monasteries for the transmission of spiritual knowledge and naam ghar or prayer halls. Many of these institutions and practices continue to flourish in the region. His major compositions include the Kirtana-ghosha.

(i) Who was Shankara Deva?

(ii) Why were his teachings referred as Bhagavati Dharma? Mention his one composition.

(iii) Why did he encourage the establishment of Satra and Naam Ghar? 

32. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Life in a Small Village

The Harshacharita is a biography of Harshavardhana, the ruler of Kannauj, composed in Sanskrit by his court poet, Banabhatta (C seventh century CE). 

This is an excerpt from the text, an extremely rare representation of life in a settlement on the outskirts of a forest in the Vindhyas. The outskirts being for the most part of forest, many parcels of rice-land, threshing ground and arable land were being apportioned by small farmers.

It was mainly spade culture owing to the difficulty of ploughing the sparsely scattered fields covered with grass, with their few clear spaces, their black soil stiff as black iron.

There were people moving along with bundles of bark countless sacks of plucked flowers, loads of flax and hemp bundles, quantities of honey, peacocks’ tail feathers, wreaths of wax, logs and grass. Village wives hastened on route for neighbouring villages, all intent on thoughts of sale and bearing on their heads baskets filled with various gathered forest fruit.

(i) Who was the author of Harshacharita?

(ii) Describe the outskirts of a forest in the Vindhyas.

(iii) Describe the activities of the people of that area. Mention two main activities of the farmers of that time.

33. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.

“We want removal of Disabilities” our Social

Dakshayani Velayudhan from Madras, argued what we want is not all kind of safeguards. It is the moral safeguard which gives protection to the underdogs of this country. I refer to believe that seventy million Harijans are to be considered as a minority. What we want is the immediates removal of our social disabilities.

(i) Why Scheduled Caste of the country were referred as ‘Underdog’? 

(ii) What are social disabilities suffered by the Harijan of the country?

(iii) How can be the moral safeguard be more effective than constitutional safeguard in protection of underdogs of the country? 

Section E consists of Map based question of 5 marks

34. A. Locate and label the following.


(i) Mahajanapada Ujjaini

(ii) Kuru

(iii) MysoreAnswers

(iv) Chanhudaro

B. On the given political outline map of India, two major Buddhist sites have been marked as 1 and 2 respectively. Identify and write their name.


1. (c) Oman

2. (c) Patliputra

3. (b) Only (1) and (ii) are correct Cholistan

4. (a) Banawali,

5. (a) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4

6. (b) Francois Bernier

7. (b) Chauri-Chaura

8. (d) Somnath Lahiri

9. (b) Shri Virupaksha

10. (a) It means ‘Heroes of Shiva’

11. (d) Khilafat Movement

12. (a) The Vijayanagara Empire was established in 1336 AD, on the Southern Bank of Krishna river.

13. (c) Participation of India in World War II without the concurrence of the people.

14. (a) Sanchi Stupa

15. (a) Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanation of A

16. (b) Marichi

17. (b) City of Victory

18. (c) Place where king met his advisors.

19. (a) Mahatma Gandhi

20. (b) They demand for Pakistan with a separate Constitution.

21. (a) during 1855-56 in Rajmahal hills of Bengal province.

22. The settlement of the Harappan Civilisation is divided into two sections, one smaller but higher and the other much larger but lower. These two sections are referred to as the Citadel and the Lower Town respectively. The Citadel was high because buildings were constructed on mud brick platforms. It was separated from the Lower Town by a wall. But, there were also variations in this arrangement in the Harappan settlements.

For example, at sites such as Dholavira and Lothal (Gujarat), the entire settlement was fortified and sections within the town were also separated by walls. The Citadel within Lothal was not walled off, but was built at a height.

The evidence of structures like warehouse and Great Bath are also found in the Citadel. These were probably used for special public purposes on special occasions.

23. The Azamgarh proclamation is one of the main source to know about the issues raised by the rebels during the Revolt of 1857. The proclamation raised the issue of the severe British rule and its drastic effect on the various aspects of the society.

According to the proclamation, the adoption of Accordians (revenue demand) and had disgraced and ruiner several zamindars.

Their estates were put for public auction for arrears & rent. Besides this, the zamindars were annually ta of subscription for schools, roads, hospitals, etc.

On the other hand, the merchants of India also suffered alot due to the monopoly of British in all fine and saluable merchandise such as indigodeth and other articles of shipping, leaving only the trade of little value to the merchants.

The profits of Indian traders were taxed with postages tolls and subscriptions for schools, etc. The merchants were also liable to imprisonment and disgraced at the instance or complaint of worthless men.

24. The members of Constitutional Assembly agresd to the complex system of fiscal federalism in which centre was provided with more power to lew collect and appropriate taxes in comparison to the state.

The provisions of fiscal federalism were In case of some taxes such as custom duties and company taxes, all the proceeds were retained by the centre.

In the case of other taxes such as income tax and excise, the proceeds were shared by both the centre and the states

Income from some other taxes such as estate duties was wholly assigned to the state.

Some taxes such as land and property taxes, sales tax and tax on bottled liquor could be levied and collected by the states on their own.

The important influences of Buddhism on Indian society were

25. Caste system began to decline. People came closer to each other. The morale of the people raised. People began to adopt the principle of non-violence.As a result, peace established in the society. Buddhism played a significant role in the state-policy decision making.

• Influenced by Buddhism, Asoka gave up war and devoted his life for the public welfare.


During the Mauryan period, communication along both land and riverine routes was vital for the existence of the empire because

• The Mauryan empire was a very vast empire. Thus for political control, military activity and people’s movement, both land and riverine routes were required.

Communication through both roadways and waterways was necessary for trade and commerce and also for the exchange of ideas and knowledge. etc.

26. Between the sixth and the fourth centuries BCE Magadha (in present-day Bihar) became the most powerful Mahajanapada due to various reasons Magadha was a region where agriculture was especially productive. 

Besides, sirona mines (in present-day Jharkhand) were accessible and provided resources for tools and weapons Elephants, an important component of the army, were found in forests in the region. Also, the Ganga and its tributaries provided a means of cheap and convenient communicationd

27. Jajmani was a system where artisans and individual peasant households entered into a mutually negotiated system of remuneration, most of the time goods for services. For example, eighteenth century records suggested that zamindars in Bengal paid blacksmiths, carpenters, goldsmiths for their work by paying them a small daily allowance and diet money. The term jajmani was not popular during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.


The rulers of Bhopal, Shahjehan Begum and her successor Sultan Jehan Begum, provided money for the preservation of the ancient site of Sanchi, John Marshall dedicated his important volumes on Sanchi to Sultan Jehan. She funded the museum that was built there as well as the guesthouse where he lived and wrote the volumes. She also funded the publication of the volumes

28. After the death of Buddha, his teachings were compiled by his disciples and were known as Tripitaka. Sutta Pitaka was one of the Tripitaka.

The main features of Sutta Pitaka are

• Buddha’s teachings have been reconstructed from stories found mainly in the Sutta Pitaka. Some stories describe his miraculous powers and other stories suggest that the Buddha tried to convince people through reason and persuasion, rather than through displays of supernatural power. Sometimes through stories, the teachings of the Buddha were narrated in the individual effort was expected to transform social relations.

• Buddha emphasised individual agency and righteous action as the means to escape from the cycle of rebirth and attain self-realisation and nibbana. By extinguishing ego and desire, individual could end the cycle of his sufferings and renounce the world.

Tripitaka literally means three baskets to hold different types of texts. The main features of it are • The Vinaya Pitaka included rules and regulations for those who joined the sangha or monastic order.

• The Sutta Pitaka included the teachings of the Buddha.

The Abhidhamma Pitaka dealt with philosophical matters. Each Pitaka comprised a number of texts.

According to Buddhist philosophy, the world is transient (anicca) and constantly changing. The world is soulless (anatta), as there is nothing permanent or eternal in it.

Within this transient world, sorrow (dukkha) is intrinsic to human existence. It is by following the path of moderation between severe penance and self-indulgence, the human beings can rise above these worldly troubles.

Buddha regarded the social world as the creation of humans rather than of divine origin. Therefore, he advised kings and gahapatis to be humane and ethical

Value Points

For getting maximum marks, following value points can be included in the answer

Message of Buddha through Sutta Pitaka Meaning of Tripitaka and types of Pitakas.


Stupa were those Buddhist monuments were relics of Buddha such as his bodily remains or object related to him are kept. The Stupas were worshipped as an emblem of both the Buddha and Buddhism. By the 2nd century BCE, a number of Stupas like Bharhut, Sanchi and Sarnath has been built.

The Stupa at Amaravati was one of the largest and most significant among the Buddhist Stupas. The Stupa at Sanchi survived while Amaravati did not. The reasons are

In 1796, a local raja utilised the stones embedded in ruins of Amaravati stupa for construction of a temple. Similarly the reports of Colin Mackenzie who visited the site and discovered several pieces of sculpture were not published.

• The slabs of Amaravati stupa were taken to different place like Asiatic society of Bengal, India office at Madras, even to London

• Many British officials posted in that area continued to remove the sculptures from the site on grounds They were utilised in decoration of homes and garden.

Amaravati was also discovered before scholars understood the value to the finds and significance of preserving the archaeological remains of the site where they were originally found.

In case of Sanchi stupa, which was discovered in the year 1818, the three of its four gateways were still standing, the fourth was lying on the spot and the mound was in good condition

But utter negligence of British authorities and locals led to Amaravati becoming an insignificant little mound and it was totally denuded from its former glory.

Lastly, the rulers of Bhopal, Shahjehan Begum and her successor Sultan Jehan Begum, provided money for the preservation of the ancient site. Today it stands testimony to the successful restoration and preservation of a key archaeological site by the Archaeological Survey of India.

29. The arrival of Mahatma Gandhi broadened the base of Indian National Movement in the following ways

(1) Mahatma Gandhi converted the National Movement into a Mass Movement Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the National Movement did not merely remain a movement of the intellectuals and the professionals. Thousands of farmers, labourers and artisans started participating in it. Hence, soon it became a mass movement

(ii) Gandhiji Popularised the Simple Way of Living Gandhiji lived a simple life which was liked by the common people. He wore clothes like a poor farmer or a worker. His way of living was also like a common man. He believed in simplicity. All these Inspired the common people.

(iii) Use of ‘Charkha’ to break Social Customs The charkha symbolised the importance of manual labours and also self-reliance. Gandhiji himself worked on the spinning wheel. He also inspired others to operate the spinning wheel The job of spinning cotton helped Gandhiji to break the wall of distinction between mental and physical labour prevalent in the traditional caste system.

(iv) Rumours about Miracles of Gandhiji The rumours that spread about the miracles of Gandhiji made him very popular. He had become a household name due to which most of the people jumped in the struggle for freedom and wholeheartedly participated in the National Movement for freedom.

(v) Participation of Women Inspired by Gandhiji’s call, women began to participate in the National Movement. In urban areas, they came from high caste families and in rural areas, they came from rich peasant households. In this way, Gandhiji changed the way of Indian Politics.


A large number of sources are available which helps us to reconstruct the political career of Gandhiji and the history of National Movement.

Public Voice and Private Scripts The first important source is the writing and speeches of Mahatma Gandhi and his contemporaries including his associates and political adversaries.

Speeches make us understand the public voice of an individual whereas private letter give a glimpse of his or her private thoughts. Mahatma Gandhi used to publish the letters written to him in his journal, ‘Harijan’. Nehru also edited letters written to him during the national movement and published ‘A Bunch of Old Letters.

Autobiperson. They are often rich in human detal carefully It give us an account puthandel relat autobiographies are to be read and interpreted retrospective accounts witte biographien trom as they are Mahatma Gandhilight on his verous Experiment with Truth throw light on his various face about his personalilty. Similarly other freedom fighters abtoblography also helps in reconstruction of the history of National Movement.

Government Records It compared to the public voice and private scripts and autobiography, the government records presents a vivid picture about Gandhijl and history of National Movement.

 It comprised of letters and reports written by policemen and other officials whe viewed it from the different perspective For example, in fortnightly reports prepared by Home Department, the Salt March was seen as a drama, desperate effort of Gandhiji to mobilise unwilling people against the British Raj, who were happy under the British rule. 

These sources suffer from baldness and prejudice against Gandhiji and National Movement. Newspaper. The newspaper, published in English at well as in different Indian languages, tracked Mahatma Gandhi’s movements and reported on his activities also gives an account of people’s reaction. 

Similar to the government accounts, they may also suffer from biasness and prejudices, as they were published by people who had their own political opinions and world views. For example, the newspaper report from London gave different account of the same event when compared it with an Indian nationalist paper.


Ibn Battuta found cities in the sub-continent full of exciting opportunities for those who had the necessary resources and skills. Some of the evidences given by him for this were

Cities were densely populated and prosperous except for the occasional disruptions caused by wars and Invasions.

• It appears from Ibn Battuta’s account that most cities had crowded streets and bright and colourful markets that were arranged with a wide variety of goods.

Ibn Battuta described Delhi as a vast city, with a great population, the largest in India.

Ibn Battuta’s account gives a detailed description about Delhi, He describes that the city of Delhi covers a wide area and has a large population. The defensive wall around the city was very unique. The breadth of the wall was eleven cubits and inside it there were houses for the night sentry (watchman) and gatekeepers. Inside the defensive wall, there were storehouses for storing edibles, magazines ammunition, ballistas and siege machines. The grains stored could last for a long time without rotting.

In the interior of the defensive wall, horsemen and infantrymen moved from one end of the city to another The wall had windows from which light entered inside • The lower part of the wall was built with stone and the upper part of bricks. It had many towers close to one another.

There were twenty eight gates for the city of Delhi which were called darwaza, and the Budaun darwaza was the greatest side the Mandwi darwaza waza was a grain market and adiacent to the Gul darwaza there was an orchard

The city of Delhi also had a fine cemetery in which graves had domes over them and those that did not have a dome, had an arch.


Ibn Battuta’s account is useful for understanding life in contemporary urban centres. He has described about Indian urban centres in a positive way which was as

follows He found cities in the sub-continent full of exciting opportunities for those who have necessary drive, resources and skills

The cities were densely populated and prosperous, except for the occasional disruptions caused by wars and invasions. Most cities were crowded and had bright colourful markets that were arranged with a wide range of goods.

• He described Delhi as a big city, with a great population, the largest in India. He also described that Daulatabad was also equally big as Delhi,

• It appears from Ibn Battuta’s account that most cities had crowded streets and bright and colourful markets that were arranged with a wide variety of goods.

He stated that bazaars in urban centres were not just places of economic transactions but also hubs of social and cultural activities. Most bazaars had a mosque and a temple and some of them also had specific places marked for public performances by dancers, musicians and singers. Ibn Battuta suggested that towns derived a significant portion of their wealth through the appropriation of surplus from villages.

• He described the Indian postal system as of two kinds. The horse-post was called uluq, which was run by royal horses stationed at a distance of every four miles and the other was foot-post which had three stations per mile and was called dawa

• Ibn Battuta found Indian agriculture very productive

because of the fertility of the soil. This fertility allowed farmers to cultivate two crops a year, He described that the subcontinent was well connected and integrated with inter-Asian networks of trade and commerce

Shankaradeva was one of the leading proponents of Vaishnavism in Assam during the late 15th century.


(1)His teachings were referred as Bhagavati Dharma because they were based on Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata Purana which focused on absolute surrender to the supreme deity. His major compositions include the Kirtana-ghosa.

(i) He encouraged the establishment of Satra 

(a) To emphasise the need of Naam kirtan.

(b) For the transmission of spiritual knowledge.

32. (1) Banabhatta was the author of Harshacharita

(ii) The outskirts of a forest consisted of sparsely scattered fields covered with grass and few clear spaces of stiff black soil as black iron. It also consisted of threshing grounds and arable lands.

(iii) People used to collect bundles of bark, countless sacks of plucked flowers, loads of flax and hemp bundles, quantities of honey, peacock’s tail feathers, wax, logs, grass, etc.

Two activities of farmers of that time were

(a) Farming

(b) Animal rearing

33. (1) Scheduled caste suffers from number of social disabilities in India. They were perceived as weak, mentally inferior and incapabable and untrustworthy by many people. That’s why they are referred as underdog of the country.

(ii) The social disabilities suffered by the Harijan of the country are

(a) Untouchability

(b) Inaccessibility to the religious places

(c) Caste based violence

(d) Marginalisation of the community

(iii) With moral safeguard we understand the inculcation of values of equality, fraternity and liberty in the conscience of the masses.

These are more effective than constitutional safeguard as the latter is enforced through state machinery, while for the moral safeguards only people commitment for those values is needed.

WhatsApp Image 2024 01 14 at 11.43.28 b6d7b3b7

Leave a Comment