Sample Paper of History Class 12 cbse 2023-24 solved with PDF Download

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In this article, we cover a sample paper of history class 12 cbse 2023-24, Cbse History sample paper class 12 with a solution PDF Download and important questions of the class 12 board.

Sample Paper of History Class 12 cbse 2023-24

BoardCBSE
Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
SubjectsHistory
MediumEnglish
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper


Section A consists of 21 questions of 1 mark each 

Sample Paper of History Class 12 cbse 2023-24 solved with PDF Download

1. Who among the following is often known as the ‘Father of Indian Archaeology’?

(a) Daya Ram Sahni

(b) Alexander Cunningham

(c) Rakhal Das Banerji

(d) REM Wheeler

2. Fill in the blanks.

The Shakas came from and were regarded as Mlechchhas, Barbarians or outsiders by the Brahmanas.

(a) Central Asia

(b) West Asia

(c) South-East Asia

(d) Western Africa

3. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). 

Assertion (A) The Manusmriti is considered the most important of the Dharmasutras and Dharmashastras.

Reason (R) It lays down codes of social behaviour in great detail.

Codes

(a) Both A and Rare true, and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

4. The Persian translation of Mahabharata that means ‘Book of Wars’ is known as 

(a) Upanishad

(b) Ramayana

(c) Razmnama

(d) None of these

5. Match the following.

List IList II
A. 10th May, 18571. Meeting starts in Meerut
B. 30th May, 18572. Rising in Lucknow
C. 30th June, 1857 3. British suffer defeat in the battle of Chinhat
D. 7th June, 1858 4. Rani Jhansi killed in battle

Codes

(a) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4

(b) A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1

(c) A-1, B-4, C-2, D-3

(d) A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4

6. Consider the following statements regarding Subsidiary Alliance and choose the correct option.

1. This Subsidiary Alliance was devised by William Bentinck in 1798.

II. A British force was stationed in the Territory of the Ally.

III. Ally could enter into agreements with other rulers without any interference.

IV. A British resident was attached to the court of Ally.

Options

(a) Only (i) is correct

(b) Only (i) and (ii) are correct 

(c) Only (ii) and (iii) is correct

(d) Only (ii) and (iv) is correct

7. Identify the famous rulers related to the Vijayanagara Empire with the help of the given information.

• He composed Amuktamalyada in Telugu.

• He belonged to the Saluvas dynasty.

Options

(a) Deva Raya I

(b) Deva Raya II

(c) Krishnadevaraya

(d) Achyuta Deva Raya

8. Identify the aspect that is not related to the Harappan civilisation.

(a) Script of enigmatic. Harappan civilisation is 

(b) Seals were recovered from Oman and Rome consider

(e) Harappans were terracotta craftsmen.

(d) A proper drainage system was found in the lower town and citadel.

9. Who introduced the crucial Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly? 

(a) BR Ambedkar

(b) Jawaharlal Nehru

(c) Jaipal Singh

(d) NG Ranga

10. The written collection of letters by Sufi masters to their disciples and Which of the following is related to the above-given statement? associates. 

(a) Malfuzat

(b) Tazkiras

(d) Maktubat

(c) Ziyarat

11. Which of the following is correct regarding Vaishnavism? 

(a) Vaishnavism developed around various avatars of Vishnu and Shiva.

(b) Ten avatars are recognised within this tradition.

(c) The ten forms are assumed as Brahma.

(d) The different forms of deity are not represented in sculpture.

12. What type of relationships can you infer between the Sufis and the state? Choose the correct option from the following.

(a) Strained relationship

(b) Normal relations as with other subjects

(e) Cordial relations

(d) There was always a conflict between the Sufis and the state.

13. In which of the following Satyagraha Gandhiji asked the state for the remission of taxes of peasants following the failure of harvest. 

(a) Bardoli Satyagraha

(b) Champaran Satyagraha

(c) Rowlatt Satyagraha 

(d) Kheda Satyagraha

14. Choose the correct option from the following statements regarding the unique feature of the Indian Constitution. 

(a) The Indian Constitution came into effect on 26th January 1950.

(b) It provides a separate electorate to the minorities of the country.

(c) It was drafted by the member indirectly elected by the people.

(d) It is the shortest written Constitution in the world.

15. was Governor-General of Bengal when the Permanent Settlement was introduced in

Choose the correct answer from the given options.

(a) Lord Irwin, 1793

(b) Lord Cornwallis, 1793

(c) Lord William Bentinck, 1801

(d) Lord Canning, 1858

16. Identify the following image and write its name.

(a) Terracotta structure depicting a scene from Mahabharata.

(b) Terracotta structure depicting a scene from Ramayana.

(c) Terracotta structure depicting tribal life. (d) Terracotta structure of the Gupta period.

17. Read the following statements carefully and identify the person with the help of the given information. 

I. He was born in 1973 in Khwarizm, Uzbekistan.

II. He wrote a book named Kitab-ul-Hind.

(a) Ibn Battuta

(b) Al-Biruni

(c) Francois Bernier

(d) Abdur Razzaq

18. Who among the following was known as ‘Kudirai Chettis’? 

(a) A group of Portuguese who traded in military technology.

(b) A local community of horse traders.

(c) A group of Arab traders trading in horses. 

(d) A local community of traders trading in muskets.

19. AI-Biruni recognised social categories.

(a) three

(b) four

(c) two

(d) six

20. Who led the flag of revolt against the British in Bihar?

(a) Nana Sahib

(b) Maulavi Ahmadullah

(c) Kunwar Singh

(d) Birjis Qadr

21. Identify the name of the alliance or system from the information given below. 

I. It was introduced by Wellesley in 1798.

II. It was imposed on Awadh in 1801.

III. According to this alliance, the ally would have to provide the resources for maintaining this contingent.

(a) Indirect Rule

(b) Subsidiary Alliance

(c) British Protectorate

(d) Doctrine of Lapse

Section B consists of 6 questions of 3 marks

22. Analyse with illustrations, why Bhakti and Sufi thinkers adopted a variety of languages to express their opinions. 

23. How did Gandhi’s ‘Quit India Movement’ transform the nature of the National Movement? 

24. Explain why patriline may have been particularly important among elite families.

25. Discuss briefly about the five books of Ain-i Akbari.

Or

Comment on the translation of Ain-i Akbari.

26. ‘Harappan script is enigmatic according to Archaeologists and Historians. Justify 

27. Examine any three changes brought into the colonial cities after the Revolt of 1857. 

Or

What was the impact of the Revolt of 1857 on the nationalist imagery?

Section C consists of 3 questions of 8-mark

28. What are the aspects of the Harappan economy that have been reconstructed by archaeological evidence? 

Or What are the problems in archaeological interpretation and reconstruction of the past especially of religious practices and beliefs? Explain in the context of Harappa. 

29. The Revolt of 1857 was the effect of the rumours. Explain the causes of the revolt and the shaking of the values by the revolt.

Or

Describe how the Revolt of 1857 played a significant role in the development of the nationalist movement in India.

30. Analyse the role played by Zamindars during Mughal India. 

Or

Write in detail about the condition of zamindars during the Mughal period. 

Section D consists of 3 Source based question

31. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.

A Demon

This is an excerpt from a poem by Karaikkal Ammaiyar in which she described herself as The Female Pey (demoness) with… bulging veins, protruding eyes, white teeth and shrunken stomach, red-haired and jutting teeth lengthy shins extending till the ankles, shouts and wails while wandering in the forest. This is the forest of Alankatu, which is the home of our father (Shiva) who dances… with his matted hair thrown in all eight directions, and with cool limbs.

(i) Who was Karaikkal Ammaiyar? 

(ii) How did the author describe herself in the poem? 

(iii) What did the author try to convey through the poem?

32. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Draupadi’s Marriage

Drupada, the king of Panchala, organised a competition where the challenge was to string a bow and hit a target; the winner would be chosen to marry his daughter Draupadi. 

Arjuna was victorious and was garlanded by Draupadi. The Pandavas returned with her to their mother Kunti, who, even before she saw them, asked them to share whatever they had got. 

She realised her mistake when she saw Draupadi, but her command could not be violated. After much deliberation, Yudhisthira decided that Draupadi would be their common wife. When Drupada was told about this, he protested. 

However, the Seer Vyasa arrived and told him that the Pandavas were in reality incarnations of Indra, whose wife had been reborn as Draupadi and they were thus destined for each other.

Vyasa added that in another instance a young woman had prayed to Shiva for a husband, and in her enthusiasm, had prayed five times instead of once. This woman was now reborn as Draupadi and Shiva had fulfilled her prayers. Convinced by these stories, Drupada consented to the marriage.

(i) ‘Mother was considered as the highest guru by the Pandavas.’ Justify the statement from the above source. 

(ii) What was the reason why Kunti did not save Draupadi from the dire situation? 

(iii) How did Seer Vyasa convince Drupada to marry five men? 

33. Mahatma Gandhi was profoundly critical of the modern age in which machines enslaved humans and displaced labour. He saw the charkha as a symbol of a human society that would not glorify machines and technology.

The spinning wheel, moreover, could provide the poor with supplementary income and make them self-reliant. What I object to, is the craze for machinery as such. The craze is for what they call labourersaving machinery.

Men go on “saving labour”, till thousands are without work and thrown on the open streets to die of starvation. I want to save time and labour, not for a fraction of mankind, but for all; I want the concentration of wealth, not in the hands of few, but in the hands of all.

Young India, 13th November, 1924

Khaddar does not seek to destroy all machinery but it does regulate its use and check its weedy growth. It uses machinery for the service of the poorest in their cottages.

The wheel is itself an exquisite piece of machinery.

Young India, 17th March, 1927

(i) Why charkha was given importance by Gandhiji? 

(ii) How would a spinning wheel help the poor? 

(iii) How will machines impact the poor? 

Section E consists of Map based questions of 5 marks

34. A. Locate and label the following.

(i) An important centre of the Indian National Movement outside India.

(ii) Kanpur as a centre of the 1857 Revolt.

(iii) Harappan site of Lothal

Or (iv) Avanti

B. On the given political outline map of India, identify the sites marked as 1 and 2


Answers


1. (b) Alexander Cunningham

2. (a) Central Asia

3. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

4. (c) Razmnama

5. (a) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4

6. (d) Only (ii) and (iv) are correct

7. (c) Krishnadeva Raya

8. (b) Seals were recovered from Oman and Rome

9. (b) Jawaharlal Nehru

10. (d) Maktubat

11. (b) Ten avatars are recognised within this tradition.

12. (b) Willian Hodges

13. (d) Kheda Satyagraha

14. (a) The Indian Constitution came into effect on 26th January, 1950.

15. (b) Lord Cornwallis, 1793

16. (a) Terracotta structure depicting a scene from Mahabharata

17. (b) Al-Biruni

18. (b) A local community of horse traders.

19. (b) four

20. (c) Kunwar Singh

21. (b) Subsidiary Alliance

22. The Bhakti and Sufi thinkers used the language of the common people to express their opinions. 

They often spoke in local languages which was well-understood by the common people. By using distinct languages, they have reached to a large section of the people.

Following are the examples of adoption of a variety of languages by saints

• Language of Alvars and Nayanars The Alvars and the Nayanars made use of the Tamil language.

• Language of Nirguna Poets Poet saints like Kabir wrote their poems mostly in the saintly language which was known as Santbhasa. He also wrote in the form which was known as Ulatbansi (upside-down strategy) in which everyday meanings were inverted.

• Use of Local Language Sufi saints often used the local languages. E.g. Baba Farid used the Punjabi language. Guru Nanak also preached in Punjabi, which was very significant for the development of this language.

• Use of Hindavi by Chishtis The Chishtis also adopted the local languages. They conversed Hindavi, the language of the common people. 

*Use of ‘Dakhani’ Indian cities of Bijapur and Karnataka, poets write short poems in Dakhani, a variant of Urdu. 

23. In August 1942, the Quit India Movement started under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Soon, the movement became a mass movement. The pubic reaction was immediate and spontaneous.

There were demonstrations and processions everywhere. Every city and town observed a hartal Public life virtually came to a standstill.

The Quit India Movement created and developed feelings of political awakening and consciousness among the people of India for the first time. 

It united India’s anger against imperialism. Very soon the situation went completely out of control of the Britishers. The symbols of British authority, like, the rail track bridges, post office, and police stations were either blown off or burnt at several places.

The British authority temporarily broke down in many areas and independent governments were proclaimed in the Satara district of Maharashtra and Medinipur in Bengal. This movement had shaken the foundation of the British Raj in India. It became clear that the British would no longer find it possible to rule India against the wishes of its people.

24. Patriliny is the system through which descent from father to son and grandson is traced.

The principle of patriliny would have been essential for the elite families for the following reasons Continuity of Dynasty As per the Dharmashastras, was an established belief that the son carried forward the dynasty. This was the main reason that the families wished for sons not for daughters. A couplet of Rigveda also substantiates this view. In this couplet, a father at the time of the marriage of his daughter wishes that she should have the best sons with the grace of Lord Shiva.

Inheritance In royal families, the acquisition of the throne was included in the inheritance. After the death of a king, his eldest son was supposed to inherit the throne. After the death of the parents, the property was to be equally divided among all the sons. This system gave certainty to the inheritance of property, power and privilege and avoided confusion at the time of the death of parents.

Most of the royal families followed the patriline since 600 B.C. But, sometimes this system had exceptions also. The brother of the king ascended the throne in case the former had no son, Relatives also claimed inheritance of the throne. In some special cases, women also ascended the throne like Prabhavati Gupta.

25. The Ain-i Akbari is made up of five books (drafters). The first three books describe the administration.

These are The first book is called Manzil-Abadi. It is concerned about the imperial household and its maintenance. The second book, Sipah-Abadi, covered the military and civil administration and the establishment of servants.

The third book, Mulk-Abadi, is the one which deals with the financial matters of the empire and provides rich quantitative information on revenue rates, followed by the ‘Account of the Twelve Provinces’.

The fourth and fifth books (Daftars) dealt with the religious, literary and cultural traditions of the people of India and also contained a collection of Akbar’s ‘auspicious sayings’.

Or

The Ain-i Akbari has been translated by several scholars due to its importance. Ain-i Akbari was written by Abul Fazl who was the court historian of Akbar. It is a collection of large historical, administrative projects of classification. 

It gives detailed accounts of the organisation of the court, administration and army, the sources of revenue, the physical layout of the provinces of Akbar’s empire and the literary, cultural and religious traditions of the people.

Henry Blochmann edited it and the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, published it in its Bibliotheca Indica series. The book has also been translated into English in three volumes. The standard translation of volume I is that of Henry Blochmann. The other two volumes were translated by HS Jarrett (Calcutta 1891 and 1894).

26. Archaeologists and historians found the Harappan script as enigmatic. The reasons behind it were

(i) Harappan seals usually had a line of writing, containing the name and title of the owner, sometimes the motif conveyed a meaning to those who could not read.

(ii) The script was non-alphabetical, it had many signs, somewhere between 375 and 400.

(ii) Most inscriptions were short, the longest contained about 26 signs but sometimes it contained wider space, sometimes shorter, it had no consistency.

27. The changes brought into the colonial cities after the Revolt of 1857 were

(1) The British felt the need for security for white elites. So, they developed civil lines, which were secure and segregated enclaves, away from the threat of the natives.

(ii) Cantonments were places where Indian troops under European command were stationed and were also developed as sale enclaves.

(iii) Underground piped water supply, sewerage and drainage systems were established around this time. Sanitary systems were improved in Indian towns.

Or

The Revolt of 1857 had a great impact on the nationalist imagination in the following ways

• It inspired the national movement in the 20th century.

The Revolt was called the first war of Independence as all sections of the people participated in it. The memory of 1857 was kept alive due to art and literature. For example, the leaders of the revolt were presented as heroic figures who aroused the public against oppressive British rule.

Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi became an iconic masculine figure chasing the enemy till her last breath. Heroic poems were written about the queen. 

The famous lines of Subhadra Kumari Chauhan “Khoob lari mardani woh to Jhansi wali rani thi” is one such example that is still read by children in schools.

Rani Lakshmi Bai is also portrayed in popular prints on the battlefield with a sword in hand and riding a horse, a symbol of the determination to resist injustice and alien rule.

28. The aspects of the Harappan economy that have been reconstructed from the archaeological evidence are 

Agriculture From the evidence, it has been found that agriculture was one of the most important sources of food.

Evidence such as charred grains have been found in the Harappan civilisation. The seeds like wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea and sesame were cultivated in the Harappa whereas millets were found in Gujarat. The evidence of rice cultivation was not there.

Evidence of agriculture was easy to find but there was difficulty in finding agricultural practices. From the finds of terracotta sculpture, it has been assumed that the oxen were used for ploughing the land. Moreover, terracotta models of ploughs also have been found at the sites in Cholistan and Banawali. The field had two sets of furrows at right angles to each other.

Irrigation was also known to the Harappans. Traces of canals and wells also have been found at the Harappan site of Shortughai in Afghanistan.

Besides these findings, several water reservoirs also have been traced which may have been used for the irrigation of agriculture.

Animal Domestication From the finds of bones of animals such as sheep, goats, cows, oxen, buffalo, etc, it has been assumed that the domestication of animals was also done there.

Procurement of Crafts Prevalence of artefacts such as pottery sculptures, bead making, seal and sealings were also done there. Besides these, weaving, building construction, and jewellery-making were also done there.

Trade The Harappans had long-distance communication which is evident from the finds of seals and sealings of Harappans in the distant sites of Mesopotamia, Certain metals such as bronze, copper and gold in Harappa which were procured in different sites were traded with the other distant civilisations developed in Oman. Archaeologists think that there was communication between Oman, Bahrain or Mesopotamia with the Harappan Civilisation.

Or

The religious beliefs, practices and customs of the Harappan people are well depicted through various archaeological remains such as bronze and stone statues, seals etc. 

However, when archaeologists try to interpret these findings in the religious idiom as we understood. Today, many problems are encountered. Through the following points and examples, we will briefly understand such problems

(i) The first problem encountered by them is related to the giving meaning and utility of certain findings. They believed that certain objects which seemed unusual or unfamiliar may have had a religious significance. 

The terracotta figurines of women were conferred the status of mother goddesses. Similarly, a stone statue of a man in a standardised posture was classified as a priest-king.

(ii) In the case of structures, those signifying ritual significance were also used by archaeologists to interpret and reconstruct the religious beliefs and practises of the Harappan people. It included the great bath and fire altars found at Kalibangan and Lothal. Similar, to the case of figurines it was interpreted based on our current understanding of ritualised bathing and the practice of Yajna where fire altars are used.

(iii) In the majority of seals discovered at Harappa, the depiction of plants, ritual scenes and one-horned animals were prominent. From these seals, archaeologists had inferred that they had religious connotations. For example, those containing pictures of plants were believed to depict the worship of nature. In the case of a one-horned animal, often called the ‘Unicorn’, archaeologists categorised it as an Imaginary and composite creature.

(iv) Among all the seals, the depiction of the most prominent. He was shown 500 cross-legged in a yogic posture, surrounded by animals. Here speculation that it represented the earliest form of Sha who later identified Moreover, this type of major deities of speculation is it was based on our knowledge and of the present. proto-Shiva some archaeology Hinduism problematic understand

(V) Many reconstructions of Harappan Regarding religion have best in the late assumption that similarities exist in the earlier or later religious traditions, civilisation

It is so because archaeologists generally move from Ikisen to unknown means and from present to pa This approach however, is successful in the case of queue stones but not reliable in the case of religious beliefs

29. Rumours became the immediate cause of the revolt. Before the rumours, the socio-religious movement started by the British aided in building up a disbelief la them.

Socio-religious causes of the revolt were

• The British adopted policies aimed at reforming Indian society by introducing Western education Western ideas and Western institutions. Under the rule of Governor-General Lord William Bentinck English-medium schools, colleges and universities were opened where Western sciences and the liberal arts were taught.

Laws were established to abolish customs like Sat (1829) and to permit the remarriage of Hindu widows These laws were not liked by Hindus and they saw Britishers as people who wanted to change the Hindu society and culture.

Religious customs, patterns of landholding and revenue payment were destroyed and replaced by a system that was more impersonal, alien and oppressive. This perception was aggravated by the activities of Christian missionaries.

Rumours as a Cause of Revolt

Issue of Cartridges It was believed that the cartridges of the Enfield rifles were coated with the fat of cows and pigs which corrupt the caste and religion of Hindus and Muslims.

Conspiracy to Destroy the Caste and Religion news was spread that the British had mined the bone dust of cows and pigs into the flour that was sold in the market. Hence, sepoys and the common people refused to touch the atta. It was feared that the British wanted to convert Indians to Christianity.

Shaking of Values

The values attached to the Hindu religion like not consuming beef and customs like sati got a major setback.

The Muslin religious value of not consuming pork was also hit by the rumour of greased cartridges. The value of preserving one’s individuality, culture and pride was damaged.

Or

The Revolt of 1857 also referred to as the ‘First War of Independence played a significant role in arousing nationalist sentiment against Britishers, promoting Hindu-Muslim unity, developing nationalist Imagination etc. 

The courage and valour of sepoys and peasants to rise against British imperialist power nurtured the further development of the nationalist movements in India. The following points briefly, explain their role in the development of the nationalist movement

(1) It inspired the nationalist movement in the 20th century. The Revolt was called as the First War of Independence as all sections of the people participated in it. The memory of 1857 was kept alive through art and literature. For example, the leaders of the revolt were presented as heroic figures who aroused the public against oppressive British rule

(ii) Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi became an iconic masculine figure chasing the enemy till her last breadth. Heroic poems were written about the courage and valour of this queen. It helped in inspiring thousands of women to participate in the nationalist movement.

(iii) This revolt was a milestone in terms of unity shown by Hindus and Muslims, further political struggle launched especially by Gandhiji drew inspiration from it.

(iv) Many artists including poets painters and writers created many visual images and literature, which helped in keeping alive the memory of the Revolt of 1857. It was used for the political training of youths and children and also to expose the unjust and oppressive policies of the Britishers.

(v) One significant drawback of the Revolt of 1857 was that the educated middle class remained aloof from the revolt, which sepays, deposed zamindars and peasants led. The subsequent development of nationalist movements always aimed at creating a united front against the Britishers.

(vi) Many literature, paintings, newspaper columns etc were written in England urging for vengeance and retribution against Indian sepoys, zamindars and peasants. It exposed their hypocrisy as they claimed to rule on the principle of the rule of law. It also helped in creating a feeling among Indians to become conscious of their National Identity.

30. Zamindars were a class of people in the countryside who lived in agriculture but did not participate directly in the processes of agricultural production.

The role played by zamindars was as follows

• The zamindars held large areas of personal lands known as milkiyat, meaning property, Milkiyat lands were cultivated for the private use of zamindars, often with the help of hired or stave labour. 

The zamindars could sell, leave or mortgage these lands at their will Zamindars got their power because they could often collect revenue on behalf of the state, a service for which they were paid financially. 

They also controlled military resources which was another source of power. Most of them also had fortresses (qilachas) as well as an armed group comprising units of cavalry, artillery and infantry

Zamindars led from the front in the process of colonisation of agricultural land and helped cultivators to settle down by providing them the means of cultivation, like cash loans. The buying and selling of zamindar has increased the process of monetisation in the village. 

Zamindars also sold the produce from their milky lands. These are proofs to show that zamindars often established markets to which peasants also came to sell their produce.

Zamindars were an exploitative class. Their relationship with the peasantry had an element of mutual benefit, authority subordinate relation and patronage. This view can be supported by two aspects.

Bhakti saints who fearlessly condemned caste-based and other forms of oppression did not show the zamindars or moneylenders as exploiters or oppressors of the peasantry. They criticised the revenue officials of the state.

Zamindars were often supported by the peasantry in their struggle against the state in the large number of agrarian revolts that arose in North India,

Or

The condition of zamindars during the Mughal period was as follows

They were landed proprietors who enjoyed certain social and economic privileges of their superior status in rural society.

The factor of caste hierarchy played a significant role in the elevated status of zamindars, Another factor was that they performed certain services (Khidmat) for the state.

The zamindars had extensive personal lands, known as milkiyat. These lands were cultivated with the help of hired labour for the private use of zamindars. The Zamindars had the right to sell or mortgage these lands

The zamindars could often collect revenue on behalf of the state, a service for which they were compensated financially.

The zamindars had fortresses and armed military resources which comprised cavalry, artillery and infantry.

The dispossession of weaker people by a powerful military chieftain was a way of expanding a zamindari system. The state did not support this aggression unless the zamindar had an imperial order (sanad).

Zamindars spearheaded the colonisation of agricultural land and helped insetting cultivators by providing them with means of cultivation, cash, loans, etc. 

The buying and selling by zamindars accelerated the process of monetisation in the countryside. They sold the produce from their milky lands. They often established markets (haats) to which peasants came to sell their produce.

31. (1) Karaikkal Ammaiyar was female bhakti saint from South India. She was a devotee of Shiva and adopted the path of extreme asceticism to attain the goal of salvation.

(ii) Karaikkal Ammaiyar in the poem described herself as a demoness having bulging veins, eyes that were popping out, white teeth, a smaller stomach, red hair and teeth coming out, a lengthy part of the leg below the knee

(iii) Karaikkal Ammaiyar through this poem is trying to defy the established traditional norms where women are shown beautifully and with feminine characteristics.

32. (1) After the marriage of Arjuna to Draupadi, the Pandavas returned with her to their mother Kunti. Before seeing Draupadi, Kunti asked them to share whatever they had got. Kunti’s command could not be violated. So, the Pandavas married Draupadi and she became their common wife. This story reveals that the mother was considered the highest guru by the Pandavas.

(ii) Kunti was considered the highest guru by her sons. The command of the highest guru could not be violated. Although Kunti realised her mistake she did not take back what she had said. Thus, Kunti did not save Draupadi from the dire situation.

(iii) The seer Vyasa told Drupada that the Pandavas were in reality an incarnation of Indra, whose wife had been reborn as Draupadi. 

So, they were destined for each other. Further, Vyasa said that, according to another version, a young woman had

prayed to Shiva for a husband five times. Shiva fulfilled her wish and the woman was reborn as Draupadi. Hearing this, Drupada agreed to Draupadi’s strange marriage with five men.

33. (1) Charkha was symbolised as a symbol of self-reliant society. It will diminish the glory of machines and technology, so it was given importance by Gandhiji.

(ii) Gandhiji believed that the spinning wheel could provide the poor with supplementary income and make them self-reliant.

(iii) Gandhiji believed that the poor would be thrown out of their jobs if machines were introduced. It will leave many people without jobs and increase starvation.

34. 

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