Staffing Class 12 Notes CBSE Business Studies Chapter 6 (Free PDF Download)

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Staffing Class 12 Notes CBSE Business Studies Chapter 6 (Free PDF Download), business studies class 12 Chapter 6 staffing notes pdf, chapter 6 business studies class 12 pdf, business studies class 12 chapter 6 staffing Notes pdf

Staffing Class 12 Notes CBSE Business Studies Chapter 6 (Free PDF Download)

Chapter No06
ProvidingNcert solutions
Chapter NameStaffing
SubjectBusiness studies
Medium English
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available
Download PDFdirecting class 12 notes pdf download

Staffing Class 12 Notes

Key points of the lesson -Appointment is an administrative function of management which means appointing qualified people on various posts established in the organization according to the importance of the post. In managerial language, all the activities of establishing harmony between position and person are called appointment. It is a process under which the right person is appointed to the right post. Appointment is a broad term which includes recruitment, selection, development, training, promotion, demotion, transfer, compensation etc. of employees.

“Today our entire professional and industrial organization is badly affected by strikes, lockouts, sieges, demonstrations, sloganeering and violent disturbances. The only way before us to get rid of this is to appoint qualified, cooperative, trained, dedicated and efficient in the organization. Modern management scholars are of the opinion that recruitment is a part of human resource management. Therefore, it cannot be considered a separate function of the organization. According to him, human resource management is a broad term and recruitment is only a part of it.

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Recruitment process or staffing process refers to a series of steps that are taken to continuously fill the right people, at the right positions and at the right time in an organization. Recruitment is considered to be a process by which prospective employees who are ready to work are identified and they are encouraged to apply for jobs. Therefore, the work of recruitment is done after making estimates of the manpower required in the organization.

For the recruitment of employees, a generally accepted policy should be determined in every organization and employees should be recruited according to that policy. Selection is a process through which vacant posts are filled in the organization. Many applications are received to fill the vacant seats in the institution. Many applications are received to fill the vacant seats in the institution. Among the applications received, those applications whose qualifications, experience etc. are in accordance with the job specification are selected.

Training is a process by which a person’s ability, proficiency and proficiency in performing a specific task is increased. Through training, the employee not only gets general knowledge about the work but also develops interest in the assigned work. Ability to take initiative and provide guidance in improving existing production systems. Training is the basic mantra of a good management system. 

It is a means of solving problems. “Just as vitamin pills are beneficial for improving health, similarly training is beneficial for eliminating manpower problems.” Development is a planned and organized process by which the knowledge, skills and

Skills are enhanced. For development programs to be effective, it is necessary that they be planned, implemented and estimated in such a way that they become various parts of daily activities. Remuneration refers to all monetary and non-monetary payments payable to employees in return for the services rendered by them. 

Motivation means that psychological stimulation which makes people active and motivates them to do more work. Financial motivations refer to those motivations which can be measured in money. 

Non-financial or non-monetary motivations refer to those motivations which cannot be measured in money. There are two major systems of wage payment which are called time-wise wage and car-wise wage payment system.


Q.1 . Staffing (What is Staffing?)

Ans. Appointment means appointing people to various posts established in organizations according to the importance of the post.

Q. 2. Give a proper definition of appointment. (Give a suitable definition of Staffing.)

Ans. Recruitment is an important function and responsibility of management which is concerned with providing adequate number of managerial staff and other employees for the functioning of the organization, developing them and retaining them in the organization.

Q.3 . Explain the importance of appointment. (Discuss the importance of Staffing.))

Ans. The importance or necessity of appointment is as follows-

1. To make maximum and efficient use of resources. 

2. For efficient and effective execution of other management tasks. 

3. To increase both productivity and production. 

4. Helpful in finding qualified employees 15. For job satisfaction 

6. To prevent excess or shortage of employees. 

7. To solve the problems of business enterprise 

8. To develop individuals who can accept greater responsibilities. 

Q.4. What is interview? (What is Interview)

Ans. Interview is a face to face oral personality assessment of prospective employees. In this, the personality, nature, intelligence and logic of the prospective employee is tested.

Q.5. Mention four characteristics of a good recruitment policy. What are the main characteristics of recruitment policy?)

Ans. features-

1. Recruitment should be based on merit and without discrimination.

2. Recruitment work should be done by qualified, skilled, experienced officers. 

3. The needs of employees should be analyzed before recruitment.

4. While recruiting, internal sources should also be kept in mind.

Q.6 . What is meant by manpower planning? What is manpower planning?) 

Ans. This means ensuring that the right employees are available at the right time in the organization.

Making a plan so that neither the work in the organization can be stopped due to lack of employees nor the cost expenditure can increase due to having more employees. This includes recruitment, selection, analysis and development according to manpower.

Q.7. Enumerate the various elements of appointments. (Enumerate the various elements of staffing.) 

Ans. Following are the various elements of appointments:

1. Manpower planning. 

2 Recruitment and Selection 

3. Appointment to work 

4. Training and evaluation 

5. Remuneration and motivation.

Q.8. Why is there a need for recruitment in business? (Why is there need of staffing is Business)

Ans. There is a need for recruitment/staffing in business because in any organization there are only human beings working in it. Without humans, neither machines can be operated nor materials can be used. In business, all the activities of the business, production, distribution, buying and selling etc. are done by humans only. In the modern era, man’s effort is the starting and ending point. 

Q9. Name the steps in the recruitment process. (Name the steps which involved in staffing process.) 

Ans. The recruitment process includes the following steps:

1. Human Resource Planning

2. Recruitment of interested candidates

3. Selection of employees

4. Induction and orientation – After selection of employees, introducing them and giving them information about the organization.

5. Training of employees

6. Determination of wages 

7. Performance Appraisal

8. Promotion Transfer and Termination 

Q:10. Mention two benefits of appointment. (Give any two advantages of staffing.)

Ans. 1. Recruitment creates wealth of human resources by structuring an efficient organization and finds solutions to business problems.

2. Appointments are a completely human-intensive work which makes planning, organization, direction and control effective by putting the plans into action and providing appropriate staff to each task.

Q. 11. Explain the meaning of recruitment. (Explain the meaning of Recruitment.)

Ans. Recruitment refers to a process by which prospective employees are searched and they are motivated to apply for work in the enterprise. Edwin B. According to Filippo, “Recruitment is the process of finding prospective employees and motivating and encouraging them to apply for vacant jobs.””

Q. 12. Explain the meaning of training. (Explain the meaning of Training.) 

Ans. Training means that initiation education, through which the interest, ability and skill of the employees are increased in doing a particular work, due to which the execution of that work becomes easy, quick and effective. Training increases practical skills. According to Narcius, “Training is a process by which the attitudes, skills and abilities of employees are increased for performing specific tasks. 

Q. 13. Explain the meaning of selection. (Explain the meaning of Selection.)

Ans. Selection means choosing qualified and efficient employees for the organization. Many applications are received regarding vacant seats in the institution. Selection is the appointment of those skilled employees whose qualifications, experience etc. match the job specifications. 

According to Dale Yoder, “Selection of workers refers to the process in which the applicants for jobs are divided into two categories. One is those who are given jobs and the other are those who are not given jobs.”

Q.14. What are the internal sources of recruitment? (What are the internal sources of Recruitment?)

Ans. The internal sources of recruitment are as follows-

1. Promotion, 2. Transfer.

Q.15. What are the benefits of internal recruitment? (What are the advantages of internal recruitment)

Ans. Following are the benefits of internal recruitment 

1. Having high morale. 

2. Lack of training arrangements. 

3. Proper evaluation of merit. 

4. More loyal.

Q. 16. How many types of election training are there? (How many types of selection test are there)

Ans. Election training is of the following types-

(i) Intelligence training. 

(ii) Competency training. 

(iii) Personality training. 

(iv) Nature training

(v) Efficiency training

(vi) Aptitude training.

Q.17. How many types of interviews are there? (How many types of interviews are there?)

Ans. The types of interviews are as follows- 

(i) Modeled interview. 

(ii) Stress interview

(iii) Group interview. 

(iv) Non-directive interviews 

(v) Board interview.

Q. 18. How many types of training are there? (How many types of Training are there?)

Ans. Training is of the following types-

(i) Training for new learners or skilled artisans 

(ii) Craftsmanship training.

(iii) Managerial training 

(iv) Special training.

Q. 19. Write advantages of Training. 

Ans. (i) Production increases. (ii) Accidents reduce. (iii) Self-confidence of workers increases. (iv) Opportunities for appointment of employees to higher posts increase.

Q. 20. What are the principles of promotion? (What are the principles of Promotion?)

Ans. To run any organization smoothly, it is necessary to formulate a definite and fair policy of promotion. While deciding the policy, it is necessary to keep special things in mind which are as follows-

(i) Seniority of employees should be kept in mind in promotion. 

(ii) Promotion should be free from bias. 

(iii) Personal qualities, educational qualification, work efficiency and experience should be kept in mind in promotion. (iv) Promotion should also be done on the basis of achievements and efficiency of the employees.

Q.21. What do you understand by group interview? (What do you mean by Group Interview?)

Ans. Group Interview – In a group interview, there are many candidates and there is only one interviewer. In a group interview, five or six candidates are made to sit together in a room. After this, the interviewer expresses his views on any topic or any problem so that the conversation can start. 

After this the applicants express their views, opinions and arguments on that topic or problem. In this way, during the expression of ideas, a good and eligible candidate is selected. This process is also called group selection method.

Q. 22. What are the external sources of employee recruitment? (What are the external sources of Recruitment of employees.)

Ans. External sources of employee recruitment are as follows-

(i) Employment Office.

(ii) Educational institutions. 

(iii) Labor unions. 

(iv) Of other institutions 

(v) From among the former employees of the organization 

(vi) From amongst relatives of present employees.

Q.23. Define appointment to work. (Define the term Placement.)

Ans. When the selected person receives the appointment letter, he reports to the office that he is ready to take up the appointed post in that organization. From that time he starts being considered an employee of the organization.

“According to Del Poder, “Inspecting the work given to the selected candidates and assigning them the work for which they are selected is called their appointment to work.”

(Q. 24. Name the objectives of training.)

Ans. Through training, the knowledge and ability of employees is increased to perform a particular job. Its main objectives are as follows-

(i) To increase the knowledge, ability and skill of the employees. 

(ii) To increase the efficiency of employees. 

(iii) To reduce accidents. 

(iv) To make efficient use of resources.

(v) To prepare the second line of officers.

Q. 25. What is meant by motivational wages? (What is meant by Incentive Wage Plan?)

Ans. The scheme which encourages workers to work more is called incentive wage system. In this, apart from the normal wages, one gets dividend and bonus at increasing rate.

Q.26. Write three types of motivational wage payment. (Write three types of Incentive Plan of Wage Payment.)

Ans. Types of motivational wage payment-

(i) Halsey Privy Scheme. (ii) Rowan’s plan (iii) Emerson’s efficiency plan. 

Q.27. What is Group Bonus Scheme? (What is Group Bonus Plan?)

Ans. In the collective bonus scheme, the entire amount of bonus is divided among all the workers.

Q. 28. What is Taylor’s differential work-based payment plan? (What is Taylor’s differential Piece Wage Plan?)

Ans. In this scheme, if the certified work is completed in the standardized time, the wages are given at an increased rate and if the certified work is not completed in the standardized time, then the wages are given on the basis of lower rate.

Q. 29. Explain four characteristics of a good motivational system. (Give three characteristics of a good incentive plan.) 

Ans. The following are the main characteristics of a good motivational system:

1. Simple — The system should be so simple that both workers and managers face no difficulty in calculating the wages given.

2. Assurance of Minimum Wages – A good motivational system should have a guarantee of minimum wages so that workers do not feel insecure. 

3. Flexible – A good motivational system should have flexibility, that is, the system should be such that changes can be made from time to time.

4. Justifiable——A good motivational system should be fair and equal for everyone.

Q.30. What is meant by recruitment as a function of human resource management? (What is the meaning of staffing as a part of Human Resource Management.) 

Ans. Recruitment is considered a form of human resource. Modern management scholars are of the opinion that recruitment is a part of human resource management. According to this, human resource management is a broad term.


Q. 1. Explain the meaning of staffing. (Explain the meaning of Staffing.) 

Ans. Meaning of Staffing – Staffing refers to the rules, principles and problems related to appointment, election, training, promotion, demotion, transfer, termination etc. of qualified officials to implement the policies set by the administration. 

According to Peter Drucker, there are mainly three responsibilities of management-

1. Managing Work 

2. Managing Workers

3. Managing Managers

Out of the above three responsibilities, only the third task – the management of managers – comes under staffing, whereas according to Theo Haimann, “The tasks of recruitment of subordinates, selection development, training, compensation etc. come under staffing.” 

Q. 2. Explain the importance of staffing. (Explain the importance of Staffing.)

Ans. Importance of Staffing – As a result of business complexity, the importance of ‘staffing’ is increasing. Modern management can be successful only when it is many times more clever, alert, prudent and knowledgeable than before, but being human, it cannot be full of all qualities and running a business efficiently in this technological era is not an easy task. 

As a result, today a manager has to consult and get help from other employees for his work. Just as wood provides support to a human being in walking, similarly skilled employees also help in staffing work with their expertise and advice.

Q.3. Explain the planning of management officers or planning of manpower. (Explain the meaning of Man-power Planning.)

Ans. Man-power Planning – Meaning – Managerial planning is a valuable contribution of the 20th century. Today

The technological age has given rise to many new psychological and practical problems, hence the importance of Yoga Prabandha officers has become even greater. 

Today, it is the duty of managerial planning to see whether the managers appointed in the organization are fully qualified for those posts or not. Besides, it is also its duty to provide adequate number of qualified managers. Today, there is a great shortage of qualified, alert and enthusiastic managers and this shortage is a major hindrance in the path of industrialization and development in developing countries. 

Some people believe that managerial planning is less about finding managers and improving them, their view is wrong. The reality is that even if special care is taken in the selection of management officers, sometimes managers are found more or less qualified for the job. This variation is removed. The less qualified are made competent and the more qualified are given senior positions.

Definitions According to Edwin B. Geislar, “Managerial planning is a process (which includes forecasting, development, implementation and control) by which a company ensures that it has sufficient number of qualified people to fill the appropriate position and We work on time in a way that is best and economical from the economic point of view.”

Edwin B. According to Edwin B. Flippo, “An executive manpower planning program is defined as determining criteria for permanently evaluating the competence of an organization’s managers and providing the necessary managerial skills.” May go.

Q.4. Explain the meaning of appointment to work. (Explain the meaning of Placement.) 

Ans. Placement: Making an employee a part of the organization is called appointing him to work. Two tasks come under this-

(1) Giving a specific job to the new employee and 

(ii) To accept him as a part of the organization.

“Inspecting the work given to the selected candidates and assigning them the work for which they have been selected is called appointing them to work.” It is the duty of the departmental officer that while handing over the work to a new employee, he should investigate whether the employee is suitable for that work or not.

Induction Training is the last step in the selection process. It introduces the new employee to the new environment. He wants to be well acquainted with the objectives, rules, bye-laws, salary, day, working hours etc. of the business. This type of induction training is related to those problems which introduce the newly recruited employee to his work group, supervisor and organization. 

Q.5. What is meant by recruitment of employees? (What do you mean by Recruitment of employees?)

Ans. Meaning of Recruitment of Personnel = Keeping in mind the employee-related needs of the organization, finding suitable employees for it, informing them and examining their application forms and selecting them.

Selection of qualified and experienced candidates is called recruitment. The definitions of recruitment are as follows-

1. According to Filippo, “Recruitment is the process of finding suitable employees and motivating and encouraging them to apply for vacant positions.” (“Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employee and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization.”) – Edwin B. Flippo

2. Dale S. According to Beach, “Retaining and developing adequate human power sources is called recruitment. Under recruitment, a base has to be established for the available employees so that the organization can get them from there when additional employees are required.”

Q. 6. Describe the various aspects of training.

Ans. Following are the aspects of training work-

1. Estimating Training Requirement – ​​Before starting the training work, it is decided which level of training is required by which employee and how and for how long the training should be given to him.

2. Making Training Plans: This aspect of training is related to making. Under this, it is decided what the training system, training and training policy should be like.

3. Organizing (Collective Necessary Resources) – Training is given keeping in mind the best use of the organization’s resources and facilities and the objectives of the training.

4. Evaluation – To what extent and to what extent the training program is in accordance with the actual limitations. It is evaluated and corrective action is taken as and when required. t

Q.7. What are the benefits of promotion to the employees and the organization?

Ans. (a) Benefits to employees—Employees get the following benefits from promotion: (i) Promotion gives job satisfaction to employees because their respect and status increases. (ii) Promotion increases their morale which increases efficiency. (iii) Promotion increases the salary of employees.

(b) Benefits to the organization – Promotion has the following benefits for the organization – (i) Employees remain satisfied with promotion, which reduces labor problems. (ii) The organization starts receiving the services of experienced and old employees in the same and improved condition. (ii) Employees remain in the organization and thus the problems caused by labor turnover are avoided.

Q.8. Describe the main elements of a successful recruitment policy.

Ans. A definite and clear policy is made for the recruitment of employees of every organization. A successful recruitment policy should include the following elements: 

(i) Recruitment policy should be clear and comprehensive. 

(ii) Recruitment planning should be economical.

(iii) The price should be as per the current needs of the organization. 

(iv) Recruitment should be according to the qualifications of the employees. (v) Before recruitment to new posts, their approval should be given by the responsible officer. 

(vi) Job analysis should be done before recruitment. 

(vii) Rules prescribed by the government should be followed while recruiting. 

(viii) After comparative study of all the means of recruitment, recruitment should be done through the best means. 

Q.9. What is the meaning of wages? Briefly describe the basic systems of wage payment.

Ans. The reward that labor receives in exchange for its work is called wages. Wages are the worker’s money which greatly affects his efficiency.

Pro. According to Marshall, “Any reward given in exchange for human labor is called wages. Basic systems of wage payment – ​​Mainly two systems of wage payment are prevalent –

1. Time based wage payment system ——This system of wage payment is a popular system. In this system, workers are paid wages on time basis. Wages are calculated on per hour, per day, per week, per month or per year basis. In this system, the amount of work done by the worker has no importance. It is calculated like this- Wages = Time taken in production x Wage rate

2. Piece rated wage payment system – In this system, workers are given wages according to their work. Wage calculation per unit basis

Is removed. In this system the time taken for production work has no importance. Wages are paid as follows- 

Wages = units produced x rate per unit 

Q. 10. What are the benefits of time based wage payment? (What are the advantages of time rate of wage payment.) 

Ans. The merits and demerits of time-based wage system are described as follows:


1. Raw materials and machines are used carefully by the workers because the workers are in no hurry to do the work.

2. In this system, work is done thoughtfully and in a good manner due to which good quality goods are produced.

3.This wage system is more popular.

4.This increases the feeling of unity among the workers, which encourages labor unions.

5. Workers are guaranteed fixed wages.


1. In this system workers try to waste time which requires more inspection.

2. Getting equal wages has a negative impact on the morale of skilled workers.

3. There is misuse of time in this system.

4. It is difficult to estimate labor costs accurately.

5. Due to organization of workers in this system, the possibility of industrial assets increases.

6. Due to getting equal wages, even skilled workers become unskilled.

Q. 11. Describe the merits and demerits of work-based wage system. 

Ans. The merits and demerits of work-based wage system are as follows –


1. In this system, workers are encouraged to do more work. In this system, workers are encouraged to break their unity.

2. Workers get more salary for doing more work, which increases the quantity of production.

3. Due to increase in production quantity, production expenditure per unit decreases.

4. Workers made full use of their time.

5. In this system, work is done only with minimum inspection.

6. Qualified and trained workers are given higher wages and unskilled workers are given less wages.


1. It happens because workers get divided into different classes.

2. In your desire to earn more money

They work more than they can handle, which has a bad effect on their health.

3. The variety of production declines in this system. 

4. This system is opposed by labor unions. 

5. Machines are used improperly to produce more. Due to increase in production in this system which

6. Workers are given lower wages in proportion to higher profits.

Q.12. Explain Taylor’s differential action based system. (Explain Taylor’s differentiated wage payment method.) 

Ans. Under this system, good workers are encouraged, whereas poor workers are punished. Under this system, a standardized amount is determined for each work and two rates of wages are determined according to the work. If a worker completes the prescribed work in the stipulated time then he is given a higher wage and if a worker cannot complete the work in that time then he is given a lower wage.

There is a lot of difference between these two rates. 

Merit— _ 

(i) This system is simple, workers can easily calculate wages  

(ii) Skilled workers get adequate incentives. (iii) Unskilled workers are punished. 


(i) There is no guarantee of minimum wages in this. 

(ii) Labor unions oppose it. 

(iii) Less skilled workers suffer huge losses. 

(iv) Due to large difference between the two rates, there is a fear of fights.

Q. 13. Explain the difference between recruitment and selection. (What is the difference between recruitment and selection?)

Ans. Following are the differences between recruitment and selection-

1. Recruitment is a positive process. 1. Selection is a negative process.
2. Recruitment includes the following activities:

(i) Asking for application form from the employee.
(ii) Scrutinizing the application form.
(iii) For the appointment of employees, first the employees are recruited.
(iv) Through employee recruitment, employees are searched for the future and they are motivated to apply for vacant places.
2 The selection process includes the following processes:

(i) Sorting out the applications.
(ii) To select the application forms as per your requirement.
(iii)The task of selection of employees is remembered after the recruitment of employees.
(iv) In selection, job candidates are divided into two categories –
(a) those who are to be given the job,
(b) those who are not given the job.

Q.14. Enumerate any four characteristics of a good motivation method.

(Give four characteristics of good wage payment method.)

Ans. The following are the characteristics of a good motivation method:

1. It should make it easier for employees to perform their work.

2. Employees should be motivated and encouraged. 13. Production should lead to time saving and cost reduction.

4. Should provide adequate opportunities for advancement to talented employees. So that they can quickly become less expensive and increase their performance.

Q. 15. Briefly explain the advantages and disadvantages of internal sources of recruitment of employees. (Explain in brief the merits and demerits of internal sources of recruitment.)

Ans. Benefits: Adoption of recruitment through internal sources has the following benefits:


1. By providing opportunities for promotion, employees become loyal to the organization, remain disciplined and work hard. Along with this, they also show more interest and efficiency in completing the work.

2. There is proper and social evaluation of the qualifications and capabilities of the employees. Because of the employees working in the organization, managers have accurate information about their work interest, work behavior and loyalty.

3. The morale of the employees remains high because this method provides them opportunities for promotion and security.

4. Recruitment through internal sources not only has a good impact on the current employees, but this reputation of the organization not only attracts but also compels skilled and hardworking people to get jobs in the future.

5. Training expenses on employees are reduced because the people already working in the organization become familiar with many work handling methods. 


1. The task of periodic evaluation of the abilities and capabilities of employees puts an additional burden and burdensome responsibility on the managers.

2. Loyalty displayed in the past is no assurance that an employee will remain equally loyal in the future.

3. There may be a danger in promotion done on the basis of seniority that the person promoted may lack the necessary physical and mental abilities and capabilities.

4. There is no guarantee that a sufficient number of employees will be found among the available employees for new vacancies.

Q. 16. Briefly describe the various external sources of recruitment. (Briefly describe the different external sources of Recruitment.)

Or, mention five external sources of recruitment. (Give five external sources of Recruitment.)

Ans. External sources of Recruitment: External sources of recruitment are as follows-

1. Advertisement – ​​Through advertisements in newspapers and magazines, all types of people, especially skilled and educated people, can be attracted from far and wide. With this method the chances of bias in recruitment are reduced. But receiving too many applications becomes a headache for the administrators. 

2. Employment Exchange – Workers who are looking for work register their names in the employment exchange. The company can supply workers for itself by establishing contact with these employment offices. 

3. Educational Institutions – The company can fill the vacant places by establishing contacts with schools and degree colleges.

4. Approach of Present Employees – Sometimes employees can be appointed on the recommendation of present employees. 

5. Trade Unions – Workers can be recruited through labor unions. Labor unions keep records of unemployed workers and send workers there as soon as they get information about vacancies from any organization.

6. Recruitment through contact with other companies – Sometimes employees are recruited from here by contacting other companies. This requires cooperation between the employee departments of both the companies. 

7. Special Institutions – Some business institutions keep their people, who need jobs, registered with them. By informing them, employees with qualifications and experience can be available. 

8. Friends and Relatives of Present Employees: If 5 of the friends and family members of present employees have the required qualifications, then the labor force can be filled.

9. Irregular Applications: Many local and talented persons themselves contact industrial institutions. Give written and oral information about yourself in interviews. If the organization ever needs them, they establish relationships with them and recruit them.

10. Direct Recruitment of Recruitment at Factory gate – This recruitment is generally done by labor officers. The workers are called to the door of the factory by some notice or on daily basis the workers themselves gather at the door of the factory. This recruitment can be done on the basis of written examination followed by interview. 

Q. 17. Explain the difference between election and recruitment. (Distinguish between Selection and Recruitment.) 

Ans. Difference between election and recruitment: Following are the differences between election and recruitment:

1. The election work is done later.1. Recruitment work is done first.
2.The purpose of recruitment is to make selection.2. Recruitment helps in elections.
3. Sorting out the applications and selecting employees as per requirement comes under selection.3. Asking and receiving applications is subject to recruitment.
4. Selection means the process in which job applicants are divided into two categories – one is those who are to be given the job.4. Recruitment of employees means searching for employees for the future and giving applications to those who are not to be given jobs.


Q. 1. What do you understand by staffing? Explain its nature (What do you understand by staffing? Explain its nature.)

Ans. Meaning of Staffing: Staffing refers to the rules, principles and problems related to appointment, election, training, promotion, demotion, transfer, termination, etc. of qualified officials to implement the policies set by the administration. Definition of Staffing –

1. According to Peter Drucker, a manager has mainly three responsibilities –

(i) Managing Work, 

(ii) Managing Workers, 

(iii) Managing Managers

2. According to Theo Haimann, “The work of recruitment, selection, development, training, compensation etc. of subordinate managers comes under staffing.”

3. According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “Appointment involves people mobilization and development of individuals through appropriate and effective selection, evaluation.

So that the planned posts in the organization structure can be filled. 

4. According to Benjamin, “Recruitment is a process which includes introduction, placement, evaluation and development of a person on the job.”

5. According to Theo Haimann, “The function of staffing is related to recruitment, selection, development, training and compensation of managers.

6. According to Behrich and Koontz, “‘Hiring’ in managerial work includes filling various positions in the organizational structure and allowing them to remain filled.”

Different Types of Management (Officers) – All management officers can be divided into three parts in terms of authority or level- 

1. Senior Management Officers, 

2. Junior Management Officers, 

3. Foreman level officers (Foreman) All the activities related to the above mentioned senior officer till foreman (from appointment to termination of service) are studied under staffing.

Importance of Staffing – As a result of business complexity, the importance of ‘staffing’ is increasing. A modern manager can be successful only when he is many times astute, alert, prudent and knowledgeable as compared to earlier, but being a human being, he cannot be full of all qualities and running a business efficiently in this technological era is not an easy task. As a result, today a manager has to consult and get help from other employees for his work. Just like a wood to a man

Gives support in walking. Similarly, skilled employees also help in staffing tasks with their specialized knowledge and advice.

Responsibility of Staffing – The responsibility of efficiently executing the staffing work rests on every manager at every level. The board of directors performs the staffing function by selecting, developing and evaluating top managers. After this, the top managers arrange for departmental and staffing to complete the staffing tasks.

Appoints other managers. A manager takes special interest in the staffing process in his department for two reasons:

1. The manager tries to do the work of his department efficiently with the help of his subordinates.

2. Management officers working at different levels should learn the tasks of their superior officers along with their own work, so that when these senior officers are promoted or retired, they can perform those tasks efficiently.

Staffing work is easier in small organizations as compared to big organizations and only one manager completes all the staffing tasks. In contrast, in larger organizations where large numbers of employees are hired each year, the staffing task is more complex.

“The top managers, in dereliction of their duty, handed over some of the staffing tasks to the Personnel Management, but neither the Staff Management nor other service departments were given the proper space to carry out the responsibility of the staffing tasks. Due to current business complexities the importance of staffing function has increased. Therefore, the management has become alert to fulfill these responsibilities and takes advice and assistance from other employees for the staffing work.

Nature of Staffing Function or Characteristics of Staffing: The nature and characteristics of staffing function are as follows – 

1. Staffing is a separate managerial function – In ancient times, staffing was considered a part of the organization, but in modern times, staffing is considered a separate important managerial function. Under staffing, those methods and knowledge are used for appointment of employees which would be difficult to use by the managers engaged in organizational work. Apart from this, the knowledge and practice available in the field of staffing has developed at a sufficient level.

2. Staffing Related to Human Behav. lour – Human beings come under staffing work. It has special complexities, hence managers cannot be completely successful in staffing tasks. Only a staffing specialist can do the staffing work.

3. Staffing is essential at all levels – The work of staffing starts from the Managing Director and goes down to the lower level i.e. till the appointment of workers.

4. Social Responsibility – Social aspect is very important in staffing work. This aspect includes recruitment, training, development, salary, promotion, motivation and bonus etc. Therefore, it is the duty of the staffing manager to do all this work impartially.

5. Appraisal – The staffing person should keep evaluating the employees from time to time and this work should also be done impartially.

Q. 2. Describe the appointment process. (Discuss the process of staffing.) 

Ans. The following process is adopted in appointment or staffing method-

1. Determination of Managerial Needs,

2. Presumption of Characteristics of Man-power,

3. Sources of Supply—

(i) Internal, (ii) External

4. Interview, Selection and Training,

5. Remuneration and Motivation,

6. Appraisal and Development of Man-power

1. Determination of Managerial Needs – The first task for staffing is to find out how many management officers the organization needs for different posts and when? For this, an inventory of the demands of the management officers is prepared and a program is made for recruitment. 

Control capacity of the organization while making the demand schedule of the management officers,

The policy of centralization is kept in mind while promoting officers and the number of retiring officers.

2. Presumption of Characteristics of Man-Power: Another important task for staffing is to find out what type of managers are required? What are the characteristics of the management posts available in the organization and what should be the characteristics of the people selected for them. A list of qualifications and experience required for this undertaking is prepared. 

3. Sources of Supply – There are mainly two sources to meet the demand of management officials – 

1. internal 

2. When an organization is started, all the management has to be obtained from external sources.

4. Interview, Selection and Training of Man-power – The work of interview and selection can be done with the help of Personnel Management. The procedure for interviewing and selecting management officers is almost the same as the procedure for interviewing and selecting general employees.  

Need for training: The main objective of managerial training is to make the existing management officers in the organization capable, not only for the new management officers but also for the old-

1. Foreman, 2. Assistant managers, 1 and 3. It is also necessary for top managers. 

1. There is a shortage of skilled managers. 

2. For some managers, theoretical knowledge would have been enough. But there is a lack of practical knowledge. 

3. To cope with the activities of the institution 

4. To face cut-throat competition. 

5. To improve the organizational style of the institution. 6. To increase management capacity. 

7. To provide knowledge of new methods of managerial control. 

8. To discover new markets.

There are mainly two ways to train management officers-

(i) Training through experience, and (ii) Formal training.

(i) Under training through experience, training is provided by assigning responsibility to the trainee, employing assistant officers with senior officers and discussing the knowledge with them. (ii) Formal training – Training is given by arranging specific study courses, appointing assistants, through seminars and by opening classes within the institution.

Q. 3. What do you understand by recruitment of employees? Discuss its process. (What do you understand by Employees Recruitment? Ex-plain its process.)

Ans. Importance of Workers – In the words of Urwick – “In the long run, businesses are not made or broken by the market or capital, patents or equipment, but by human beings.”

Similarly, a scholar has said that the future of a company depends on the men and women who make up the organization. Therefore, we pay adequate attention to their proper selection, training and promotion. This is true because the best human resources are invaluable assets for a business organization and nothing else can replace them. 

Therefore, it would not be wrong to say that in every business organization no other task is as important as the selection and training of human resources. At present, this fact has become clear and business institutions have started paying adequate attention towards these works. 

Meaning of Recruitment: Recruitment means making employees available for various posts established in the organization. Keeping in mind the employee-related needs of the organization, finding suitable employees for it, informing them and selecting qualified and experienced candidates from them by examining their applications is called voting.

Definitions of Recruitment-

1. According to Phillips, “Recruitment means the process of finding prospective employees and encouraging them to apply for vacant posts in the organization.” (Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in organization.)

2. According to Dalton E. McFarland, “It is the process of attracting potential employees to the company.” (It is the process of attracting potential employees to the company.)

3. Dale S. According to Dale S. Beach, “Maintaining and developing human power sources in adequate quantity is called recruitment. Under recruitment, a bridge of available employees is to be established so that the organization can get additional employees from here if needed.

Recruitment is a process by which prospective employees are discovered and encouraged to apply to the organization. It is essential that every organization has adequate number of employees with required qualifications for progress.

Recruitment Policy: A good recruitment policy is based on the following things-

1. Recruitment of employees should be done at a central location of the organization.

2. Recruitment policy should be clear and comprehensive. 

3. Recruitment policy should be flexible. 

4. Recruitment should be as per the ongoing needs of the organization.

5. Appointment to a new post must have the approval of a responsible officer. 

6. No assurance of any kind, written or oral, should be given by the organization at the time of inspection.

7. Recruitment should be done on the basis of merit.

8. Job analysis should be done before recruitment.

9. The sources of recruitment should be kept in mind and fully utilized.

Process of Recruitment of Employees – In ancient times, no systematic method was often used for the selection of workers. Workers and other employees were selected after seeing that they were physically and mentally fit. In modern times, as the importance of proper selection and training of workers and employees has become clear, a systematic and detailed method is used for their selection.

The appointment process can be explained as follows-

I. Sources of Demand – First of all, managers have to decide how and how many employees are required for the organization? For this, when an organization is started, workload and work force analysis is done. 

There are mainly two sources to meet the demand – (i) Internal, (ii) External. When an organization starts, all the employees have to be obtained from external sources. This includes employment offices, labor resources, education resources, educational institutions, employees of other institutions etc. When the organization is started, only one of the existing employees of the organization can be promoted or given a higher position for any work. Almost all institutions use elections from both sources.

Mostly it is decided that a certain percentage of all vacant places will necessarily be met from internal sources. Some organizations make it a point that when a qualified person is obtained from scientific sources, no attention will be paid to the sources. Appropriate employees have to be selected from both types of sources. Merit rating for selection from internal sources

Help is taken while an elaborate method is used for selection from external sources. Following are the sources of supply of external labor force:

1. Employment offices – Workers who are looking for work register their names in employment offices. The company can supply its workers by establishing contact with these employment offices.

2. The company owns educational institutions by establishing contacts with schools and degree colleges. can fill in the blanks here

3. Recommendation of current employees—Sometimes employees can be appointed on the recommendation of current employees.

4. Workers can be recruited through union labor unions. Labor unions keep track of the unemployed and send workers here as soon as they receive information about vacancies from any organization.

5. Employees of other institutions – Sometimes other institutions are contacted and employees are recruited from there. For this, it is necessary that there is cooperation between the employee departments of both the companies.

6. Specialized organizations – Some professional organizations keep their members (who need jobs) registered with them and after informing them, employees of required qualification and experience can be available by calling them for interview.

7. By promotion from within the organization – If qualified employees are available in the organization, then they can be appointed to a new post. This keeps the morale of the employees high.

8. By transfer, there are many departments in the company. If there is a surplus of employees in any of them, then they can be transferred from here to the place of need.

9. Former Employees – If a former employee, but having the required qualifications, was retrenched for some reason but wants to come back to work, then he can be appointed. 

10. Friends and relatives of current employees Friends and family of current employees

Q. 4. What procedure will you adopt in the selection of employees? Discuss each step briefly. (What Steps are involved in the selection procedure of employees? Explain them briefly.)

Or, What are the characteristics of a good election policy? What is the difference between recruitment and selection of employees?

(What are the characteristics of a sound selection distinctions between selection and recruitment ?)

policy? What are the Or, explain the difference between recruitment and selection. Describe the different steps in the selection process (Difference between recruitment and selection. Describe the steps involved in the selection process.)

Ans. Selection Process – In a country where employees are less available in the market compared to the demand for employees, the problem of selection does not arise because whatever

Everyone who comes will be selected, but where thousands of applications are sent for one vacant position, there is a problem of selecting the most efficient employee. While making the choice, it is essential to understand the employment policy of the organization. 

The work of employee selection is very important because most of the problems related to workers that the management has to face arise due to wrong selection of workers. Selection does not only mean qualification prescribed for a particular job.

That person should be selected and appointed. The ideal selection method affects the short-term and long-term problems of the organization. The new employee not only joins the current organization

Be capable of doing the work but can also contribute to the progress of the organization. Meaning of Selection: Selection means selecting a pre-determined number of eligible candidates through various tests from a large number of applicants.

Definitions of Selection-

1. According to Dale Poder, “Selection is the process by which job applicants are given two votes – those who are to be given the job and those who are not to be given the job.” (Selecía is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes, those who to be offered employment and those who are not.) 

2. According to Wethrich and Kuntz, “Managerial selection is choosing from among the candidates the one who be meets the position requirements.” .)

Different stages of the selection process (Steps involved in the Selection Process) There are different selection processes in all the institutions. In small organizations the selection process is limited whereas in big organizations it is detailed. Following are the main stages of selection process adopted by big institutions:

1. Initial Interview, 

2 Vacancy Application Form (Applicatio Blank), 

3. Reference Checking, 

4. Psychological Test, 5. Final Interview, 

6. Surveyor (Approval by Immediate Boss), 

7. Medical Examination, 

8. Induction. 

In modern times, the following tasks are done for the selection of employees- 

1. Job Analysis: First of all, job analysis is done to collect necessary facts for advertisement, application form, interview and test and related job standards and job descriptions are collected. The job description contains a detailed description of the work, the materials and equipment used in the work, and the work standard is a list of qualifications required to perform these tasks. Both of these are needed in the election system.

2. Advertisement: Advertisement is prepared on the basis of job analysis in which necessary qualifications, salary etc. are mentioned. 

3. Preliminary Interview: Very few institutions in our country use it. After seeing the advertisement, application forms are requested which are mostly sent by post. Some institutions, instead of sending the form by post, arrange for the office to give the form in person and while giving the form, preliminary check is done on the person taking the form. 

4. Application Blank – Every organization uses such application forms which are mandatory for the person sending the application. This is done so that every necessary information related to the applicant can be obtained systematically. 

5. References: In most of the applications, references are sought from two or more responsible persons who know the applicant. These could be his old managers, 

6. Psychological Test: Suitable persons found in the application forms are called for examination and written examination is taken. 

7. Selection Interview – There is hardly any company or organization which does not use interview in the selection of employees. Apart from being the oldest method of election, it is also universally accepted. A board of one person or a few persons is formed who conducts the interviews. Mostly such interviews are conducted by the board itself because it involves experts from different fields along with senior officials of that post.

8. Approval of Section Officer (Approved by Supervisor) —— At every stage, the wishes of the Section Officer should be kept in mind while making the selection because it is he who has to take the work from that employee. If an experienced officer has been appointed to the board, then he should have the right to take the final decision. If he is not taken on the board, he should have the right to take the final decision even after the interview.

9. Medical Examination – After receiving the advice of the Section Officer, the qualifications of the employees are examined by doctors or they are asked to bring the certificate of a qualified doctor. This is done so that healthy employees come to the organization instead of weak and sick people. 

10. Induction: After medical examination, the applicant is appointed to his post. When he returns to his place, he meets new colleagues and managers. He has to face new tasks and situations. 

Q.5. What is meant by appointment of employees? Explain its functions (What is appointment of employees? Explain its functions.)

Ans. Appointment or Recruitment of Employ- ets—– Appointment is the process under which a manager selects people to handle the responsibilities of various positions within the organization and makes arrangements for training etc. as per requirement. 

The work of appointment is very important. Recruitment involves correctly and effectively selecting, evaluating and developing employees. The purpose of appointment is to maintain the suitability of the work for the individual because in its absence the objectives of any organization cannot be achieved. Some definitions of employee appointment are given below – Definition – “Employee appointment is related to achieving job satisfaction and satisfied manpower and maintaining it.

“Employee appointment involves mass mobilization and development of individuals through appropriate and effective selection and marking process, so that they can play the designed role in the organizational structure.”

Functions of Appointment/Recruitment Policy—

Following are the main tasks of employee appointment – ​​(a) Determining Man power Recruitment –

The first task of staffing is to determine the manpower requirements keeping in mind the structure of the organization. By analyzing each job, it is decided that the candidates with which qualification should be appointed for which post.

(b) Planning Man power requirement – ​​After determining the requirement, care is also taken as to how many employees are to be appointed and when. For this the following things should be kept in mind- 

(i) Number of present employees.

(ii) The number of employees retiring in the year out of the current employees.

(c) Recruitment and Selection – Planning of manpower. After this, their sources of recruitment are considered. Two sources of recruitment of employees- 

(i) Internal sources and (ii) External sources.

Internal source means filling the following positions by promoting some of the employees working in the organization. Internal source means filling the following positions by promoting some of the employees working in the organization. 

The morale of employees engaged in recruitment from internal sources increases and more qualified people become available for smaller posts; But internal sources should be used with caution otherwise nepotism may flourish, leading to dissatisfaction among the employees. 

On the contrary, external source means inviting people from outside the organization to fill the vacant positions. After determining the source of recruitment, the work of selecting individuals is done. For this, written interview etc. is given. In this way, people are selected and work is assigned to them according to their qualifications. Very

(d) Training – After the appointment of employees, their training is done. Making training arrangements is an important task of employee appointment. The knowledge and skills of employees increase through training. There are many types of training.

(e) Evaluation – Another function of employee appointments is to evaluate the employees from time to time. Employees remain alert through evaluation. Their efficiency is assessed through evaluation. Deserving people can be given opportunities for advancement.

(f) Salary and other perks: The employee determines the appointment, salary and other perks of the employees according to their qualifications and responsibilities of the post. Salaries and wages can be paid in two ways.

(i) According to time, (ii) According to work.

Apart from remuneration, salary and wages, other facilities etc. should be given to the employees. Such as accommodation facility, ration at concessional price, travel expenses etc. This keeps the employees satisfied and their morale increases.

Q.6 . What is the importance of training employees? (What is the importance of training?)

Or, what do you understand by training? What is the importance of giving training? (What is the meaning of training? Give its importance.)

Ans. Meaning of Training: Employee training means making employees more efficient by giving them information about working. In the words of Filippo, “The work of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee to perform a particular job is called training.” In the words of Dale Moder, “Training is the method by which the labor force is made capable of doing the work.” Training is a continuous process. Training is given not only to new employees but also to old and experienced successful employees so that they can perform new responsibilities successfully.

Importance of Training – Training is an important essential function of management. Its importance is increasing day by day. The reason for this is that the production method is becoming complex day by day. New areas of production are being invented and the activities performed by workers are becoming more mechanical. The importance of training is evident from the following facts-

(a) Increase in production – A trained worker gets complete information about his work and his work efficiency increases, as a result of which production increases and the level of production becomes higher.

(b) Correct use of goods and machines (Full Use of Men and machines) – The trained employee learns to use the goods and machines properly. Due to which the wear and tear of machines is reduced and wastage of goods is greatly reduced. 

(c) Less supervision is required. Training employees take on proficiency in their work. Hence the need to take care of them reduces.

(d) Reduction in Accidents: After receiving training, employees acquire information about the correct use of machines, as a result of which the chances of accidents are reduced.

(e) High Morale – The knowledge and experience of a trained employee increases and he works well. When he does good work, he gets a feeling of satisfaction, as a result of which his morale increases.

(f) Increase in receptivity (Easy to adopt) – Trained employee easily learns new and modern ways of doing things. 


Q.1. What is the meaning of development? 

Ans. Development is a planned and organized process through which employees acquire adequate knowledge and skills for the smooth functioning of the organization. 

Q.2. What is time based wage system? (What is time rate wages?)

Ans. According to this system, workers are given a fixed wage according to the fixed time. Rights: This type of wages to laborers working on contract. It is said that the laborer should be paid wages based on the amount and type of work he does.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Commerce Stream

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