Structural Change Class 12 Notes Sociology Questions Answers Part B

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NCERT Part B Structural Change Class 12 Notes Sociology Questions Answers

Chapter NameMass Media and Communications
Chapter numberChapter 1
Medium English
Study MaterialsNotes & important questions
Download PDFPART B Sociology Chapter 1 Notes PDF

Structural Change

A group of human beings is called a society. Man lives his life by living in society. Therefore, there is a close relationship between man and society. Changes keep on coming in human life.

So change is the law of life. Changes keep happening in society as well. Due to this changes keep on taking place in the life of human beings as well. Due to social changes, changes keep coming in the social structure. Today most of the people of society are engaged in doing such works which are different from the works done by the earlier people.

Structural Change Class 12 Notes

Society is a network of human relations, when human behavior or human relations begin to be modified, then we call it social change. If we see in India, a big change has been taking place. A big change is seen in the ancient Indian society and the present Indian society.

Sociologists have divided social change into two categories, structural processes and cultural processes. Caste, kinship, family and occupational groups are some of the typical aspects of structural change.

Colonialism has brought about new changes in the political, economic and social structure. Under the structural change, subject matter like industrialization and urbanization has always been changing along with the change of time.

Industrialization and urbanization do not only mean production system, technological innovation and density of population, but it is an important part of our life. Science is an important element of human heritage that provides systematic knowledge of nature. Technology gives practical form to this knowledge.

Technology has a practical purpose. Its development has happened only with the desire to benefit the common man. This goal has been realized in agriculture, transport, communication etc. The rapid changes that take place in our lives are related to new technology, new inventions and methods of production.

Due to colonization, the colony of England was established in India. Because British rule was established in India. Due to this, various types of changes took place in India, in which important changes took place in industrialization and urbanization.

The term industrialization expresses the process of economic, and social change. The pace of industrialization in India was very slow before independence. After independence, the government rapidly increased the pace of industrialization through five-year plans.

Undertakings in the public sector grew rapidly. Urbanization is the process through which urban elements or urbanization develop.

In general, an increase in the density and size of the population, excess of inequality and formality in social relations, increase in social mobility and variability, and the dominance of individualistic life-philosophy and cultural diversity are considered as urban elements. these elements

Urbanization is the growth and spread of In fact, at present, there has been a lot of development in the field of industrialization and urbanization in India.

sociology class 12 Chapter 1 structural change questions and Answers

1. What kind of impact has colonialism had on our lives? You can analyze either by focusing on one aspect like culture and politics or by combining the aspects.

Ans. At one level, the rule of one country over another is considered colonialism. Western colonialism has had the greatest influence in modern times.

from the history of IndiaIt is clear that there are different types of groups according to time and place. territories that make up modern India today, but colonial

The rule remained different and effective from any other rule. The changes it brought about have been profound and discriminatory.

These changes or effects are as follows – Effect in the political and cultural field – The parliamentary law and education system established in our country is based on the British format and patterns. Even our walking on the left side of the road follows British rules.

We usually get food items like ‘Bread-Omelette’ and ‘Cutlets’ on the roadside vendors and carts. Moreover, the name of a famous biscuit manufacturing company is also associated with ‘Britain’.

The ‘neck-tie’ has become an essential part of the dress in many schools. We often praise the West in these things used in our daily life, but often oppose it.

We see many such examples in our daily life. These examples show that British colonialism is still an intricate part of our lives.

We can also take the example of the English language, whose multifaceted and contradictory influence we are all familiar with. English is not the language in use, but we see that many Indians have also written excellent literary works in the English language.

Knowledge of English has given India a special place in the globalized international market. But it should not be forgotten that even today English is a symbol of privilege. One who does not have knowledge of English has to face difficulties in the field of employment.

But on the other hand knowledge of the English language has proved beneficial for many disadvantaged groups. These things are appropriate in the context of Dalits. In the traditional system, Dalits had to remain deprived of formal education. Knowledge of English has now opened doors of opportunities for Dalits as well.

2. What is the relationship between industrialization and urbanization? Consider.

Ans. The interrelationship found in urbanization and industrialization has always been a matter of controversy. Most scholars are of the opinion that industrialization is necessary for urbanization.

Industries develop in industrialization and for that raw materials, means of power, means of transport and traffic are necessary for the movement of workers. Due to industrialization, these facilities turn small towns into big cities. Sometimes industrialization is also helpful in developing cities from new ends.

Such cities are called industrial cities. So we can say that industrialization is necessary for urbanization. Where industries develop, cities also develop there. Technological development is necessary for the concentration of the population in any one place, which is related to the process of industrialization. Both the processes of industrialization and urbanization are interrelated.


1. What is meant by change?

Ans. Change in the present state is called change.

2. What is meant by social change?

Ans. When the members of society think and act differently from the fixed ways, it is called social change.

3. What is meant by structural change?

Years, Changes in social relations are called structural changes. Family, Marriage, kinship and occupational groups are part of the structural process. If there is a change in these, then it is called structural change.

4. What is colonization?

Ans. Imperialist countries for their own benefit (occupation of underdeveloped countries is called colonization.

5. What do you understand by industrialization?

Ans. Industrialization is the process of technological advancement from home production with simple equipment to large-scale factory production.

6, What is meant by urbanization?

Ans. Urbanization is the process in which, despite the change in the condition of the village, the city gets converted into and urbanity comes in the way of life.

7. Tell the number of cities with 10 lakh population in India.

Ans. The number of cities with a population of 10 lacks or more increased from 12 in 1981 to 38 in 2001.

8, What are the main features of urbanization?

Ans. Excessive mobility, lack of time, life-based on advanced technology, hustle and bustle, slums, transportation problems, lack of necessities like electricity and water, lonelyFamily etc.

9, What is meant by modernization?

Ans. Modernization is a multidimensional economic, political, social and cultural process that gives a new form to the life of the members of society.

10. What are the prerequisites for modernization?

Ans. An increase in education, communication media, means of transport, democratic political institutions, dynamic population, and nuclear families instead of joint families are necessary for modernization.


1. What do you understand by social change?

Ans. Social change is a process related to the change in social relations and the system of India. According to Gillin and Gillin, “Social change is a change in accepted ways of life.

whether those changes are due to geographical conditions, or by cultural means, by changes in the composition or principles of the population, or by propagation, or by invention within the group.”

According to Johnson, “Social change means a change in social structure.” Every change is not called social change, but only the change in social relations, social institutions and mutual relations of institutions comes under the category of social change.

2. State the influence of economic factors in social change.

Ans. Social change is a change in social relationships, social structure, social institutions or mutual relations among institutions. There are many factors of social change, in which demographic factors, biological factors, cultural, geographical and psychological factors are prominent.

Economic factors play an important role in social change. Growth of capitalism, division of labour and specialisation, high standard of living, economic crisis, unemployment and poverty are the major economic factors. Economic factors have a great influence on society.

Karl Marx has explained social change only on economic grounds. According to him, changes in the means of production also lead to changes in the forces and relations of production, which affect the economic structure. The economic structure determines all kinds of relations.

3. What do you understand by structural change?

Ans. Sociologists have divided social change into two parts – structural process and cultural process. The process of change is structural, with the formation of social relations, caste, kinship, family and occupational group. Changes in these are called structural changes.

For example, agriculture work in which family members do farming together is the traditional method of agriculture, but when the method changes to produce for sale in the market by employing hired labor, then we call it structural change. The disintegration of the joint family system and the change in nuclear family is a structural change.

Joint families were traditional. In these, children’s upbringing, education, business, and social security were achieved automatically. But due to the practice of a single family, all these activities are performed by various organizations and institutions.

Schools, economic organizations, government departments and other institutions perform these functions. Industrialization, modernization and westernization have a special contribution in bringing social change.

4. Differentiate between urbanization and urbanism.

Ans. Urbanization is the process in which people start living in towns and cities instead of living in villages. They use such methods that the agriculture-based settlement area is converted into a non-agriculture urban development area.

The growth of urban centers is the result of increased industrial and commercial activities. The population of towns and cities is increasing rapidly and they are due to an increase in the number of non-agricultural households.

Urbanism- According to Lewis year, the urban environment creates a specific type of social life which is called urbanism. Social life in cities is more formal. and impersonal and mutual relations are based on the complex division of labour and are contractual in nature.

5. Why is the trend of urbanization increasing in India? 

Ans. The role of migration towards cities behind the increasing trend of urbanization in India is important. A large number of people are leaving the villages and coming not only to big cities but also to small and medium towns. That migration is related to production and jobs.

seasonality in unskilled laborThe trend of migration has also become common. laborers migrate seasonally and later choose to settle permanently in the areas of

6. What are the main problems of urban life?

Ans. Urbanization in India is increasing at a rapid pace. It has affected human life in many ways. The expansion of urban centers has also given rise to a variety of problems. Overcrowding, pollution, housing and slums, crime, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse and substance abuse are some of the major problems in cities.

Due to overcrowding in the cities, its effect can be clearly seen on the decline in housing, water supply, cleanliness, traffic, electricity supply and employment opportunities. The main problems are the increasing number of homeless people, the exorbitant increase in house rents and the whole family living in small houses.

7. What is meant by urbanization? Or, explain the concept of urbanization it 

Ans. When the rural population starts moving towards the cities in search of work, the population of the cities starts increasing. This is called urbanization. The meaning of urbanization is taken from the development of cities. It is the process through which the rural society transforms into an urban society.

It can be called both the result and cause of industrialization. Cities grow due to industrialization. According to Srinivas, “Urbanization does not mean only more population in a narrow area but also changes in socio-economic relations.”

8. What are the main elements of urbanization?

Ans. Urbanization is the process through which the development and spread of urban elements or urbanity take place. In general, an increase in the density and size of the population, excess of inequality and formality in social relations, increase in social mobility and variability, the dominance of individualistic life-philosophy and cultural diversity are considered as urban elements. Urbanization is the increase and spread of these elements.

9. Is industrialization necessary for urbanization?

Ans. The interrelationship between those found in urbanization and industrialization is always a matter of dispute.has been the subject of Most scholars are of the opinion that industrialization is necessary for urbanization.

 Industries are developed in industrialization and for that raw material, means of power, means of transport and traffic are necessary for the movement of labour. Due to industrialization, these facilities turn small towns into big cities.

Sometimes industrialization is also helpful in developing cities anew. Such cities are called industrial cities. So we can say that industrialization is necessary for urbanization. where industries There is the development of cities, there is also the development of cities.

Technological development is necessary to contain the population at any one place, which is related to the process of industrialization. Both the processes of industrialization and urbanization are interrelated.

10. “Industrialization and urbanization are not necessarily correlated.” Explain.

Ans. Sociologists are of the opinion that the processes of industrialization and urbanization though may be related, are not necessarily or completely correlated. Both processes are independent of each other. Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Pataliputra, Nalanda, Banaras and Delhi are very ancient cities in India.

The development of these cities took place long before industrialization. There are examples of the existence of cities in developed countries as well. There are also some centers which are only industrial centres.

There has not been much increase in the urban population. It is true that when the process of industrialization starts, the development of cities takes place at a very fast pace, but the existence of cities before industrialization in India proves that these two are independent activities.

11. Mention the main causes of urbanization in India.

Ans. Urbanization – It is the process through which the rural society is transformed into an urban society. It is a process in which the urban population starts increasing in any country. Urbanization is a complex process of social change. Urbanization is the process through which urban elements develop and spread. Causes of urbanization in India:

(i) Growth of population and industrialization- Population is increasing rapidly in India. It moves towards cities in search of a growing population and livelihood.

(ii) Industrialization – Due to scientific inventions there has been rapid development of industries. This resulted in the development of cities. New towns were formed in the places where industries were established. Got developed.

(iii) Development of means of transport and conveyance- Due to the development of means of transport, the population can easily move from one place to another. conveyanceSocial mobility and cities have been encouraged by the development of means of transportation.

(iv) Means of education and entertainment – In the modern era, educational institutions became the centre of knowledge and students from far-off places started coming to get an education in these educational institutions. In the cities, many means of entertainment like cinema, theatre etc. helped in the development of the cities.

(v) Advancement in the business sector-advancement in the business sector, development of political parties, The trend of urbanization is increasing due to the development of a democratic governance system, development of international relations, the birth of new economic organizations and favourable physical conditions.


1, State the role of technology in social change.

Ans. Technology plays a special role in bringing social change. Technology is a systematic knowledge in which tools and equipment are used. It includes all those skills and knowledge and actions by which social groups bring about changes in their physical and social structure.

Technology and social change are closely related. Along with technological changes, social relations also keep on changing. New technology creates new situations and new opportunities in life.

The new conditions of life go a long way in adapting to the new opportunities of life. The factory system has emerged with the use of new methods of production. Class discrimination was born in the society. Birth of new ideologies and movementshappened, women’s workload has decreased but slums have come up in industrial centers andThe workers were forced to lead a hellish life.

Technology has greatly affected social life. Technological factors have had a great impact on the values ​​of life. There have been changes in the thoughts, attitudes and beliefs of man. Remarkable changes have taken place in the form of Indian caste system, rituals and religious beliefs.

The functions of the family have been taken over by various institutions and committees. Joint family is rapidly disintegrating, in its place the practice of nuclear families has increased. There has been relaxation in marriage bonds. The nature of the state is becoming secular.

Religious parochialism is coming to an end. Technology has had the greatest impact on civilian life. Diseases are increasing. Family control has decreased. Morality has fallen. There is a disparity in the population of men and women.

2, Mention the progress of industrialization in India.

Ans. The network of household and cottage industries before the establishment of the British Empire in IndiaWas sitting After the industrial revolution in Europe, large scale production industrial units started to be established in the last years of the nineteenth century. Around 1850, large industrial units started being established in India.

India in 1914The largest jute production unit was started in Factories were opened to make cotton cloth and the railway system developed. In India for about one hundred years before independence

Mass production continued. Steel After independence, the pace of industrialization accelerated under the Five Year Plans.

The expansion and diversification of the industrial sector in India took place on a large scale. In 1951 there were only two units in production. By 1980, their number increased to 6 and the production capacity increased to 8 million tonnes. Many such industries were established which were not there in India before 1951.

Many production units were started in the fields of tractors, electronics, fertilizers etc. for agricultural work. Now, in addition to the production of cotton cloth and jute, many units of synthetic cloth were established.

After independence, the public sector was developed rapidly. Factories for coal, heavy and light engineering materials, engines, aeroplanes, petroleum products and fertilizers were opened in the public sector.

After independence, there has been rapid industrialization in the country and India is being counted among the industrialized countries of the world.

3, Analyze the socio-economic consequences of industrialization.

Ans. Industrialization has made a deep impact on our economic and social life. Our economic structure has changed due to industrialization. Industrialization has completely changed our domestic production.

Mass production began in factories. A large class of specialists and industrial workers developed. Industrial structure has changed. Due to the change in the methods of doing agricultural work, there has also been a change in the mutual relations of those doing agricultural work.

Women have started working in farms, factories and business establishments. Different members of the family are now doing different types of business. The joint family system, which has been doing economic, educational, socialization and entertainment functions till now, is disintegrating.

These functions have now been taken over by other organizations. With the development of means of transport and communication, people are migrating in large numbers from villages to cities where better opportunities are available to them.

The caste system, which is an important condition of the Indian social system, is also undergoing changes. Many castes have given up their occupation. Occupational diversity has freed all occupations from the shackles of caste.

Castes considered to be high are coming forward for professions which were not considered good earlier. Castes considered to be low are now doing those works which were earlier done by the upper class people of the society.

On the basis of occupation and income, one can see capitalist class, working class and middle class in Indian society today. Industrial development has affected the caste system, joint family system and marriage system in Indian villages. Industrialization brought about a rapid change in the old rural customs.have been The mobility of labor is increasing with the development of means of transport.

 4, Mention the effects of industrialization in India.

Ans. Industrialization in India is about 100 years old. Industrialization has made a special impact in the socio-economic life of India. We can explain the effects of industrialization on the following basis-

(i) Urbanization: Due to industrialization many new industrial cities have developed. Thousands of workers have started getting work in factories. Numerous farmers from the villages come to the cities in search of work.

(ii) Class discrimination in society The biggest effect of industrialization is that it creates class discrimination in society. The gap between rich and poor widens. This industrialization is the reason for the struggle between the workers and the capitalists.

(iii) Birth of new ideologies from industrial class struggle and urbanizationIdeologies have emerged. In cities where there are big factories, communist ideology dominates. There are situations of strike and lockout.

(iv) Slums and Dense Settlements – In industrial cities, slums are established around the factories. They have a deep impact on young men and women and children.

(v) Reduction in the work load of women- With the use of machines, women’s work has become easier and less laborious. They are also getting enough time for professional work like men.

(vi) Effect of means of transport- The establishment of social relations has a special effect on means of communication. Development of business using machines in various industriesHas happened.

(vii) Development of factory system – establishment of big factories led to the growth of cottage industries.There has been a decline and big factories have been established in their place, which has affected the living conditions of the people working there. Factories have formalized the mutual relations of the persons concerned.

5. State the impact of industrialization on social life.

Ans. The industrialization has greatly affected social life. It has the following effects on social relations-

(i) Family Institution and Influence: As a result of industrialization, many functions of the family sector have been taken over by various institutions and societies. Today the joint family system is disintegrating, in its place the trend of nuclear families is increasing rapidly. The structure of the family is also changing rapidly. There is no longer the autocratic rule of the doer in the family, nor is the status of women so low.

(ii) Effect on the institution of marriage – establishment of big cities as a result of industrialization been The bonds of marriage have become loose. Marriage which was a religious rite is now has taken the form of a social contract. The importance of love marriages is increasing.

(iii) Influence of religious institutions- People’s sentiment towards religion is decreasing, and scientific inventions have increased man’s ability to conquer nature. The states also follow secularism. Religious fanaticism is now slowly reducing.

(iv) Changes in the social status of women- women are now away from the four walls of the house. They have come out and started doing different professions like men.

(v) Impact on civil life- The advancement of technology is having various effects on social life. Lack of community spirit, Value of time increases, Diseases increase, Lack of family control, Low level of morality, Male and female population Problems like inequality are arising.

Geography भूगोल
Political science राजनीति विज्ञान
English SubjectResult
Hindi SubjectHistory answer keys


1. What has been the impact of technical inventions on the life of the common man?

Ans. Gas stoves, gas, uses of machines in agriculture, construction of roads, means of communication increase in population, improvement in the railway system, use of electricity etc.

2. What is the impact of religion in the process of modernization?

Ans. In the process of modernization, television is helping to expand religion and religious sentiments. Many traditional institutions and activities have resumed.

3. What is the impact of the process of modernization on rural life?

Ans. The process of modernity is active in Indian rural communities today. in the villagesThe farmer is engaged in advanced agriculture by using new scientific methods.

4. Briefly explain the process of modernization in India.

Ans. Sociologist A. N. Srinivas is of the opinion that the presence of modernity in India can be traced back to the British period.

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