Class 12 History Notes Chapter 2 & Q/A | King, farmers, towns, Early States, and Economics best solution

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Class 12 History Notes Chapter 2 & Q/A: In this post, we were given very important notes from Class 12 history Ch-2, King, farmers, and towns: Early States and Economics. In this post, you get upcoming very important questions and its answer in a very simple way. In this post, we cover class 12 chapter 2 history notes, class 12 history chapter 2 notes in English, kings, farmers, and towns class 12 questions and answers

NCERT Class 12 History Notes Chapter 2 & Q/A

Chapter NameKing, farmers, and towns: Early States and Economics 
Medium English / History
Study MaterialsFree Study Materials are Available

Quick Summary: King, farmers, and Towns: Early States and Economics 


Vedic civilization developed much after the Harappan civilization. The first and ancient Rigveda Yun was composed during this period by the people living on the banks of the Indus River and its tributaries. 

Most of the places during this period were agrarian settlements especially in North India, the Deccan Plateau region, and Karnataka. There is also evidence of pastoral settlements in the Deccan and South India regions. 

Has happened In this period, the megalithic culture developed, in which burials were covered with large stones. This period is also called Iron Age because different types of iron tools and weapons are found with many dead bodies. 

Similarly, many other changes are visible. The sources of the history of this period are inscriptions, texts, coins, and paintings.

Prinsep was an officer of the East India Company. They read Brahmi and Kharoshti Niyya which were inscribed on inscriptions and coins. He got Piyadassi written in many articles which was the title of the emperor. 

Maurya Empire c.250 BCE 2

This discovery of Prinsep helped enough to remain in history. Indian and European scholars reconstructed the genealogies of the major dynasties. This led to the rapid creation of political history. An attempt was made to link it with its social and economic history.

In early Indian history, in the sixth century B.C. It is considered to be an important transitional period. This period is often associated with the growing use of iron in early states, cities, and the development of coins. Various philosophical ideologies including Buddhism and Jainism developed during this period. 

In the early texts of Buddhism and Jainism, there is a mention of sixteen states by the name of Mahajanapada. Most of the mahajanapadas were ruled by a king but states known as ganas and sanghas were ruled by a group of people. Each such person was called Rajan. 

Important Timeline: Major Political and Economic Developments 

Around 600-500 B.C = Planting of paddy, urbanization in Ganga Valley, Mahajanapada, and Aahat coins.

Around 500-400 B.C = The hold on power of the rulers of Magadha

Around 327-325 B.C = Alexander’s invasion

Around 321 B.C.= Ascension of Chandragupta Maurya.

Around 272/268-231 BC= Reign of Ashoka. 

Around 185 B.C. = End of the Maurya Empire.

Around 200-100 B.C. = Saka Rule in the North-West Roman Trade, Gold Coins.

Around 78 B.C.= Ascension of Kanishka. 

Around 100-200 B.C= Epigraphic records of land grants by the Satavahana and Saka rulers Proof.

Around 320 B.C.= Beginning of Gupta rule.

Around 335-375 B.C= Samudragupta.

Around 375-415 BC = Chandragupta II, the Vakatakas in the Deccan.

Around  500-600 BC = Rise of Chalukyas in Karnataka and Pallavas in Tamil Nadu

Around 606-647 B.C= King Harshavardhana of Kannauj; traveled of Chinese traveler Hansang to India.

Around 712 AD= The conquest of Sindh by the Arabs.

12TH HISTORY CH-2 VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS | Class 12 History Notes Chapter 2 & Q/A

Class 12 history Ch-1 Notes
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 2 & Q/A

Q.1. What were the benefits of deciphering the scripts by Prinsep in 1830 AD?

Ans. (i) This discovery gave a new direction to the study of the political history of early India. 

(ii) Indian and European scholars used inscriptions and texts written in different languages ​​to reconstruct the genealogies of the major dynasties that ruled the subcontinent. 

Q.2. BC Why is the 6th century considered to be a revolutionary period?

Ans. (1) In this period, the initial states and cities emerged, it was used for iron. This became possible with the development of coins. 

(ii) Various philosophical ideologies including Buddhism and Jainism developed during this period. 

Q. 3. When was the Dharmashastras written? What is their importance? 

Ans. (i) About 6th century B.C. The composition of texts called Dharmashastras was started.

(ii) Rules are laid down for others including the ruler and it is expected. It was believed that the rulers would be from the Kshatriya caste only.

Q.4. Why did Magadha become the center of new religious movements? 

Ans. (i) Magadha was the center of political activities in those days, so if the rulers were brought from here to Buddhism or Jainism, then the possibility of spreading their beliefs was very high.

Q.5. What was the impact of the Kalinga war? 

Ans. Ashoka with Kalinga (or modern Orissa) in 261 BC. I fought a war. This war had far-reaching effects-

(i) Seeing the destruction of this war, Ashoka was so distraught that he left the path of war forever and adopted the path of religion-victory.

(ii) Ashoka now became a follower of Buddhism and made this religion a world religion with a small creed.

Q.6. Write two main reasons for the decline of the Mauryan dynasty. 

Ans. (i) When Ashoka adopted Buddhism after the war of Kalinga, all his military activities stopped, which proved to be very fatal for the empire.

(ii) Foreign invaders, especially Indo-Greeks and Indo-Parthians took advantage of this weakness and started attacking the country. In front of their fierce attacks, the Mauryan Empire, weak in military power, could not stand.

Q.7. Explain the meaning of the word ‘Dhamma’. 

Ans. ‘Dhamma’ refers to those rules of social behavior which are based on morality.

There are, like respecting the elders, loving the younger ones, etc. After the victory of Kalinga, Ashoka propagated ‘Dhamma’ like this.

Q.8. What is the importance of Rajgah?

Ans. (i) Rajgah was the capital of Magadha. The literal meaning of this word is ‘house of kings’.This is the Prakrit name of Rajgir of the modern Vihara. 

(ii) Rajgah was a fortified city situated amidst hills. Later in the fourth century B.C. Pataliputra was made the capital. 

Q.9. What is the importance of boundaries mentioned in Manusmriti?

Ans. (i) Manusmriti is the most famous law book of early India. 

(ii) According to this ignorance of boundaries leads to disputes in the world.

Q.10. Why did Alexander want to attack India?

Ans. (i) The first reason given is that Alexander was a great conqueror who India wanted to win and glorify its name. 

(ii) The second reason is said to be that he had heard a lot about the greatness of Indian culture, so he himself wanted to test the truth of this fact by coming to India.

Q. 11. What were the functions of the category?

Ans. Each guild was organized into a trade. It used to take money from the common people and give loans. The class used to build temples, gardens, rest houses, etc. for the people. She also used to protect the members.

Q. 12. What are the main sources of information about the Gupta dynasty?

Ans. Inscriptions of Allahabad and Sanchi, documents related to land grants, and literary works of Fahiyan and Kalidas. 

Q. 13. What is the significance of the Allahabad or Prayag pillar inscription?

Ans. The pillar inscription of Allahabad or Prayag is a great historical source of the Gupta period. Much of Samudragupta’s greatness depended on this single source. There are 33 lines of this inscription which are in the Sanskrit language. The author of this account was Harisena, the court poet of Samudragupta, who described the victories and military exploits of his patron.

Q.14. Mention some facts about the ancient city of Rajgir.

Ans. Rajgir was an important capital city of the kingdom of Magadha. It was earlier called Rajgah which is a vernacular word that literally means the house of the king. It was in the present Bihar state. The city was fortified and was situated on the banks of a river surrounded by mountains. Until Pataliputra became the new capital of Magadha, Rajgir (or Rajgah) was the capital of eastern India. It was the center of most important political activities. 

Q. 15. Write the names of any six states of the Mahajan post.

Ans. Vajji, Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, Gandhara and Avanti. 

Q. 16. Briefly explain the meaning of district.

Ans. Janapada is used in both Prakrit and Sanskrit languages. According to literary notes, Janapada used to call that state where the people of any one community, Kavila, set their foot and settled there permanently. The people or people of the clan were the owners of that post or land. They deal with their political, economic, and other life-related matters.

Q. 17. Briefly state the importance of Ashoka’s inscriptions. 

Ans. However, to know the history of Miryo, medieval archaeological evidence such as sculpture artifacts, Arthashastra of Chanakya, Indica of Megasthenes, Jain and Buddhist literature and mythology

Books etc. are very useful but Ashoka’s inscriptions found on stones and pillars are often the most important.

Q. 18. What were the two results of Chandragupta Maurya’s struggle with Seleucus?

Ans. Seleucus’ conflict with Chandragupta in 305 BC. happened in India when he

had attacked. Following were the two main results of this struggle-

(i) The defeat of Seleucus as a result of which he handed over to Chandragupta Maurya the present Herat, Kabul,

Four provinces of Kandahar and Balochistan had to be handed over.

(ii) Chandragupta Maurya presented 500 elephants to Seleucus in return.

Q.19. What were the four successive victories of Chandragupta Maurya? 

Ans. 1. Punjab Victory (Victory of Punjab) — Chandragupta Maurya conquered Punjab after the death of Alexander. 

2. Victory of Magadh – Chandragupta Maurya defeated Kotilya (Chanakya)

He conquered Magadha by killing the last king of Magadha, Ghanananda. 

3. Bengal Victory (Victory of Bengal) — Chandragupta Maurya conquered Bengal in eastern India. 

4. Victory of South – According to Jain literature, he hoisted his victory flag till modern Karnataka. 

HistoryPolitical Science

Q.20. In which languages ​​and scripts were the inscriptions of Ashoka written? What were the subjects? 

Ans. (i) Ashoka’s inscriptions were written in Pati and Prakrit languages. Brahmi-Kharoshthi scripts were used in these. In these records, there is information about Ashoka’s biography, his internal and external policy, and the expansion of his kingdom.

(ii) The orders of Emperor Ashoka were recorded in these inscriptions. 

Q. 21. What is the meaning of religion promoter?

Ans. Dharma pravartika means one who spreads religion or propagates religion. Ashoka converted to Buddhism after Kalinga. For the promotion of this religion, he spent his whole wartime body, mind, and money. Thus he came to be known as ‘Dharma Pravartika’.

Q. 22. What do you understand by the term ‘pilgrimage’? 

Ans. High officials in the Mirya administration were called Tirtha. it was their job to

Keep your eyes on every sphere of public life and keep an eye on the activities of foreign enemies.

Q. 23. What do you understand by ‘Pan’?

Ans. In the Maurya period, there was a silver coin called ‘Pan’ which was 3/4 tola (weight). The salary of the employees was given in the form of ‘Pana’. High officials were given salaries up to 48 thousand ‘Pana’. Some employees were given only 10-20 ‘panas’ as salary.

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 2 & Q/A

Q. 24. Who were the Kushanas?

Ans. Defeated by the Huguenu caste of China, the Yuchi race set out in search of a place to the south. She came and settled on the banks of the Amu river. Out of the five tribes of the Yuchi caste, a tribe named Kushan became powerful under the leadership of Kadphises I. He spread his empire from Central Asia to the banks of the Indus River. He wiped out the name of the Parthian rulers of that region.

Q. 25. Who were the Guptas? Who was the founder of the Gupta dynasty? 

Ans. There is a lot of difference of opinion among historians on who were the Guptas. 

Chowdhary calls them Brahmins, while Pt. Gauri Shankar Vihari Prasad Shastri considers them Kshatriyas, and historians like Altekar consider them Vaishyas. 

Some historians do not hesitate to call them even Shudras. Therefore, no such solid basis has been found so far, which gives complete information about the secret people. Chandragupta, I was the founder of the Gupta dynasty. His reign was from 230 AD to 336 AD.

Q.26. Who was Chandragupta Vikramaditya? Throw light on his main achievements. 

Ans. Chandragupta Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II), was the son of Samudragupta. He ruled from 380 AD to 410 AD.

First of all, he hoisted his victory flag on Bengal. After this, the Valkik race and the Republic of Avanti were conquered. His most important successes were Malwa, Kathiyawar, and Gujarat. 

After defeating the doubts, he assumed the title of Vikramaditya. The great Sanskrit scholar Kalidas lived in his court. There was orderliness during his reign. The people were happy and prosperous.

 Q.27. Mention the importance of the Junagarh inscription.

Ans. The Junagarh inscription was found near Junagarh in Gujarat. The prevalent script of that time was Brahmi. That inscription was written in this script. In this inscription, the details of Ashoka’s religion, moral rules, and rules related to governance have been found. For the information of the people, this inscription was engraved in Pali, the language of the common people.

Q.28. What is the historical importance of the Aihole inscription? 

Ans. In this record, Rati Kirti, the court poet of Chalukya king Pulakeshin II, has written a description of his might in Sanskrit, according to which the kings of Lat, Ganga of Mysore, etc. of Gujarat were defeated. The Chera, Chola, and Pandya rulers of the south were also defeated. In 620 AD, he defeated Harsha on the banks of the river Narmada. When Pulakeshin II took on the Pallava ruler Narasimha Varman, then after that in 642 AD, he was killed by him on the battlefield.

Q.29. What were the main crafts in the post-Mauryan era? 

Ans. In this era, the works of making clothes, weaving silk, manufacturing weapons and luxury items, goldsmiths, dyers (dyeing cloth), tushies, dental craftsmen, jihadis murtis, Manus, blacksmiths, gandhis (perfume makers and sellers) were prominent.

Q.30. Samudragupta is called the Napoleon of India. Why?

Ans. India’s Napoleon Samudragupta – Samudragupta calculated political unity in the country by making Magadha state powerful and conquering small states. Due to the great military successes of Samudragupta, Dr. V.A. Smith called him the Indian Napoleon. Way Napoleon conquered almost all of Europe. Similarly, Samudragupta also conquered the whole of India. No ruler in India was going to challenge his authority.

12TH HISTORY CH-2 SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS | Class 12 History Notes Chapter 2 & Q/A

Class 12 history Ch-1 Notes
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 2 & Q/A

Q.1. State the importance of Mahajanapadas.

Ans. Importance of Mahajanapadas In ancient Indian history, the above Mahajan upliftment has its special importance, first of all, in these Mahajanapadas, republics also emerged from monarchy, where the chief manager was according to democratic principles.

This state included the territories around modern Allahabad. This state was very luxurious and prosperous. Its capital was Kaushambi. The city was situated on the banks of the river Yamuna and was a famous trading center. At the time of Buddha, this kingdom was ruled by a ruler named Udayana. He had to fight with Ajatashatru, the ruler of Magadha, and Pradyota, the king of Avanti. 

Q. 2. What were the reasons for the power of the Magadha Empire? 

Ans. Due to the power of the Magadha Empire-

(i) Ambitious rulers To fulfill their ambition, the then-rulers adopted various methods so that their empire could be expanded. Vimbasar secured his borders by establishing matrimonial relations with the neighboring states. Ajatshatru captured Vaishali and Kaushal on the strength of his power. Mahapadma Nanda usurped Kaushal and Kalinga. Upliftment of Magadha by resorting to all kinds of policies like Sama, Daam, Dand, and Bheda to be done. 

(ii) Natural resources – The natural resources of the state of Magadha were huge. Due to the vast iron mines in Magadha, weapons, industries, and agricultural implements were easily available. Due to this natural wealth, it became easy to develop the state of Magadha.

(iii) Capital at a favorable place – Magadha, on one side the capital was Rajagriha, surrounded by hills, and on the other side was the capital Pataliputra situated at the confluence of Ganga, Gandak, and Son. The invader could not reach them easily. The Magadha Empire could not easily reach these capitals full of natural security. These capitals full of natural security also proved to be a major reason for the rise of the Magadha Empire.

(iv) Military power Magadha’s army had elephants, horses, and chariots. enemy army by elephants

The horses were trampled due to which there used to be a stampede among them. massive gates of forts

The help of elephants was taken in sleeping. Proper use of chariots and horses is also enough. Proved to be beneficial.

(v) fertile land– There was no shortage of fertile land in Magadha state due to the fertile land being located around the Ganga. Therefore, agriculture had a big contribution in keeping the country’s economy stable. This created a wave of prosperity in the state.

Q. 3. What are the main sources of the political history of Mauryas? 

Ans. (i) Magasthenes’s Indica– In order to gain knowledge about Mauryan India, ‘Indica’ composed by Magasthenes is an important book, in which important details are found on the then governance system, society, political and economic condition.

(ii) Kautilya’s Arthashastra– Kautilya’s Arthashastra also throws light on various aspects of the then India from which Mauryas are known. 

(iii) Vishakhadatta Mudrarakshas – In this major book, the destruction of the Nanda dynasty by Chandragupta is described.

(iv) Jain and Buddhist literature — Information about contemporary society, politics, etc. are found in the literature of both Jain and Buddhist religions.

(V) Inscriptions of Ashoka– Ashoka’s inscriptions installed at various places also throw light on the Mauryan administration, religion, social economy, etc. 

Q.4.What was the effect of the Kalinga war on Ashoka? 

Ans. Ashoka’s heart was shaken by seeing the gruesome bloodshed in the Kalinga war. He became disgusted with the name of war and took an oath not to fight in the future. He changed his way of life. The Kalinga war had the following effects:

(i)Victory of Religion – Ashoka broke his dream and vow of world conquest and moved towards the conquest of religion. The great victory is to win over human hearts. 

(II) To adopt Buddhism – The Kalinga war opened Ashoka’s eyes. He embraced Buddhism. It may be possible that if Kalinga Had there been no war, he would not have accepted Buddhism.

(iii). Changes in lifestyle —— Before the Kalinga war, Ashoka Like their forefathers, fought wars, played hunting, ate meat, and lived a life of luxury. 

(iv)Weak Military Administration – With the abandonment of the war policy, the morale of the army fell. The army is largely responsible for the downfall of the Maurya Empire.

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 2 & Q/A

Q.5. Describe the economic efforts made by the Maurya rulers. 

Ans. (i) Tilne mentions a number of taxes collected from farmers, artisans, and traders. 

(ii) Probably the work of tax assessment was done by the highest authority. 

(iii) In fact, the massive organization of taxation came to be seen for the first time in the Maurya period.

(iv) There were state stores in rural areas. It is clear from this that the tax was collected in the form of grain. 

(v) Silver coins bearing the impression of peacock, mountain, and half-moon, recognized coins of the Maurya Empire

Q.6. What were the reasons for economic progress in the Buddhist era?

Ans. Due to the economic development in the Buddhist era – due to the rise of Takshashila, Vaishali, etc., trade flourished. 

(i) Many cities in the Buddhist era Varanasi, Kaushambi, Pataliputra, Kapilvastu, Ayodhya 

(ii) Metal coins were introduced during that period.

(iii) In that period trade was done through both land and water routes. Trade was done through waterways with countries like Lanka, Burma, Java, Sumatra, and Malaya. 

(iv) Craftsmen with different occupations organized themselves into different guilds. 

(v) 1/6th of the cultivable land is taken as tax. 

(vi) Apart from paddy, crops like pulses, jowar, sugarcane, bajra, cotton etc. were also grown.

Q.7. Describe the condition of the main republics during the time of Buddha. 

Ans. The condition of the main republics-

The Sakyas of Kapilvastu, Mallas of Pava and Kushinagar, Lichchavi of Vaishali, etc. were especially famous among the main republics of Buddha’s time. Very little is known about the political history of these states. The kingdom of the Shakyas was located in the foothills of the Himalayas, near the border of Nepal and India. 

Mahatma Buddha also belonged to this caste. These people continued to rule according to the principles of democracy for a long time. In the end, this state was merged into the Kaushal kingdom under the rule of Kaushal’s ruler Virodhak. 

There were two branches of the Mallas, one ruled from the place of Pa (where Mahavir Swami died) and the other from the place of Kushinagar, the place where Mahatma Buddha died. In the end, the kingdom of the Mallas came under the rule of Magadha during the time of Ajatash. merged.

Q. 8. Describe the edicts inscribed on the rocks by Ashoka. 

Ans.(a) State orders inscribed on rocks- State orders inscribed on rocks have been found of any four types-

(b) The second type of inscription is known as The Two Minor Rock Edicts, which have been found at many places like Sasram (East Bengal), Roopnath (Madhya Pradesh), Vaira Sha (Rajasthan), etc. . In these, Ashoka has expressed his true faith in Buddhism. 

(c) The accounts written on the third type of rock were the Faling Rajyadesh (Two Kalinga because both of them have been found in the Kalinga region (Dili and Jogada etc.). It has been described how Ashoka administered the state of these territories. (d) The fourth type of writing is known as The Bhabru Edicts.

Q. 9. What do you know about Ashoka’s Dharma (Dhamma)?

Ans. Ashoka had some moral rules in front of the people for the moral upliftment of his people. The set of these rules is called Dharma. The main principles of Ashoka’s religion were- 

(i) Ashoka’s main principle was respect for elders. According to him, the disciples should respect their teachers. Everyone should respect sages, brahmins, and old men.

(ii) According to Ashoka Dhamma, elders should treat family members, relatives, servants, poor, and fixed slaves with kindness and humility. 

(iii) Every man has to suffer the consequences of his bad deeds in his next birth. That’s why we should do good deeds. 

(iv) Non-violence is the basic mantra of Ashoka Dhamma. According to this, the mind of any living being,Or karma should not hurt. 

(v) All human beings should analyze their life from time to time.

(vi) Jealousy, anger, arrogance, and lying are sins. A man should stay away from these sins.

Q. 10. Assess the importance of the Maurya Empire. 

Ans. Importance of the Maurya Empire — 

(i) Maurya Empire has a lot of importance not only in Indian history but also in world history. India was a colonial country during the British period. Thus the Mauryan Empire

(ii) Mauryan archeology and sculptures have proved that the fourth-third century BC. An empire existed in India.

(iii) Ashoka’s inscriptions were different from other countries in which messages were written. 

(iv) Ashoka was a Chakravarti emperor from whom the nationalist leaders got a lot of inspiration. 

(V) Despite these there were some shortcomings in the Maurya Empire. This empire only lasted for 150 years. Could go on and its expansion was also not in the entire subcontinent.

Q. 11. What progress has been made in the field of language and script during the Mauryan period? 

Ans. Sanskrit was the language of the educated class during the Maurya period and Pali was the language of the common people.

Ashoka made Pali the official language and used it in his edicts as well; Therefore, this language also got a big developed in this period.  Grihasutra, Dharmasutra, and Vedangas were composed, such is the opinion of scholars. In this period, Panini wrote a treatise on Sanskrit grammar called ‘Ashtadhyayi’. 

The other two grammarians, Katyayana and Patanjali, lived in the post-Mauryan era. Buddhist and Jain literature also flourished during the Maurya period. Ashoka held the third Buddhist council in his capital Pataliputra. 

As a result, the Tripitaka texts of Buddhism were organized. In this period, famous Buddhist scholar Tiras composed a book named ‘Kathavathu’. Jain Writers also developed a lot. Famous Jain scholars Bhadrabahu, Prabhav, etc. texts were composed.

Q.12. What was the effect of Alexander’s invasion on India?

Ans. (i) Short stay in India – Alexander stayed in India only for 19 months and He spent almost all this time-fighting. nor the people of India in the atmosphere of war. 

Neither the Greeks nor the Greeks could understand the Indians very well. In such a situation, what effect could the Greek civilization have on India? 

(ii) Border attack only – Alexander could not go to the interior parts of India, so his attack was like a dacoity on the border. In this way, there was very little possibility of Alexander’s attack having any special effect.

(iii) Helpful in the rise of the Maurya dynasty – Due to the invasion of Alexander, Punjab princely states and the fighting castes have now become so weak that it became very easy for Chandragupta Maurya to conquer them, otherwise, Chandragupta would have faced great difficulty in making progress because He then had to fight with many kings. 

(iv) Help in the work of Indian unity – these princely states and warring castes Another effect of being crushed by Alexander was that achieving Indian unity

And it became quite easy to establish a powerful empire.

(v) Direct relation with European countries– Alexander’s invasion did an important job in increasing the contact between East and West. Now people came to know about four routes through which Indian merchants, artisans, and religious preachers went to other countries and people from other countries came to India.

Q. 13. Describe the social and economic life of the Gupta period

Ans. The main features of Gupta period Indian society- The importance of Brahmins had increased again in the Gupta period. He received substantial land grants from the kings. Many castes and sub-castes were born due to Varna Sankar. 

Foreigners were placed in the Kshatriya varna • By land grants the backward people joined the higher varna while the tribals joined the lower varna. Out of the Shudras, an untouchable caste was born, which was known as ‘Chandal’. He had to live outside the city. The condition of women declined during the Gupta period. They could not get higher education. 

Child marriage was prevalent and the right of women was only on women’s wealth (clothes and jewelry). The people of the upper years were happy in all respects.

Economic life The economic life of the Gupta period was happy and prosperous. The Gupta rulers issued a maximum number of gold coins. Very few copper coins are found in this period. 

The silk trade had stopped. Agriculture progressed during this period, but forced labor was taken from the farmers on a large scale. The fallow land was used in many areas. Internal trade was developed.

Q. 14. Describe the art, literature, and science of the Gupta period. 

Ans. Gupta Art, Literature, and Science – Gupta Empire Art, Literature, and Science were the nurturers of His achievements in various fields of art are great. In the field of architecture, he got many temples and buildings constructed. Among the temples, the Shiva temple in Mathura, the temple of Deogarh, etc. are famous. 

The caves of Ajanta built during the Gupta period are world-famous. The Gupta monasteries and stupas are also fine examples of building art. Along with this, there was a lot of progress in fine arts like sculpture, painting, music, coinage, etc. In stone sculptures Buddha, Bodhisattvas, Vishnu,

The idols of Shiva and Surya etc. are excellent from the point of view of artistry. Literature also flourished during the Gupta period. 

The books of Gupta period Kalidas– Abhigyan Shakuntalam, Meghdoot and Kumarasambhava, Devichandraguptam of Vishakhadatta, Bhasa’s Swapnavasavadatta, etc. are famous. All the plays written in the Gupta period are happy endings.

The achievements of the Gupta period in the field of science and mathematics are great. The decimal system was born in this period. Aryabhatta was an astrologer and speedster of that period. 

He discovered that the earth is round and that it revolves around the sun on its axis. Famous astrologer Varahamihira wrote many famous texts like (Vrihadsamhita) and Yogmaya. 

Nagarjuna created chemistry in the field of Ayurveda. Metallurgy was very developed in the Gupta period. The copper images of Buddha obtained from Nalanda are very attractive. The iron pillar at Mehrauli in Delhi is also an attractive specimen of metallurgy and engineering. In this way, there was unprecedented progress in art, literature, and science in the Gupta period.

12TH HISTORY CH-2 LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS | Class 12 History Notes Chapter 2 & Q/A

Class 12 history Ch-1 Notes
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 2 & Q/A

Q.1. 6th century BC Give a brief account of the 16 Mahajanapadas of India. 

Ans. 6th century BC 16 Mahajanapadas – It is known from Jain and Buddhist texts that E. Pooh. In the 6th century, there were 16 states in India which were called 16 Mahajanapadas or Shodas Mahajanapadas. They are described in Angutad Nikaya. Following is a brief description of these states-

(i) Kashi – This state was spread around the present Banaras (Uttar Pradesh). Varanasi was the capital of this state. The Anga, Magadha, and Kaushal states of this state had a continuous struggle. Later, the Kaushal state took it under its control.

(ii) Magadha – It is known from the sources that E. Pooh. Shishunaga established this state in 650. The districts of modern Patna and Gaya were included in this state. Rajagriha was its capital. 

(iii) Kaushal This kingdom was spread over the Awadh region of modern Uttar Pradesh and Shravasti was its capital. Presanjit was the chief king of this state. A detailed account of his struggle with Ajatashatru, the king of Magadha, comes from historical sources. Later it was merged into Mangal Rajya.

(iv) Anga– This state was spread up to the western part of Magadha state in the present Bihar state. It included modern Bhagalpur and Munger. Champa city was its capital. King Bimbisara of Magadha conquered it and merged it with his kingdom. 

(v) Vajji Sangha – It consisted of eight small janapadas or kalas of which the Licchavi was the most famous. Vaishali was its capital. Due to Buddha, this union state had special religious importance.

(vi) Malla – It was a republic. There were two parts to this republic. The capital of one was Kushinagar and the capital of the other was Pava. In course of time, this state also became a victim of the expansionist policy of Magadha. 

(vii) Chedi—This Mahajanapada was in the present Bundelkhand. Shuktimati was its capital. The state also succeeded in making Kalinga region its part. Shishupala was the chief king of this kingdom. After his death, this Mahajanapada declined. 

(viii) Vatsa — In this Mahajanapada, the adjacent region in Kosam village of modern Allahabad) were involved. Its capital was Kaushambi. During the war, a king named Udayan used to rule here. He had to fight with the Magadha emperor Ajatashatru and Avanti’s ruler Pradyota. But he was defeated. The state of Avanti conquered it and merged it with its territory.

(ix) Kuru — It included the regions of Thaneshwar, Delhi, and Meerut. Its capital was Hastinapur. According to Buddhist texts, there was a republican system of governance in the Buddha era. Later Magadha conquered it and merged it with its kingdom. 

(x) Panchal – Ruhilkhand and its surrounding area were included at that time. Probably Kampilya was its capital. Originally this district was a monarchy, but during the time of Kautilya, the republican governance system existed here. The famous ruler of this state was Brahmadatta. 

(xi) Matsya — This state was yellow in Jaipur and Alwar regions. Buddhist literature is silent about the rulers of this district. Presumably, it was earlier known as the Chedi district.

(xii) Shursen – Mathura and its surrounding areas were under this district.  Mathura was its capital. There the monarchy was established.

(xiii) Avanti-Avanti included Ujjain and its surrounding areas. The most famous ruler of this kingdom was Pradyota. He conquered many of his neighboring states. 

(xiv) Assaka—This state was situated near the river Godavari. Patanki was its capital. Later Kashi district won it.

(xv) Kamboja – This kingdom was situated near Gandhara. Some parts of Kashmir were part of this state. Rajpur was its capital. In the time of Kautilya, the republican system was established here in place of the monarchy.

(xvi) Gandhara – It included some areas of Kashmir as well as Peshawar Wadi and some areas of Afghanistan. Taxila was its capital. 

Q2. Write in detail the administration of Chandragupta Maurya. Or, describe the Shaman system of the Maurya Empire.

Ans. Detailed information about the administration of Chandragupta Maurya in Kautilya’s Arthashastra And Magasthenes meets Indika. (According to V. A. Smith – “The Mauryan state was organized and carefully graded officials with well-defined duties”).

(i) Central Administration – Chandragupta Maurya’s rule was autocratic. He himself was the highest officer of the state.  

(ii) Provincial Government – ​​In view of the vastness of the empire, Chandragupta divided it into several provinces, which facilitated his administration. 

(iii) Local Administration  – Magasthenes in his description of India. It is written about the city of Pataliputra (Patna) that which was a grand city. It was nine miles long and two miles wide.

(iv) Village Administration — The smallest unit of administration was the village. An officer named ‘Gramini’ used to manage it. To help the villager, there was a Bha which was used to manage roads, bridges, ponds, and guest houses for the benefit of the village. This committee is also used to manage fairs and festivals. 

(v) Military Administration – Chandragupta had a well-organized and strong army to protect his empire, which had 6 lakh foot soldiers, 30 thousand horsemen, 9000 elephants, and 8000 chariots. There was a committee of 30 members for the management of the army, which was divided into 6 committees. 

The army had the following departments

(a) infantry, 

(b) horse riders, 

HistoryPolitical Science
Chapter NoChapter SolutionMcq
1Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan CivilisationClick here
2Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and EconomiesClick here
3Kinship, Caste and Class Early SocietiesClick here
4Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural DevelopmentsClick here
5Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of SocietyClick here
6Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional TextsClick here
7An Imperial Capital: VijayanagaraClick here
8Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal EmpireClick here
9Kings and Chronicles The Mughal CourtsClick here
10Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official ArchivesClick here
11Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its RepresentationsClick here
12Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and ArchitectureClick here
13Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and BeyondClick here
14Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, ExperiencesClick here
15Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New EraClick here


Q. Who founded the Mauryan Empire?

Ans: According to the Ncert book of class 12 the Mauryan Empire was founded by the great king Chandragupta Maurya. He was the first king of the Mauryan Empire.

Q. Which city was the capital of the Mauryan empire?

Ans: According to many historical books of class 12 the capital of the Mauryan empire is Pataliputra.

Q. What were the 4 capitals of the Mauryan empire?

Ans: According to historical books, the 4 capitals of the Mauryan empire are Tosali ( east), Ujjain (west) Suvarnagiri (south), and Taxila (north).

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