Ncert Class 12 History Notes Chapter 3 & Q/A | Kinship, Caste, and Class Early Society

WhatsApp Group (Join Now) Join Now
Telegram Group (Join Now) Join Now

Ncert Class 12 History Notes Chapter 3 & Q/A: In this post, we were given very important notes from Class 12 history Ch-3, Kinship, Caste, and Class Early Society. In this post, you get upcoming very important questions and its answer in a very simple way. In this post, we cover class 12 chapter 3 history notes, class 12 history chapter 3 notes in English, Kinship, Caste, and Class Early Society class 12 questions and answers

Ncert Class 12 History Notes Chapter 3 & Q/A

Chapter NameKinship, Caste, and Class: Early Society
Medium English / History
Study MaterialsFree Study Materials are Available

Quick Summary: Ncert Class 12 History Notes Chapter 3 & Q/A

About 600 BC under the early society. Analyzing the things related to various social, economic, and political life that took place between 600 AD to 600 AD, information about many important things related to the then society is obtained. 

download 2023 02 11T145112.889
source: ncert

BC Between 600 and 600 AD, there were many changes in the economic and political life which affected the society. Prosperity came due to agriculture, but social inequality was born due to the unequal distribution of wealth. The source of social history is the literary tradition. 

Only then can a proper assessment of the ethics and customs in society be made. The Mahabharata, the richest text of the subcontinent can be analyzed in this regard. Some parts of this book decide the norms of conduct and behavior of different social communities. But the other part is beyond this.

From there, we get information about the authenticity of social behavior, the portrayal of society, and the prevalent customs of society. Records also contribute in this regard. It is noteworthy that each text or inscription was written from the point of view of a particular community. In such a situation, care should be taken in the study of texts for the study of society. 

That huge poetic text, which explains many aspects of life, often based on important political events of a country or caste or regional community, is called an epic. There are two major epics of Indian history, which are called Ramayana and Mahabharata. 

The author of Ramayana was Valmiki while the author of Mahabharata was Vedvyas. There is a total of 18 sections of Mahabharata. In the Mahabharata, there is a description of the war between the Pandavas and Kauravas of Chandravanshi Haritnapur. This war took place in Kurukshetra located in the state of Haryana.

Timeline: Ncert Class 12 History Notes Chapter 3 & Q/A

Around 500 BC: Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, Sanskrit Grammar.

Around 500–200 BCE : Major Dharmasutras (in Sanskrit). 

Around 500–100 BCE: Early Buddhist texts including the Tripitaka (in Pali).

Around 500 BC–400 AD: Ramayana and Mahabharata (in Sanskrit). Composition and compilation.

Around 200 BC–200 AD: Manusmriti (in Sanskrit), Sangam literature of Tamil

Around 100 AD : Charaka and Sushruta Samhita, Ayurvedic texts 

Around 200 AD: Compilation of Puranas (in Sanskrit).

Around 300 AD : Natyashastra of Bharata Muni (in Sanskrit).

Around 300-600 AD: Other Dharmashastras (in Sanskrit).

Around 400-500 AD: Sanskrit drama including the literature of Kalidasa, astronomy and

Very short questions: Ncert Class 12 History Notes Chapter 3

Class 12 history Ch-1 Notes
Ncert Class 12 History Notes Chapter 3 & Q/A

Q. 1. Why is Mahabharata called the great epic?

Ans. (i) The Mahabharata in its present form consists of more than one lakh verses and contains accounts of various social categories and circumstances.

(ii) The composition of this book was around 1000 BC. It continued for 500 to 1000 years.

Q. 2. When and under whose leadership the critical edition of Mahabharata started?

Ans. (i) was a famous Sanskrit scholar in 1919. S. An ambitious project started under the leadership of Sukthankar. 

(ii) Many scholars together started the work of preparing a critical edition of the Mahabharata. 

Q. 3. Why do many distinctions come to the fore in the dispatch of Mahabharata?

Ans. (i) In fact, these distinctions are symbolic of deeper processes that have shaped the dominant traditions.

and the shaping of social history by establishing a dialogue between flexible local thought and practice Had given. 

(ii) These dialogues depict both conflict and consensus.

Q.4. Why do historians analyze the ideas of family and kinship? 

Ans. (i) It shows the thinking of the people. 

(ii) Probably this thinking would have influenced the activities of the people. Behavior may also have influenced thoughts.

Q. 5. What is the difference between patrilineage and matrilineage?

Ans. (i) The lineage that runs from the father’s son, then grandson, paternal grandfather etc. is called patrilineal.

(ii) This line of descent which is linked to the mother is called matrilineal. 

Q.6. Explain the difference between endogamy and exogamy.

Ans. (i) In endogamy the marriage relationship is between the group. This group is a gotra clan Or it could be of one caste or those who settled in the same place. 

(ii) Exogamy is called marriage outside the gotra.

Q.7. What is the difference between polygamy and polyandry?

Ans. (i) In polyandry, a man has many wives. They have many wives of kings. 

(ii) Polyandry system A woman has many husbands, like Draupadi of Mahabharata had five husbands. 

Q.8. Why were codes of conduct prepared?

Ans. (i) With urbanization there was an exchange of ideas between people from far-off places. As a result, there was a difference in beliefs and practices.

(ii) In response to this challenge, the Brahmins prepared elaborate codes of conduct for society

HistoryPolitical Science


Q. 9. What is gotra? What were its rules? 

Ans. (i) 1000 B.C. After the Brahminical system people were divided into different gotras. Each gotra was named after a Vedic sage. The members of that gotra are considered to be descendants of sages.

(ii) Two rules of gotras were important. After marriage, women were considered to belong to the gotra of the husband instead of the father and members of the same gotra could not marry each other. 

Q.10. Who were the Satavahanas?

Ans. After the disintegration of Mirya’s empire, the Satavahanas established a powerful empire in the Deccan. The best ruler of this dynasty claims both the highest lineages. On the one hand, he considers himself a person of the Brahmin caste and on the other hand, he describes himself as the destroyer of cows. He also claims that there were no inter-caste marriages among the four varnas, but after some time it is proved by the evidence that the Tavahanas had matrimonial relations with the Saka king Rudradaman. 

Neither Tarigotra was respected much in the Satavahana society. In this society, women were considered to be the servants of the husband instead of the father. Many records of the Satavahanas have been received by historians on which the blueprint of family and marital relations has been prepared. 

Q. 11. Who were the Shakas?

Ans. The Shakas were the original inhabitants of Central Asia who first came to the subcontinent from the northwest and gradually settled here permanently. Initially, these people were considered by the Brahmins as uncivilized or as invaders coming from foreign countries. 

Gradually they adopted the religions that arose in India such as Buddhism or Vaishnavism. Established marriages with the local people and ruled some areas of North West as well as Western India. 

Q. 12.Who was Ghatotkach?

Ans. Ghatotkacha was the child of another Pandava Bhima and Hidimba, a demonic woman. She was the sister of a man-eating demon. She became obsessed with Bhima. He asked Yudhishthira. 

She wants to marry Bhima and promises that she will voluntarily leave the Pandavas. After becoming the mother of Ghatotkacha, she left the Pandavas along with her son as per her promise.  He will come to them whenever they call him. 

Q. 13. Name the sources related to the reconstruction of Indian history during the epic period. 

Ans. Mahabharata, Ramayana, materials obtained from remains or excavations, inscriptions, monuments and buildings, coins, idols and paintings, Brahmin literature, Upanishads and other texts, Vedanka, Smriti Jataka, Pitaka, texts related to Jainism.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Ncert Class 12 History Notes Chapter 3

Class 12 history Ch-1 Notes
Ncert Class 12 History Notes Chapter 3

Q.1 What were the steps taken to prepare a critical version of the Mahabharata?

Ans. Work done to prepare the critical edition of Mahabharata- 

(i) Initially Sanskrit manuscripts of Mahabharata written in different scripts were collected from different parts of the country. 

(ii) Those verses found in the manuscripts were selected which are found in almost all the manuscripts.

(iii) They were published in several volumes in 13,000 pages. 

(iv) An attempt was made to find similarities in Sanskrit texts.

(v) Several regional differences were also noted in the transmission of the Mahabharata. 

Q.2. Around 600 B.C. Briefly describe the Mahabharata as a source to learn about the social history of the subcontinent from AD to AD 600.

Ans. i. Preface — By focusing our attention on the Mahabharata, one of the richest texts of the subcontinent, we present the essence of such a vast epic which in its present form has more than one lakh verses and accounts of different social categories and situations. Are. The composition of this book continued for a thousand years (from about 500 BC). 

ii. Critical version of Mahabharata and its historical importance – In 1919, famous Sanskrit scholar V.S. A very ambitious project was launched under the leadership of Subyankar. Several scholars together took up the task of preparing a critical edition of the Mahabharata. 

The scholars working on the project found a way to compare the verses found in all the manuscripts. Ultimately he selected the verses that were found in almost all the manuscripts and published them in several volumes spread over 13,000 pages. It took 47 years to complete this project.

Q. 3. Mention the features of the patrilineal system.

Ans. Features of the patrilineal system— 

(i) After the Mahabharata war, the patrilineal successor was declared. Although patrilineality predates the composition of the epic, the main artwork of the Mahabharata reinforces this ideal.

(ii) In patrilineage, the son used to inherit the resources of the father after his death.

(iii) Most of the dynasties B.C. Following the patrilineal system from the sixth century. 

(iv) Sometimes in the absence of a son, each other became the successor. Not only this, brothers and relatives also used to sit on the throne. Women used to sit on the throne.

(v) The inclination towards patrilineality was there in the dynasties from the Rigvedic period itself. 

Q.4. What were the reasons for the war between the Kauravas and the Pandavas?

Ans. Reasons for the war between Kauravas and Pandavas – 

(i) Dhritarashtra Kauravas and Pandu were their younger brothers. Due to Dhritarashtra being blind, Pa was made the king of Hastinapur. The tension between the two started from here.

(ii) After the untimely death of Pandu, Dhritarashtra became the king, but Duryodhana started longing to get the post of crown prince. 

(iii) The citizens of Hastinapur showed more interest towards the Pandavas because they

He was more qualified and virtuous than the princes. This made the Kauravas jealous.

(iv) Kauravas created many conspiracies against Pandavas. 

(v) Ultimately Kauravas refused to give Pandavas a share in the kingdom.

Q.5. What is the importance of Upanishads in ancient Indian history? 

Ans. Upanishads – Upanishads are the final form of Vedic literature, hence they are called Vedanta. Upanishad means principles of Brahma-knowledge. In this the forms of the soul and the divine

The introduction has been made. In these, the principles of Karma, Maya and Moksha have been described in detail.

In the Upanishads, instead of sacrifices and rituals, the purity of life, virtue and good deeds

Emphasis is placed on It is clearly written in Mundakopanishad that “Yagya-like boats are weak.  There are 108 Upanishads in number, but only 11 Upanishads are important and famous in this. Upanishads are the best store of human knowledge. 

Q.6. To what extent were the Brahminical rules favorable in the Satavahanas? 

Ans. Brahmanical Rule in the Satavahanas – 

(i) Assimilation within the caste system was often a complex social process. The Satavahanas described themselves as Brahmins. According to the rules, the king should be a Kshatriya.

(ii) Gautamiputra Satakarni, the most famous ruler of the Satavahana clan, described himself as a unique Brahmin and at the same time as a destroyer of the pride of the Kshatriyas. 

(iii) Shatkarni also claimed that when there was a marriage between the four varnas, he Banned, but still he established marriage relations with Rudradaman’s family. 

(iv) The Satavahanas followed the system of endogamy and not the system of exogamy as proposed in the Brahmanical texts.

Q7. . What do you understand by caste system? Mention the defects of caste system. 

Ans. Meaning of caste system – Sham Shastri in his famous book ‘Origin of Caste’ has defined the caste system in these words, “The organization of some people in activities like marriage and food is called the caste system.” Ancient Hindu society was divided into only four varnas (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras) for social matters during the period. 

Defects of the caste system:

(i) The reason for envy and hatred Day by day more and more castes and caste customs became firm, and this resulted in envy and jealousy among different castes. Even they could not assemble to fight any foreign invader. Thus the country started moving towards degradation.

(ii) Scholars born in low caste hinder personal progress only. 

(iii) Due to his caste, he could not get any respectable place. Thus the caste system.

(iv)Proved to be an obstacle in the path of personal progress.

Long questions: Ncert Class 12 History Notes Chapter 3

Class 12 history Ch-1 Notes
Class 12 history Ch-1 Notes

Q1.Briefly write the story of Mahabharata.

Ans. Story of Mahabharata – Mahabharata is the second epic of Virkal. It has 18 sections. It describes the war between Pandavas and Kauravas. The story of Mahabharata is such that in very ancient times, a king Shantanu of the Chandravanshi dynasty used to rule in Hastinapur. 

He had two sons – Bhishma and Vichitravirya Vichitravirya also had two sons. The elder boy Dhritarashtra was blind from birth. So after Vichitravirya, his second son Pandu became the ruler. Pandu had five sons who were called Pandavas and Dhritarashtra had 100 sons who were called Kauravas. 

After Pandu’s death, when Dhritarashtra expressed his desire to make his eldest son Yudhishthira the crown prince, his own son Duryodhana was jealous. He got the Pandavas out of the country by conspiracy and humiliated them in many ways. 

A fierce battle took place between the two sides on this question of getting the throne, which is famous as the war of Mahabharata. It took place in the field of Kurukshetra and continued for 18 days. 

In this war, Shri Krishna preached the Gita to encourage Arjuna, which is considered a holy book of the entire Hindu community even in modern times. 

When Arjuna was distracted by seeing his relatives in the war, Shri Krishna did his duty by this sermon.

Q.2. Write an essay on the salient features of Indian social life during Mahabharata.

Ans. The social life of India Broadly speaking, we consider the period of Mahabharata from the end of the later Vedic to the period of Buddha. In this period also the basis of society was family life.

Joint family: In this period many members of the clan or family lived together. The head of the Kulka was called the Vice Chancellor. The patriarch was either the father or the eldest brother. There are references from the Mahabharata that there was often love in the family. Younger members in age respected the elder family members and the patriarch treated them with concern for the welfare of all. 

A childless couple could adopt a boy or a girl. In this period, it was considered bad practice for younger siblings to marry earlier than older siblings. After the death of the father, the eldest brother took care of his younger siblings.

The four ashrams (The four ashrams) : The life of every person in this period was based on the ashram system. Life was divided into four ashrams. Brahmacharya – The period when the student used to study religious texts in teaching. Grihastha The period when a person lived a married life. Vanaprastha – When a person leads a life of renunciation and tries to be free from the bondage of the household. 

Caste System – The caste system stabilized ancient Indian society. It allowed the integration of both native and foreign elements into ancient Indian society easily because they had a place in the caste hierarchy. It is noteworthy that the naked exploitation that was going on in many primitive societies, such as the practice of slavery, was ancient.

Food and Drink – Along with wheat, rice, butter, ghee, fruits and songs, meat-fish, etc. were also used. Often people used to slaughter goats. Cow slaughter was not considered good from a social point of view. Horse meat was also eaten as the tradition of Ashwa shows. Mandira Paan was served but many people considered it good.

Entertainment Indoor and outdoor games, dice, and gambling are very popular

Dress and ornaments – Along with cotton clothes, silk, and woolen clothes are also worn during this period. Turban was used by both men and women. And children were especially used, and saffron color was especially liked by men. Men and women wore ornaments of different metals.

Q.3. What are the main features of the early society of ancient India?

Ans. Major features of Early Societies of Ancient India are: 

(i) . Family – around 600 BC. In the period from 600 AD to 600 AD, the basis of social structure in ancient Indian society was ‘Family’ or ‘Kul’. The owner of the house was addressed by many names like Grihapati or Couple or Vice-Chancellor. References to the joint family are found from the early Vedic period itself. Mutual love, complete respect for women, voluntary discipline, and brotherhood were more attractive features in the early family. 

(ii). Welcome of Guests – In early society (almost everywhere) the guest was highly respected. ‘Atithi Devo Bhava’ became an integral part of Indian culture. The love for the guest is shown by giving the guest the title of Agni (a deity who was worshiped as a symbol of purity). It came to be considered a dharmic (good dutiful) act and became one of the five great yagyas (Panj Mahayagya) performed daily.

(iii) Social division: In this period the caste system or varna system was determined by birth. Everyone voluntarily accepted this system. There were three varnas in the early Vedic period. In the ninth Mandala of the Rig Veda, a poet says. I chant mantras, my father is lawful and my mother grinds grains with wheels. They want to get money from various works.

(iv). Gotra (Gotraa) – Its literal meaning is cow-shala. It is first seen in the later Vedic period as it is first mentioned in the Atharvaveda. In this period, the practice of not marrying in the same gotra became prevalent. In this period the importance of gotra was more for Brahmins.

(V) Position of women– The position of women was very good in the Rigvedic period. The practice of one wife was prevalent in almost all the varnas. Although polygamy also existed in some places, it was not a common practice. Very few examples of polyandry are found. 

(vi). Education – Oral knowledge and education were given in early society. Later, the use of script started. The script became widely prevalent in the later Vedic period, Maurya period, etc. Remember that (the use of the script was started earlier by the Harappans but till now scholars have not been able to read this script) the permission for education was mostly given to the people of upper varna. 

HistoryPolitical Science
Chapter NoChapter SolutionMcq
1Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan CivilisationClick here
2Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and EconomiesClick here
3Kinship, Caste and Class Early SocietiesClick here
4Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural DevelopmentsClick here
5Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of SocietyClick here
6Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional TextsClick here
7An Imperial Capital: VijayanagaraClick here
8Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal EmpireClick here
9Kings and Chronicles The Mughal CourtsClick here
10Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official ArchivesClick here
11Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its RepresentationsClick here
12Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and ArchitectureClick here
13Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and BeyondClick here
14Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, ExperiencesClick here
15Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New EraClick here


Q. Is these notes VVI for the exam?

Ans; Many of the questions in this article are already asked by the board on the previous examination, therefore these are VVI notes for class 12th students.

Q. Is this all-given question only related to the CBSE board?

Ans: No, this article contains all board-related questions, which is very important for the upcoming examination.

Q. Can I get good marks with the help of this given question in this article?

Ans: Yes, it is possible but I may work hard. 12th board examination is not easy.

Leave a Comment