Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4 Of Thinkers Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments

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Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4: In this post, we were given very important notes from Class 12 history Ch-4, Thinkers Beliefs, and Buildings Cultural Developments. In this post, you get upcoming very important questions and its answer in a very simple way. In this post, we cover class 12 chapter 4 history notes, class 12 history chapter 4 notes in English, Thinkers Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments class 12 questions and answers

Ncert Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4 & Q/A

Chapter NameThinkers Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments
Medium English / History
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4

From 600 BC to 600 AD, the great ideas of the ancient Indian philosophers, beliefs, and ideas were stored in the oral and written traditions of the people associated with it (i.e. ideas, beliefs, etc.) a) We will try to know the expression found through architecture and sculpture.

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There has been an important contribution by the philosophers of Indian society. His thoughts are stored in the oral and Khitan traditions. His thoughts have been expressed through architecture and sculpture. This is shown in the Buddhist tradition and other traditions. In addition to Buddhist, Jain, and Brahmanical texts, evidence such as forests and inscriptions are available to reconstruct the ideas and beliefs of the various peoples.

The sources used by historians to reconstruct a world of exciting ideas and beliefs include Buddhist, Jain, and Brahmanical texts as well as available physical evidence such as buildings and inscriptions. The stupa of Sanchi is the best preserved of the surviving buildings of that era.

A Glimpse of Sanchi Stupa of Sanchi is notable among the ruins. This stupa became a victim of the greed of many countries but was saved. Both the French and the British gave the rulers of Bhopal. Had asked for its eastern archway. 

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The rulers of Bhopal, Shah Jahan Begum and his successor Sultan Jahan Begum wrote many texts on Sanchi after receiving substantial grants to save this ancient relic. Sanchi was an important center of Buddhism and on its basis, the broken history of Buddhism is added.

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Background: Yagya and Controversy – In World History B.C. The period up to 1000 has been an important period. Thinkers like Zarathushtra in Iran, Khungtsi in China, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle in Greece, and Mahavira and Buddha in India were born during this period. These people tried to understand the mysteries of life. Not only this, the Ganga valley renovation started in this period and many changes took place in social and economic life.

The tradition of Yagyas In the beginning, Yagyas were performed collectively. Later (around 1000 BC to 500 BC) some yagnas were performed by the owners of the house. Complex sardars (chiefs) and kings like the Rajasuyas and Ashwameghas were used. For its rituals, they had to depend on Brahmin priests. New Philosophical Questions — B.C. 6th century people’s curiosity about the meaning of life after death

The subject of the possibility of life and rebirth was on the rise. scholar of past deeds, reality

Engaged in understanding nature. There was also a thought about Yagyas. Debates and Discussions- A glimpse of lively discussions and controversies is found in contemporary Buddhist texts. Thinkers wandered from one place to another to discuss their philosophy or the subject of the world.

Time Line: Major Dates and Events Of Thinkers’ Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments

Around 1500-1000 B.C.Important Religious Changes Early Vedic Traditions
Around 1000-500 B.C.later Vedic traditions
Around 6th century B.CEarly Upanishads, Jainism, Buddhism 
About third-century BCEarly stupas
From about the second century BC onwards:Development of Mahayana Buddhism, Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and Goddess Worship Traditions
Around 3rd century ADoldest temple publication;
1814Indian museum
1834Cunningham’s Essays on the Architecture of the Hindus written by Ramaraja excavated the Stupa of Sarnath.
1835-1842James Ferguson surveyed important archaeological sites.
1851Establishment of the Government Museum, Madras.
1854Alexander Cunningham wrote Bhilsa Tops which is one of the earliest books on Sanchi.
1878Rajendra Lal Mitra’s book, Buddha Gaya The Heritage of Shakya Muni Publication. 
1880H.H. Cole was made curator of ancient buildings. 
1888Enactment of  Treasure-Trove Act. According to this, the government could acquire anything of archaeological importance.
1914From the book The Monuments of Sanchi by John Marshall and Alfred Fuse Publication.
1923Publication of the book Conservation Manual by John Marshall.
1955Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru laid the foundation stone of the National Museum, New Delhi. 
1989Sanchi was declared a World Heritage Site.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Of Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4

Class 12 history
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4

Q.1. What are the sources of knowing the cultural development from BC 600 to AD 600?


(i) Literary sources contain information from Buddhist, Jain, and Brahmanical texts. (ii) Special information is available from the buildings, inscriptions, and Stupa of Sanchi in archaeological sources. 

Q.2. Where is Sanchi situated?

Ans. (i) It is a village situated at the foot of a hill, 20 miles northeast of Bhopal. 

(ii) There is an abundance of ancient remains in which Buddhist archways, statues, and stone sculptures are found.

Q. 3. How could the remains of Stupa at Sanchi be saved from the Europeans? 

Ans. (i) In the 19th century, there was great interest among the Europeans in the Stupas of Sanchi. The French wanted to take its eastern archway to the French Museum. The British were also making similar efforts. 

(ii) But the Indians, especially Shah Jahan Wegam, did not allow this to happen. They were provided with plaster casts. As a result, the original replica was saved.

Q.4. What types of ideas are found in the Upanishads? 

Ans. (i) The ideas of the Upanishads reveal that people were interested in knowing the meaning of life, the possibility of life after death, and rebirth. 

(ii) People wanted a way to understand and express the ultimate true nature. 

(iii) Importance of Yagyas

Q5. What is the importance of Tripitaka?

Ans. (i) Vinaya Pitaka contains the collection of rules for the people living in the Sanghaya Buddhist monasteries. 

(ii) The teachings of Buddha are from the Sutta Pitaka. 

(iii) Abhidhamma contains subjects related to philosophy. 

Q.6. What is the eightfold path?

Ans. The path adopted by Mahatma Buddha to attain Nirvana is called the Eightfold Path. Following are the eight parts of this path:

(i) Right vision 

(ii) due word

(iii) Right livelihood 

(iv) Right Memory 

(v) Right will

(vi) Right action

Q.7, What is the meaning of Vajrayana?

Ans. Buddhism changed with the passage of time. In the seventh century, the Buddhist Viharas became centers of luxury. Now all those works which were banned by Buddha are being done there. This new form of Buddhism was called Vajrayana.

Q.8. What is the meaning of Svetambara?

Ans. The sect of Jainism which used to wear white clothes was called Svetambara. The followers of this sect were mostly in North India. 

Q.9. According to Sutta Pitaka, how should the owners treat their servants?

Ans. The master should take care of his servants and employees in five ways-

(i) By giving them work according to their ability. (ii) By giving them food and wages. (iii) By taking care of them when they fall ill (iv) By sharing delicious food with them. (v) By giving them leave from time to time.

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Q 10. What is Therigatha?

Ans. It is a unique Buddhist text that is part of the Sutta Pitaka. In this, the verses composed by the nuns have been compiled. This gives an insight into the social and spiritual experiences of women.

Q. 11. What is called Chaitya? 

Ans. After cremation, some remains of the body were kept safely in the mounds.

These mounds associated with funeral rites were considered Chaityas. 

Q.12. Where are the four Buddhist sites located?

Ans. (i) Lumbini: Buddha was born here. This place is in Nepal.

(ii) Bodhgaya where he attained enlightenment. 

(iii) Sarnath: This place is in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Here Buddha gave his first sermon. 

(iv) Kushinagar: This place is in Deoria, Uttar Pradesh. Buddha attained parinirvana here

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4 video

Q-13. Why are the figures of animals engraved in the Stupa of Sanchi? 

Ans. (i) The figures of animals are shown in beautiful forms in the idols of Sanchi. These Animals include elephants, horses, monkeys, and cattle. 

(ii) It seems that animals were engraved here by drawing people. 

Q.14. Mention the main features of Ajanta paintings. 

Ans. (i) The paintings of Ajanta show the stories of the Jatakas. In these, the life of the royal court, beautiful Pictures of journeys, women, and men working and celebrating festivals have been shown. 

(ii) The artists used the technique of abstraction to give a stereoscopic look. some pictures Look very natural and alive.

Q. 15. What is Gajalakshmi?

Ans. (i) Among the idols of Sanchi, there is a lotus flower and a female idol among elephants. These elephants are sprinkling water on them. 

(ii) Many historians consider her to be a popular goddess Gajalakshmi. She was the bringer goddess who is often associated with elephants.

Q.16. What do you know about Vedic Sanskrit? 

Ans. Vedic literature especially the four Vedas Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvad in Sanskrit. 

They were written in a language called Vedic Sanskrit. It is somewhat difficult and different from Sanskrit which we use nowadays. 

Q.17. Write the names of three languages ​​used by the scholars of Jain religious texts. 

Ans. (i) Prakrit (ii) Sanskrit (iii) Tamil

Q. 18. Write the names of any four places where stupas are found in this continent. 


(i) Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh) 

(ii) Marud (Madhya Pradesh) 

(iii) Amravati (Andhra Pradesh) 

(iv) Shah-ji-ki-derry (in Peshawar) is now in Pakistan.

Q. 19. What was the practice of worshiping the deities in the Vedic period?

Ans. The ritual of worship was – praise, recitation, and offering Yajna Bali (offering) In the Rigvedic period, more emphasis was placed on reciting praise. Praise would be collected as well as individual. Indra and Agni are the sacrificial planets offered by the whole population.

Q.20. What do you understand by the word ‘gin’?

Ans. In Jain mythology, the word ‘Jin’ means the great conqueror. Mahavir Swami is named ‘Jin’, because he had conquered happiness and sorrow.

Q. 21. Why did Magadha become the center of new religious movements?

Ans. (i) Magadha was the main center of political activities in those days. The religion of which he was a follower, that religion started being propagated across the state. 

(ii) Not only this, Magadha was also the center of social, economic, and cultural activities in those days. It was easy to propagate religion from there, so this region (Magagh) became the center of religious movements.

Q-22. Write a short note on Angkor Wat Temple.

Ans. India’s cultural contact with Asian countries Angkor Wat, the capital of Cambodia.  In the 12th century, Surya Varman II built a grand temple. 

Minarets and domes are built. 22 miles long and 650 feet wide around this temple. 

There is a canal. It was probably made for the safety and beauty of the temple. 

According to Dr. C. Majumdar, Angkor Wat is a wonder of the world from every point of view.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Of Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4

Class 12 history
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4

Q.1. Who was the Begum? What has he written about Sanchi in his autobiography? Is?

Ans. Introduction Shah Jahan Begum was the wife of the Nawab of Bhopal, who ruled from 1868 to 1901.

‘A Glimpse of Sanchi According to Her Autobiography – Begum Shah Jahan in the 19th Century’. She Wrote his autobiography. 

In this book, he has mentioned the following main points about the building of Sanchi Stupa- 

(i) This building is the most wonderful building of Kanakkheda (Sanchi) among the ancient remains of Bhopal state. This village is situated on a hill 20 miles northeast of the capital of Madhya Pradesh.

It is situated in the village situated in Salhati. This stupa is built on top of a hill. its surroundings

Various stone objects, statues of Buddha, and an ancient archway can be seen from here. 

(ii) Begum’s autobiography titled Taj-ul-Iqbal Tarikh Bhopal (i.e. History of Bhopal) which she got translated by H.D. Prasto in 1876. 

This national heritage was saved even after asking for time and he satisfied the English and Mansi’s curious by giving plaster copies. Thus, Saundhi’s original work is still located at its place in the Bhopal state.

(iii) The facts presented in Shahjahan Begum’s autobiography about this important center of Buddhism brought significant changes in people’s views of Buddhism. 

Climbing the hill, one can see the entire stupa complex, a huge hemispherical structure from a distance, and several other buildings, including a Hindu temple dating from the 5th century. There is a stone railing around this mound. 

Q.2. List the main features of literary works written by Jain scholars.

Ans. (i) As Buddha’s teachings were compiled by his disciples, similarly Mahavira’s

The disciples did. Often these sermons were presented in the form of stories that appealed to the common people.

(ii) Gradually Jainism spread to many parts of India. Like Buddhists, Jain scholars created a lot of literature in many languages ​​like Prakrit, Sanskrit, and Tamil. 

(iii) Among the earliest idols associated with religious traditions, worshipers of Jain Tirthankaras Sculptures made have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent. 

Q.3.  What was the religious difference between the people of the Rigvedic period and the later Vedic period?


(i) Complexity in religion The pre-Vedic religion was very simple, it had simplicity. People used to worship various natural forces in open places without any ostentation. 

Those people themselves used to perform Havan. Rituals and superstitions had become dominant. Priests used to perform sacrifices in Yajna and many Brahmins used to sit together in a Yajna. 

Sacrifices were offered to please the gods. For the destruction of enemies and for the removal of diseases, the support of witchcraft was also taken.

(ii) Arrival of new Gods In places of natural powers like Surya, Agni, Indra, Varuna, etc. incarnations of Ganesha, Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma, Ram-Krishna, etc. was worshipped. 

(iii) Inclination towards philosophy – Philosophy was not given special importance in the Rigvedic period. But in the post-Vedic period, learned people started thinking about philosophical topics like the soul, God, creation, karma, reincarnation, penance, knowledge, salvation, etc.

Q.4. Write a short note on ‘Nalanda’ and ‘Bamiyan’. 

Ans. Nalanda – Nalanda was a famous university of Buddhism. Chinese traveler Hansang wrote in relation to it that ten thousand students used to study in it, which were taught by 1500 teachers. All the students lived in the hostel. The state had given 200 villages for their food and other expenses, whose land revenue met all the expenses. Apart from our country, students from abroad also used to come to study at this university. It was not easy to get into it. The students who studied in this university were eligible for respect in society and in the royal courts.

Bamiyan — This place is in Afghanistan. This place was the main center of Buddhism in ancient times.

The center was the Statues of Buddha and many remains of Buddhist monasteries have been found here. Gautam Buddha

The tallest stone statue of K. has been found here. Many such caves have also been found here in which Buddhist monks used to live in ancient times. 

Q. 5. What do you know about the religious condition of Buddha’s time? 

Ans. (i) 6th century B.C. I was very disappointed in my religious life. of Vedic religion

(ii) Complexity had crept into the Hindu religion and the religion had gone beyond the understanding of the common man. 

(iii) Many religious sects were formed. That’s why many gods and goddesses were being worshipped. 

(iv) Emphasis was being laid on vain ostentation, witchcraft, yagya, sacrifice, and superstitions in Hinduism.

(v) The Brahmins had a prominent place in society. All religious books were in Sanskrit, so people Could not understand religious teachings.

(vi) In such a situation, Mahavir Swami established Jainism and Mahatma Geetam established Buddhism. Both religions opened the doors of welcome for all castes to come to their religion.

Q.6. Explain the difference between the teachings of Buddhism and Jainism. 

Ans. Following are the differences between the teachings of Buddhism and Jainism-


1. Buddhism is pessimistic about the existence of God.

1. Jainism does not believe in the existence of God at all.

2. Worship-recitation, bhajan-kirtan, 

2. prayer is nothing in front of karma, penance, and fasting are the means of attaining salvation.

3. Non-violence is the biggest religion. In Yagya etc. 

3. There is a lot of emphases on non-violence, where They don’t have faith. 

4. Emphasizes good deeds and pious life to attain salvation.The feeling of life in substances. 

4. Emphasizes three jewels for attaining salvation- (A) Right knowledge (B) Right action and (c) nonviolence. 

5. They do not have associations,

5. Sangh is made the medium of propagation of religion, and study-teaching work is done in monasteries. 

6. Buddhism spread both in India and abroad. Many countries in Asia are not abroad. came under its shadow.

6. Jainism flourished only in India,

Q.7. Mention the architectural and sculptural artifacts associated with religion during the period. 

Ans. (i) Building in the Gupta period Artless and Sculpture In the Gupta period, there was special progress in the art of building construction. The Gupta rulers constructed beautiful temples and magnificent buildings with the help of bricks and stones. 

(ii) He held a conference in Kannij to propagate the doctrines of the Mahayana branch of Buddhism and delivered lectures for the propagation of Buddhism.

(iii) The incident that took place in Kannauj, in which many people were injured due to the explosion of the Mahastambha.

(iv) After Kannauj, Harsha called a great conference at Prayag. In this, his nobles, ministers, and civilized people participated. The idol of Gautam Buddha was worshiped on this occasion. 

Q. 8. How were Buddhist texts prepared and preserved?

Ans. Preparation and preservation of Buddhist texts:

(i) Mahatma Buddha used to give oral teachings while discussing and talking. men, women

Probably the children used to listen to these discourses and discuss them.

(ii) None of the discourses of Buddha were written down during his lifetime. his teachings

Q.9. Explain the difference between Hinayana and Mahayana. 

Ans. Difference between Hinayana and Mahayana:

(i) Idol worship: Those of the Mahayana religion began to consider Buddha as a deity, whereas those of Hinayana considered Buddha only as a great man. They were not in favor of making idols of Buddha, the followers of the Mahayana religion started making his stone idols. 

(ii) faith in personal effort and good deeds with Hinayana doctrine in place of logic. 

(iii) Sanskrit in place of Pali language: The difference between the two schools was that the Mahayana sects . Many books were written in the Sanskrit language, while all the books of the Hinayana sect were written in Pali.

(iv) Worship of Buddhist monks In the Mahayana religion, not only Buddha was given the status of God and his worship started, but other Buddhist monks, who had gained fame due to their worship and purity, were also worshipped. 

(v) Heaven instead of Nirvana: Even the people of Mahayana have told heaven as their final destination in front of the general public. This was a big change in religion, which was done to entice the common man. 

(vi) Prayer and offering: Mahatma Buddha clearly did not condemn any kind of prayer and sacrifice. But now the Mahayana Buddhists have made Mahatma Buddha a god and started praying in front of him and offering fruits and flowers.

Q.10. What are the reasons for the popularity of Buddhism? 

Ans. Reasons for the popularity of Buddhism:

(i) Contribution of the Buddhist Sangha was formed. ‘They proved to be very helpful in spreading Sangh Dharma. 

(ii) Change with the times Many Hindus were attracted to the simplicity and principles of Buddhism.

(iii) Universities of Buddhism: Apart from this, their universities, such as Takshashila University, Mahabodhi University of Gaya, Nalanda University, etc., took a big part in the promotion of Buddhism. 

(iv) State Patronage: The factor which took a special part in the spread of Buddhism was the help given by the kings to this religion. 

(v) The followers of Buddha were also from other classes. In this, the king, the rich, the common people, the workers, and the craftsmen were all involved.

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4 video 2

Q.11. What was the effect of Buddhism on social life?

Ans. Influence of Social Life on Buddhism Buddhism also influenced Indian society in many ways:

(i) Buddhists strongly opposed the caste system and gave equal status to all people. In this way, gradually the firmness of the caste system went away. 

(ii) Buddhism greatly increased the number of Hindu sub-castes. When people left Buddhism and started coming back to Hinduism, they formed their own new castes. 

(iii) Another effect of Buddhism was that the tendency of people to eat meat decreased.

(iv) The spirit of non-violence of Buddhism means that no living being should be hurt, even if That is a great gift. 

Q.12. What is the contribution of Mathura art to Indian art? 

Ans. Contribution of Mathura Art The Madhura school started in the first century AD. The idols of this style became so popular that they were sent to Taxila, Central Asia, North-Western states, Saraswati and Sarnath, etc., and were installed in temples across India. 

Unlike the Gandhara school, idols in Mathura were made of red sandstone and polished. The famous headless statue of Kanishka from Mathura, Nagrata, and the larger Lata, as many statues of Buddha and statues of Yaksha and Yakshi, belong to this school. 

Jainism probably influenced this school in the early period. Because the artisans of Mathura have made many such idols in which pilgrims have been found in meditation with their feet crossed.

Long answer type question Of Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4

Class 12 history
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4

Q. 1. What do you know about Buddhism? Who was its founder? Describe the teachings of the religion. 

Ans. The founder of Buddhism was Mahatma Buddha. He was born in Kapilvastu of Nepal. It happened at King Shuddhodhan’s place in the city. His mother’s name was Mahamaya. The childhood name of Mahatma Buddha was Siddhartha. 

He was married to Princess Yashodhara. A son was born to them, who was named Rahul. Seeing only sorrow in the world, he left home and set out in search of truth. He did severe penance to gain knowledge. At last they left everything and sat under a tree near Gaya.

This is where he got the true knowledge. After this his name became ‘Buddha’.

After attaining enlightenment, Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath. Here he became five disciples. After this, the number of his disciples started increasing continuously. 

Teachings of Buddhism: The Four Fundamental Principles and the Eightfold Path—The Four Paths of the Buddha’s Teachings

The fundamental principles are-

(i) The world is a house of sorrows.

(ii) The cause of these sorrows is lust or desire. 

(iii) By killing these desires, sorrows can be removed. 

(iv) To put an end to these lusts, a man should walk on the Eightfold Path.

Ashtanga has the following eight principles:-

(i) Right (purification) vision,

(ii) Samyak Sankalp

(iii) Right speech

(iv) Samyak Karma

(v) Right livelihood

(vi) Right Exercise

(vii) Samyak Smriti

(viii) Samyak Samadhi

Q. 2. Describe the main teachings (teachings) of Jainism. What was its effect on Indian society? 

Ans. Mahavira was the founder of Jainism. his secondary education:-

(i) Self-control leads to self-knowledge. To achieve this, emphasis was laid on life and the right actions.

(ii) was given a lot of emphases. His news is that inanimate objects also have a feeling.

(iii) Five Mahavratas to follow Jainism 

(a) Aham (b) Rajya (c) Bharat (d) Brahmacharya (e) Aparigraha

Effects of Jainism on Indian Society Give the following effects of Jainism on Indian society 

(I) Denial of casteism In Jainism caste restrictions was strongly attacked, they promoted brotherhood and harmony. This instills kindness, affection, and love in people.

(ii) Attack on the bigotry of Hindu religion The common man was troubled by the many rituals-Yagya, Bali, and old rituals by the Brahmins. Jainism was a simple religion without ostentation. It impressed the minds of the people (Hindus).

(iii) Political Weakness: Influenced by Jainism’s policy of ‘Ahimsa Parmo Dharma’, people stopped taking interest in war. . 

(iv) Change in food habits Inspired by the feeling of violence, people stopped eating meat.

(v) Influence on Indian art, architecture, and literature – Jain temple of Dilwa, the Jain temple of Mount Abu, the Jain temple of Khajuraho, and the caves of Ajanta Ellora are beautiful examples of architecture. 

Q.3. What are the similarities between Hinduism and Buddhism? 


(i) The doctrine of Nirvana-the life of both Hinduism and Jainism is common. In other words, by leading a good life one would attain liberation or nirvana. 

(ii) Theory of Karma The followers of both religions believe in the belief that just as According to the deeds a man does in this life, he gets the next birth.

(iii) Emphasis on pure conduct Help is not sacred in Hinduism as in other religions.

(iv) Tolerance: Both Hinduism and Buddhism forbid the attack of other religions. Both belief in kindness and tolerance, but now the followers of the religion are changing. 

(v) Lack of belief in idol worship in the beginning – There was no idol worship in the beginning. Afterward Idols of Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesha, Ramchandra, Krishna, etc. 

Q.4. What were the reasons for the rapid spread of Buddhism in India and abroad? 

Ans. Buddhism was expanding rapidly not only in India but also in foreign countries. The reasons for this were the following-

1. Favorable environment Buddhism spread in India at such a time and in such an environment, where religious narrow-mindedness, rituals, hypocrisy, and ostentatiousness dominated. 

2. Influence of the royal family – Mahatma Gautam Buddha himself was a prince. 

Q.5. Throw light on the life character and teachings of Vardhman Mahavira. 

Ans. Life of Vardhman Mahavir – Mahavir Swami, whose childhood name was Vardhman, is considered the founder of Jainism. 

life-character and teachings of Vardhman Mahavira are:- 

(1) Ahimsa – The biggest principle of this opinion is non-violence, that is, no living being should be hurt. That’s why Jains often walk barefoot, wearing a bandage on their face. And filter the water and drink it. These people do this so that no living being gets killed. Jains also believe in life in trees, drinks, and air.

(2) Severe penance and self-sacrifice Jains try to control their mind and senses by torturing their body. Jains consider it auspicious to die of starvation and severe penance.

(3) Disbelief in God – Mahavir Swami did not believe in the existence of God. They used to believe that God is the creator of the world and keeps the world under his control. 

(4) Disbelief in Yajna, Bali, and rituals People who believe in Jainism do not accept the Yagya, Bali, and rituals of Brahmins. They have no faith in the Vedas either.

(5) Belief in Tirthankaras – Jains believe in 24 Tirthankaras. They respect and worship him.

(6) Disbelief in the caste system Jains does not support the principle of the caste system and untouchability.

(7) Attaining Moksha-Jains believe in Moksha and believe in the Triratna (right faith, right knowledge, right character).

(8) Belief in Reincarnation and Karma Theory – Like Hinduism and Buddhism, Jains also believe in reincarnation and Karma theory.

Chapter NoChapter SolutionMcq
1Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan CivilisationClick here
2Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and EconomiesClick here
3Kinship, Caste and Class Early SocietiesClick here
4Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural DevelopmentsClick here
5Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of SocietyClick here
6Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional TextsClick here
7An Imperial Capital: VijayanagaraClick here
8Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal EmpireClick here
9Kings and Chronicles The Mughal CourtsClick here
10Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official ArchivesClick here
11Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its RepresentationsClick here
12Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and ArchitectureClick here
13Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and BeyondClick here
14Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, ExperiencesClick here
15Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New EraClick here


Q1. Write a short note on Milindapanah. 

Ans. Milindapannah (or Pah) – This Buddhist text describes the dialogue between the Hindu-Greek emperor Malendar and the famous Buddhist monk Nagasena, who ruled over the North-West Nag of Vaktriyan and India. It gives a glimpse of northwest Indian life in the first two centuries of Christ.

Q.2. What do you understand by ‘Vihar’?

Ans. It was called Beit Vihar. Buddhist monks used to live in Viharas during the rainy season. Nashik (Three such Bihars have been found in the state of Maharashtra. 

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